Kernel parameters (简体中文)

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一共有三种办法,可以给内核传递参数,用于控制其行为方式:

  1. 在编译内核时(这个最根本,会决定后面两种方法)
  2. 内核启动时(通常是在一个启动管理器里设置).
  3. 在运行时 (通过修改在 /proc/sys中的文件).

本页面主要是讲第二种方法。

配置

内核参数可以在启动时临时修改,也可以永久性写到启动管理器的配置文件中,永远起作用。

下面示例:把参数quietsplash 加到启动管理器 Syslinux, GRUB, GRUB LegacyLILO中.

Syslinux

  • 当出现启动选择菜单的时候,按 Tab 进入修改模式:
> .linux ../vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 ro initrd=../initramfs-linux.img quiet splash
Press Enter to boot with these parameters.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg and add them to the APPEND line:
APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro quiet splash

更多详情请见Syslinux

systemd-boot

  • 当启动菜单出现时 按 e进入编辑界面:
initrd=\initramfs-linux.img root=/dev/sda2 quiet splash
Enter 即可按照输入的参数启动。
注意:
  • 如果没有设置显示启动菜单, 你需要按住Space启动电脑来进入启动菜单 。
  • 如果不能够从启动菜单上进行编辑,修改 /boot/loader/loader.conf 加入 editor 1 来开启编辑功能。
options root=/dev/sda2 quiet splash

更多信息请参见 systemd-boot .

GRUB

  • Press e when the menu shows up and add them on the linux line:
linux   /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=UUID=978e3e81-8048-4ae1-8a06-aa727458e8ff ro  quiet splash
Press b to boot with these parameters.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, while you could manually edit /boot/grub/grub.cfg with the exact line from above, for beginners it's recommended to:
Edit /etc/default/grub and append your kernel options to the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT line:
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
And then automatically re-generate the grub.cfg file with:
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring GRUB, see the GRUB article.

GRUB Legacy

  • Press e when the menu shows up and add them on the kernel line:
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 ro quiet splash
Press b to boot with these parameters.
  • To make the change persistent after reboot, edit /boot/grub/menu.lst and add them to the kernel line, exactly like above.

For more information on configuring GRUB Legacy, see the GRUB Legacy article.

LILO

  • Add them to /etc/lilo.conf:
image=/boot/vmlinuz-linux
        ...
        quiet splash

For more information on configuring LILO, see the LILO article.

常见参数列表

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: 列表还需要继续扩充 (Discuss in Talk:Kernel parameters (简体中文)#)
Note: Not all of the listed options are always available. Most are associated with subsystems and work only if the kernel is configured with those subsystems built in. They also depend on the presence of the hardware they are associated with.
SysVinit(即将过时) systemd 描述
3 systemd.unit=multi-user.target 不启动x(可进入后启动)
1 systemd.unit=rescue.target 进入根用户模式(root).
nomodeset nomodeset 关闭内核显示模式设置功能.
loglevel=3 loglevel=3 Removes "misaligned reg" and "unknown connector type" messages during boot with the Nouveau driver. See this topic.
-- init=/usr/lib/systemd/systemd 使用systemd[broken link: invalid section] 替代 SysVinit 启动.
init=/bin/sh rw init=/bin/sh rw 进入超级终端模式,一般用于急救

All of these parameters are case-sensitive.

For a complete list of all known options, please see the kernel documentation.

更多信息