新用户可能对 ArchWiki 中的操作和术语不是很了解，本文可以减少用户的误解，并减少 ArchWiki 中的重复内容。
一般用户还是 root 用户
# mkinitcpio -p linux
$ makepkg -s
#)表示命令要以 root 权限执行，而美元符号(
注意有时候 # 表示文件中的注释，通常包含大写字母的文字都是注释。大部分文章都会知名这一点。
# This alias makes ls colorize the listing alias ls='ls --color=auto'
When prompted to append, add, create or edit, consider it an indication for using a text editor, such as nano, in order to make changes to configuration file(s):
# nano /etc/bash.bashrc
In programs, be it shells or otherwise, sourcing applies settings specified in a file. For Bash, sourcing can be done in a command prompt:
$ source /etc/bash.bashrc
and it can also happen in a file itself:
# This line includes settings from another file source /etc/bash.bashrc
As a result, sourcing a file after alteration is an implied omission in the case of shell files.
However, not all articles will specify the nature of the changes to be made, nor which file to alter in the first place. This wiki builds on previous knowledge, such as common locations for files that are prone to sporadic editing.
- Install the package.
# pacman -S foobar
pacman 包含了 Arch 软件包管理的详细内容。
- Install the AUR package.
这意味这您需要打开AUR 链接，下载 PKGBUILD，解压，验证内容，然后在文件目录执行:
$ makepkg -si
Arch User Repository (简体中文) 包含了 AUR 软件包的详细信息。
控制 systemd 单元
When an article invites to start, enable, stop or restart some systemd units (e.g. a service), it will not indicate the detailed instructions to do so, but instead you will read something like:
This means that you have to run:
# systemctl start example.service
System-wide versus user-specific configuration
It is important to remember that there are two different kinds of configurations on a GNU/Linux system. System-wide configuration affects all users. Since system-wide settings are generally located in the
/etc directory, root privileges are required in order to alter them. For example, to apply a Bash setting that affects all users,
/etc/bash.bashrc should be modified.
User-specific configuration affects only a single user. Dotfiles are used for user-specific configuration. For example, the file
~/.bashrc is the user-specific configuration file. The idea is that each user can define their own settings, such as aliases, functions and other interactive features like the prompt, without affecting other users' preferences.
Common shell files
For ease of use, here is a selective listing of basic configuration files and their locations.
See also: Bash and
Within Bash and other Bourne-compatible shells, such as Zsh, there is even further differentiation in the purposes of the configuration files. Some files only get sourced when Bash is starting as a login shell, whereas other files only do so when Bash is an interactive shell.
/etc/bash.bashrc: System-wide settings; sourced only by a login shell
~/.bashrc: Personal shell settings; sourced only by an interactive shell
See also: Zsh and
/etc/zsh/zprofile: System-wide settings; sourced only by a login shell
~/.zshrc: Personal shell settings; sourced only by an interactive shell
Pseudo-variables in code examples
Some code blocks may contain so-called pseudo-variables, which, as the name says, are not actual variables used in the code. Instead they are generic placeholders and have to be manually replaced with system-specific configuration items before the code may be run or parsed. In the articles that comply with Help:Style/Formatting and punctuation, pseudo-variables are formatted in italics.
- Enable the
dhcpcd@interface_name.servicefor the network interface identified from the output of the
In this case interface_name is used as a pseudo-variable placeholder in a systemd template unit. All systemd template units, identifiable by the
@ sign, require a system-specific configuration item as argument. See Systemd#Using units.
- The command
dd if=data_source of=/dev/sd"X" bs=sector_size count=sector_number seek=partitions_start_sectorcan be run as root to wipe a partition with the specific parameters.
In this case the pseudo-variables are used to describe the parameters that must be substituted for them. Details on how to gather them are elaborated on in the section Securely wipe disk#Calculate blocks to wipe manually, which features the command.
In case of file examples, pasting pseudo-variables in real configuration files might break the programs that use them.
In most cases ellipses (
...) are not part of the actual file content or code output, and instead represent omitted or optional text that is not relevant for the discussed subject.
HOOKS="... encrypt ... filesystems ..." or:
Section "InputClass" ... Option "CircularScrolling" "on" Option "CircScrollTrigger" "0" ... EndSection
Be aware though that, in a few instances, ellipses may be a meaningful part of the code syntax: attentive users will be able to easily recognize these cases by the context.