Fluxbox (한국어)

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플럭스박스는 X11용 창 관리자 가운데 하나이다. Blackbox 0.61.1 코드에 기초하여 기능을 개선하고 계속 개발하고 있다. 플럭스박스는 시스템 자원을 덜 소모하고 빠르며 탭과 그룹화 같은 흥미있는 창 관리 도구를 제공한다. 설정 파일은 이해하고 수정하기 쉬우며 데스크톱을 멋지게 변경할 수 있는 수백 개의 “스타일”이 있다. 아치 리눅스에 플럭스박스를 설치하면 메모리 256MB의 구형 펜티엄 800 시스템을 매우 쓸만한 컴퓨터로 만들 수 있다.

설치

팩맨으로 설치하기.

# pacman -S fluxbox

Xorg가 설치되지 않았다면 물론 설치해야 한다.

플럭스박스 시작하기

방법 1: KDM/GDM/LightDM 로그인 관리자

KDM, GDM, LightDM 로그인 관리자를 사용한다면 세션 목록에 플럭스박스가 자동으로 추가된다. 로그인할 때 세션 목록에서 플럭스박스를 선택하라.

방법 2: ~/.xinitrc

~/.xinitrc를 수정해 다음을 추가하라.

exec startfluxbox

logind, 세션과 같은 자세한 내용은 xinitrc를 보라.

설정하기

시스템 설정 파일은 /usr/share/fluxbox에 있으며 사용자 설정 파일은 ~/.fluxbox에 있다. 사용자 설정 파일은 다음과 같다.

  • init: 플럭스박스 주 설정 파일.init 파일 수정하기를 보라.
  • menu: 플럭스박스 메뉴 설정. 아래와 menu 파일 수정하기를 보라.
  • keys: 플럭스박스 키보드 단축키 설정. 아래와 여기를 보라.
  • startup: 시작 프로그램을 설정. 아래 .xinitrc와 여기를 보라.
  • overlay: 스타일 요소 설정 파일. 여기를 보라.
  • apps: 특정 프로그램 창 설정을 저장하는 파일. 여기를 보라.
  • windowmenu: 창 메뉴 자체를 변경하는 설정 파일. 여기를 보라.

그 디렉토리에 많은 설정 파일이 있지만 주로 init, menu, keys, startup 파일이 관심의 대상이다.

메뉴 관리

When you first install fluxbox a very basic applications menu will be created at ~/.fluxbox/menu. You access the menu via a right mouse button click on the desktop. As with other lightweight window managers Fluxbox does not automatically update its menu when you install new applications. It is therefore recommended that you install most of the apps you want on your system first and then re-generate or edit the menu. To enhance the menu and add/edit items there are basically four ways to do it:

fluxbox-generate_menu

There is a built-in command provided with fluxbox:

$ fluxbox-generate_menu

This command will auto-generate a ~/.fluxbox/menu/ file based on your installed programs. However, the menu it generates will not be as comprehensive as that generated by "menumaker" (see immediately below).

MenuMaker

MenuMaker is a powerful tool that creates XML-based menus for a variety of Window Managers, including Fluxbox. MenuMaker will search your computer for executable programs and create a menu based on the results. It can be configured to exclude Legacy X, GNOME, KDE, or Xfce applications if desired.

To install MenuMaker:

# pacman -S menumaker

Once installed, you can generate a complete menu and overwrite the default one by running:

$ mmaker -f FluxBox

To see MenuMaker options:

$ mmaker --help

아치 리눅스 Xdg menu

Requires XdgMenu which is available via pacman:

# pacman -S archlinux-xdg-menu

To then create a fluxbox menu:

$ xdg_menu --fullmenu --format fluxbox --root-menu /etc/xdg/menus/arch-applications.menu >~/.fluxbox/menu

More info:

$ xdg_menu --help

수동으로 메뉴 편집하기

Use your favourite text editor and edit the file: "~/.fluxbox/menu" . The basic syntax for a menu item to appear is:

[exec] (name) {command} <path to icon>

...where "name" is the text you wish to appear for that menu item and "command" is the location of the binary, e.g.:

[exec] (Firefox Browser) {/usr/bin/firefox} <path to firefox icon>

Note that the "<path to icon>" is optional. If you want to create a submenu the syntax is:

[submenu] (Name)
...
...
[end]

When done editing save the file and exit. There is no need to restart fluxbox. For more info read editing the fluxbox menu.

Init

The ~/.fluxbox/init file is FluxBox's primary configuration resource file. You can change the basic functionality of fluxbox, windows, toolbar, focus, etc. Some of these options are also available from the Fluxbox, Configuration Menu. For more detail read Editing the init file.

단축키

Fluxbox offers basic hotkeys functionality. The fluxbox hotkey file is located at ~/.fluxbox/keys. The Control key is represented by "Control". Mod1 corresponds to the Alt key and Mod4 corresponds to Meta (not a standard key but most users map Meta to the "Win" key). When installed and first run Fluxbox will provide you with a very usable, almost complete set of hotkeys. You should peruse and learn the ~/.fluxbox/keys file to enhance your FluxBox experience.

Example: here is a quick way to control the Master volume:

Control Mod1 Up :Exec amixer set Master,0 5%+  
Control Mod1 Down :Exec amixer set Master,0 5%-

작업공간

Fluxbox defaults to having four workspaces. These are accessible using Ctrl+F1-F4 shortcuts, or by using the left mouse button to click the arrows on the toolbar. You can also access workspaces via a middle mouse button click on desktop which pops up the Workspaces Menu.

탭과 그룹화

적어도 창 두 개가 열려 있을 때 하나의 창 제목 줄에 ctrl + 왼쪽 클릭하여 다른 창으로 끌고 가면 두 창은 상단 탭바로 그룹화된다. 이 그룹화된 창을 하나의 창처럼 사용할 수 있다. 탭 그룹화를 해제하려면 상단 탭바를 ctrl + 왼쪽 클릭하여 데스크톱 빈 공간으로 끌어 놓아라.

바탕화면

Setting the background in Fluxbox has historically been convoluted, especially where transparency was required. The fluxbox-wiki now has an entry for background setting, so please refer to that.

The easiest way to do it with ArchLinux is to first of all check that you have a background setting application available:

 $ fbsetbg -i

If not, install either feh, esetroot or wmsetbg using pacman. Then add this "fbsetbg" line to your ~/.xinitrc file, before the "exec" line, e.g.:

 fbsetbg /path/to/my/image.image

여러 바탕화면을 전환하기

Place the following submenu in your fluxbox menu:

[submenu] (Backgrounds)
[wallpapers] (~/.fluxbox/backgrounds) {feh --bg-scale}
[wallpapers] (/usr/share/fluxbox/backgrounds) {feh --bg-scale}
[end]

Then put your background images into ~/.fluxbox/backgrounds or any other folder you specify, they will then appear in the same fashion as your styles.

The same applies to a dual screen wallpaper on a system without 'xinerama' (NVidia TwinView for example) :

[submenu] (Backgrounds)
[wallpapers] (/path/to/your/backgrounds) {feh --bg-scale --no-xinerama }
[end]

Feh 사용

Install feh with:

# pacman -S feh

To make sure fluxbox will load feh background next time start:

1. Make .fehbg executable:

$ chmod 770 ~/.fehbg

2. Then add (or modify) the following line to the file ~/.fluxbox/init:

session.screen0.rootCommand:	~/.fehbg

3. or add (or modify) the following line to the file ~/.fluxbox/startup:

~/.fehbg

테마

To install a fluxbox theme extract the theme archive file to a styles directory. The default directories are:

  • global - /usr/share/fluxbox/styles
  • user only - ~/.fluxbox/styles

The ArchLinux AUR currently contains a compilation of good looking fluxbox themes called "fluxbox-styles". Get it here and install this package for more themes than you could possibly use. When installed correctly they will appear in the Fluxbox, Styles section of your Fluxbox menu.

To create your own Fluxbox styles read Fluxbox Style Guide and this style guide.

슬릿

Fluxbox, WindowMaker and a couple of other lightweight window managers have a "Slit". This is a dock for any application that can be 'dockable'. A docked application is anchored and appears on every workspace. It cannot be moved freely and is not influenced by any manipulation to windows. It is basically a small widget. Dock apps that are useful in such a situation tend to be clocks, system monitors, weather, etc. Visit dockapps.windowmaker.org

자동 시작 프로그램

The ArchLinux way to autostart apps is to put all code into ~/.xinitrc. Please read Xinitrc. However, fluxbox provides functionality to autostart applications on its own. The ~/.fluxbox/startup file is a script for autostarting applications as well as starting fluxbox itself. The # symbol denotes a comment.

A sample file:

fbsetbg -l # sets the last background set, very useful and recommended.
# In the below commands the ampersand symbol (&) is required on all applications that do not terminate immediately. 
# failure to provide them will cause fluxbox not to start.
idesk & 
xterm &
# exec is for starting fluxbox itself, do not put an ampersand (&) after this or fluxbox will exit immediately
exec /usr/bin/fluxbox
# or if you want to keep a log, uncomment the below command and comment out the above command:
# exec /usr/bin/fluxbox -log ~/.fluxbox/log

기타 메뉴

In the "Menu Management" section (above) we were discussing the main "Applications" Menu, called the "Root" menu in fluxbox lingo. FluxBox also has other menus available to the user:

  • Workspaces Menu: middle click on desktop.
  • Configuration Menu: located within the "Fluxbox" section of the "Root" menu.
  • Window menu: right click on the titlebar of any window, or its bar if minimized. Can be edited. See fluxbox-menu man page.
  • Toolbar menu: right click on empty part of toolbar. Also found as a sub-menu within the Configuration Menu.
  • Slit Menu: found as a sub-menu within the configuration menu.

투명 효과

To enable true transparency in fluxbox you need an X compositor such as Xcompmgr.

알림 표시

To enable connection notifications on-screen for fluxbox read this Arch forum thread.

xorg.conf를 사용하지 않고 설정하기

Xorg no longer requires an xorg.conf file. Traditionally this is where you would change your keyboard settings and powersave settings. Luckily there are elegant solutions not using xorg.conf.

키보드 설정

Just add the following line to ~/.fluxbox/startup:

setxkbmap us -variant intl & # to have a us keyboard with special characters enabled (like éóíáú)

Instead of 'us' you can also pass your language code and remove the variant option (ex.: 'us_intl', which works like the command above in some setups). See man setxkbmap for more options.

To make a help function in your menu, just add in ~/.fluxbox/menu:

[submenu] (Keyboard)
      [exec] (normal) {setxkbmap us}
      [exec] (international) {setxkbmap us -variant intl}
[end]

같이 보기