GDM (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 GDM翻译,最后翻译时间:2015-09-14,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

来自 GDM - GNOME显示管理器:

GDM是一种GNOME显示环境的管理器, 它是一个运行在后台的小程序(脚本), runs your X sessions,显示一个登录界面并在你忘记密码的时候告诉你无法登录.GDM比xdm在任何方面都做的更好,也没有xdm那么多的漏洞. 它没有使用任何来自xdm的代码. 它支持 XDMCP, and in fact extends XDMCP a little bit in places where I thought xdm was lacking (but is still compatible with xdm's XDMCP).

显示管理器Xorg用户们提供了图形化登录提示。

安装

GDM (是gnome-extra的一部分),可以通过官方软件仓库中的gdm软件包进行单独安装.

GDM as the default greeter

GDM 软件包提供了gdm.service。开机自动启动:

# systemctl enable gdm

纯systemd启动的话,无法进入图形界面时,可以开启graphical.target来实现。

# systemctl -f enable graphical.target

同时一般还需要启动NetworkManager.service

# systemctl enable NetworkManager.service

要使用~/.xinitrc文件将参数传递给 X 服务(当它启动时),例如 xmodmapxsetroot,可以向xprofile添加同样命令,例如:

~/.xprofile
#!/bin/sh

#
# ~/.xprofile
#
# Executed by gdm at login
#

xmodmap -e "pointer=1 2 3 6 7 4 5" # set mouse buttons up correctly
xsetroot -solid black              # sets the background to black

配置

你再也不能使用gdmsetup命令来配置2.28版本以上的GDM。这个命令已经被移除,而且GDM已经被标准化,成为GNOME的一部分。

你可以从AUR获取并安装gdm3setupAUR从而配置GDM,也可以使用以下介绍的方法。

配置X服务访问权限

# xhost +SI:localuser:gdm

要配置GDM主题,使用以下命令:

$ sudo -u gdm gnome-appearance-properties

实用此命令查看更多配置选项

$ sudo -u gdm gconf-editor

并修改以下层次(hierarchies):

/apps/gdm/simple-greeter
/desktop/gnome/interface
/desktop/gnome/background

如果这些命令失败,并返回诸如 ”cannot open display"之类的错误,你可以通过将它们添加到GDM的自动启动从而在GDM启动时带起这两个窗口。要做到这一点需先创建这些项目(entry)(以 root 身份运行)

# cp -t /usr/share/gdm/autostart/LoginWindow/ /usr/share/applications/gnome-appearance-properties.desktop /usr/share/applications/gconf-editor.desktop

然后注销你的用户回到GDM。在登录窗口出现后这两个窗口也应该出现。将GDM配置成你想要的样子,然后关闭窗口并重新登录。当你做完了,并想停止这个窗口随着GDM打开,运行这个(以 root 身份):

# rm /usr/share/gdm/autostart/LoginWindow/gnome-appearance-properties.desktop /usr/share/gdm/autostart/LoginWindow/gconf-editor.desktop
注意: 通过注销/配置的方式,你可以在你配置的时候看到变化。

对于更多信息和高级设置,请阅读这个.

请注意,在xorg-server的1.6.1版本中,Ctrl+Alt+Backspace将再也不会重启GDM。对于重新启用这种行为的介绍,参见Ctrl-Alt-Backspace无法退出X.

Log-in screen background image

Note: Since GNOME 3.16, GNOME Shell themes are now stored binary files (gresource).

Firstly, you need to extract the existing GNOME Shell theme to a folder in your home directory. You can do this using the following script:

extractgst.sh
#!/bin/sh

workdir=${HOME}/shell-theme
if [ ! -d ${workdir}/theme ]; then
  mkdir -p ${workdir}/theme
fi
gst=/usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource

for r in `gresource list $gst`; do
        gresource extract $gst $r >$workdir${r/#\/org\/gnome\/shell/}
done

Navigate to the created directory. You should find that the theme files have been extracted to it. Now copy your preferred background image to this directory.

Next, you need to create a file in the directory with the following content:

gnome-shell-theme.gresource.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<gresources>
  <gresource prefix="/org/gnome/shell/theme">
    <file>calendar-arrow-left.svg</file>
    <file>calendar-arrow-right.svg</file>
    <file>calendar-today.svg</file>
    <file>checkbox-focused.svg</file>
    <file>checkbox-off-focused.svg</file>
    <file>checkbox-off.svg</file>
    <file>checkbox.svg</file>
    <file>close-window.svg</file>
    <file>close.svg</file>
    <file>corner-ripple-ltr.png</file>
    <file>corner-ripple-rtl.png</file>
    <file>dash-placeholder.svg</file>
    <file>filter-selected-ltr.svg</file>
    <file>filter-selected-rtl.svg</file>
    <file>gnome-shell.css</file>
    <file>gnome-shell-high-contrast.css</file>
    <file>logged-in-indicator.svg</file>
    <file>filename</file>
    <file>more-results.svg</file>
    <file>no-events.svg</file>
    <file>no-notifications.svg</file>
    <file>noise-texture.png</file>
    <file>page-indicator-active.svg</file>
    <file>page-indicator-inactive.svg</file>
    <file>page-indicator-checked.svg</file>
    <file>page-indicator-hover.svg</file>
    <file>process-working.svg</file>
    <file>running-indicator.svg</file>
    <file>source-button-border.svg</file>
    <file>summary-counter.svg</file>
    <file>toggle-off-us.svg</file>
    <file>toggle-off-intl.svg</file>
    <file>toggle-on-us.svg</file>
    <file>toggle-on-intl.svg</file>
    <file>ws-switch-arrow-up.png</file>
    <file>ws-switch-arrow-down.png</file>
  </gresource>
</gresources>

Replace filename with the filename of your background image.

Now, open the gnome-shell.css file in the directory and change the #lockDialogGroup definition as follows:

#lockDialogGroup {
  background: #2e3436 url(filename);
  background-size: [WIDTH]px [HEIGHT]px;
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
}

Set background-size to the resolution that GDM uses, this might not necessarily be the resolution of the image. For a list of display resolutions see Display resolution. Again, set filename to be the name of the background image.

Finally, compile the theme using the following command:

$ glib-compile-resources gnome-shell-theme.gresource.xml

Then copy the resulting gnome-shell-theme.gresource file to the /usr/share/gnome-shell directory.

Restart GDM - you should find that it is using your preferred background image.

For more information, please see the following forum thread.

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: I cannot get this to work - tested 2015-07-16. Similar style method for changing the wallpaper was established to be non functional and removed from the article. (Discuss in Talk:GDM (简体中文)#)

To display a logo on your log-in screen, follow the instructions below.

Create the directory to store the logo:

# mkdir /opt/login

Create the necessary configuration file:

# touch /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/02-logo

Copy this text into the file:

[org/gnome/login-screen]
logo='/opt/login/logo.png'

Copy your logo of choice into the directory:

# cp [YOUR FILE] /opt/login/logo.png

where [YOUR FILE] needs to be a path to a PNG image.

Update dconf:

# dconf update

Changing the GDM cursor theme

See Cursor themes#GDM.

Larger font for log-in screen

Click on the accessibility icon at the top right of the screen (a white circle with the silhouette of a person in the centre) and check the 'Large Text' option.

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: I cannot get this to work - tested 2015-07-16. Similar style method for changing the wallpaper was established to be non functional and removed from the article. (Discuss in Talk:GDM (简体中文)#)

Alternatively, follow the instructions below:

Create the necessary configuration file:

# touch /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/03-scaling

Copy this text into the file:

[org/gnome/desktop/interface]
text-scaling-factor='1.25'

Update dconf:

# dconf update

Turning off the sound

This tweak disables the audible feedback heard when the system volume is adjusted (via keyboard) on the login screen.

Create the necessary configuration file:

# touch /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/04-sound

Copy this text into the file:

[org/gnome/desktop/sound]
event-sounds='false'

Update dconf:

# dconf update

Make the power button interactive

The default installation sets the power button to suspend the system. Power off or Show dialog is a better choice.

Create the necessary configuration file:

# touch /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/05-power

Copy this text into the file:

[org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/power button]
power='interactive'
hibernate='interactive'

Update dconf:

# dconf update
Warning: Please note that the acpid daemon also handles the "power button" and "hibernate button" events. Running both systems at the same time may lead to unexpected behaviour.

GDM keyboard layout

See Keyboard configuration in Xorg#Using X configuration files.

Tip: See Wikipedia:ISO 3166-1 for a list of keymaps.

GNOME Control Center

If the package gnome-control-center is installed, the keyboard layout(s) can be configured using a grapical frontend:

Settings > Keyboard > Input Sources > Login Screen

GDM 2.x layout

Users of legacy GDM may need to follow the instructions below:

Edit ~/.dmrc:

~/.dmrc
[Desktop]
Language=de_DE.UTF-8   # change to your default lang
Layout=de   nodeadkeys # change to your keyboard layout

Change the language

To change the GDM language, edit the file /var/lib/AccountsService/users/gdm and change the language line using the correct UTF-8 value for your language. You should see something similar to the text below:

/var/lib/AccountsService/users/gdm
[User]
Language=fr_FR.UTF-8
XSession=
SystemAccount=true

Now just reboot your computer.

Once you have rebooted, if you look at the /var/lib/AccountsService/users/gdm file again, you will see that the language line is cleared — do not worry, the language change has been preserved.

自动登录

想要以GDM自动登录,将以下添加到/etc/gdm/custom.conf(将username替换成你想要自动登录的用户):

/etc/gdm/custom.conf
# Enable automatic login for user
[daemon]
AutomaticLogin=username
AutomaticLoginEnable=True

或以delay自动登录:

/etc/gdm/custom.conf
[daemon]
# for login with delay
TimedLoginEnable=true
TimedLogin=username
TimedLoginDelay=1

无密码登录

如果你想省略GDM的密码提示,只要简单地将以下行添加到/etc/pam.d/gdm:

auth sufficient pam_succeed_if.so user ingroup nopasswdlogin

确保此行正确地在包含"pam_unix.so"的第一行前。

然后,添加用户组nopasswdlogin到你的系统中。你可以通过 系统>管理>用户和用户组(System > Administration > Users and Groups) 进行图形化操作。参见Groups中关于用户组的描述和管理命令。

现在,当你使用 系统>管理>用户和用户组(命令:users-admin)并将你的用户设成”密码:不在登陆时询问“(检查”在登陆时不询问密码“选项),你的用户将会被自动添加到”nopasswdlogin“用户组 and viola,你只要简单地仅仅点击你的用户民就可以正确登录,密码完全被省略了!

注意: 在GNOME 3中,users-admin和系统菜单似乎已被移除
警告: 不要ROOT账户这样做!

Passwordless shutdown for multiple sessions

GDM uses polkit and logind to gain permissions for shutdown. You can shutdown the system when multiple users are logged in by setting:

/etc/polkit-1/localauthority.conf.d/org.freedesktop.logind.policy
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE policyconfig PUBLIC
 "-//freedesktop//DTD PolicyKit Policy Configuration 1.0//EN"
 "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/PolicyKit/1.0/policyconfig.dtd">


<policyconfig>

  <action id="org.freedesktop.login1.power-off-multiple-sessions">
    <description>Shutdown the system when multiple users are logged in</description>
    <message>System policy prevents shutting down the system when other users are logged in</message>
    <defaults>
      <allow_inactive>yes</allow_inactive>
      <allow_active>yes</allow_active>
    </defaults>
  </action>

</policyconfig>

You can find all available logind options (e.g. reboot-multiple-sessions) here.

Add or edit GDM sessions

Each session is a .desktop file located at /usr/share/xsessions/.

To add a new session:

1. Copy an existing .desktop file to use as a template for a new session:

$ cd /usr/share/xsessions
# cp gnome.desktop other.desktop

2. Modify the template .desktop file to open the required window manager:

# nano other.desktop

If you happen to have KDM installed in parallel, you can alternatively open the new session in KDM which will create the new .desktop file. Then return to using GDM and the new session will be available.

See also Display manager#Session list[broken link: invalid section].

GDM root 登录

不建议以root登录,但如果需要,你可以编辑/etc/pam.d/gdm-password并添加以下一行在 auth required pam_deny.so之前:

auth            sufficient      pam_succeed_if.so uid eq 0 quiet

这时文件应该看起来像这样:

...
auth            sufficient      pam_succeed_if.so uid eq 0 quiet
auth            sufficient      pam_succeed_if.so uid >= 1000 quiet
auth            required        pam_deny.so
...

你应该就能在重启GDM后以 root 登录了。

Hide user from login list

The users for the gdm user list are gathered by accountsservice. It will automatically hide system users (UID < 1000). To hide ordinary users from the login list create or edit a file named after the user to hide in /var/lib/AccountsService/users/ to contain at least:

/var/lib/AccountsService/users/<username>
[User]
SystemAccount=true

Rotate login screen

If you have your monitors setup as you like (orientation, primary and so on) in ~/.config/monitors.xml and want GDM to honor those settings:

# cp ~/.config/monitors.xml /var/lib/gdm/.config/monitors.xml

Changes will take effect on logout. This is necessary because GDM does not respect xorg.conf.

xrandr at login

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: This is the first mention of /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d and /etc/gdm/Init on this page, although it seems to be general feature. (Discuss in Talk:GDM#xrandr at login)

If you want to run a script using xrandr that affects the login screen you must add a script in /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d since GDM is not respecting or launching the scripts in /etc/gdm/Init.

For example, to select automatically a external screen connected through HDMI:

#!/bin/sh
EXTERNAL_OUTPUT="HDMI1"
INTERNAL_OUTPUT="eDP1"
if (xrandr | grep $EXTERNAL_OUTPUT | grep " connected "); then
    xrandr --output $INTERNAL_OUTPUT --off --output $EXTERNAL_OUTPUT --auto
else
    xrandr --output $INTERNAL_OUTPUT --auto
fi

Configure X server access permission

You can use the xhost command to configure X server access permissions.

For instance, to grant GDM the right to access the X server, use the following command:

# xhost +SI:localuser:gdm

Enabling tap-to-click

Tap-to-click is disabled in GDM (and GNOME) by default, but you can easily enable it with a dconf setting.

Note: If you want to do this under X, you have to first set up correct X server access permissions - see #Configure X server access permission.

To directly enable tap-to-click, use:

# sudo -u gdm gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.touchpad tap-to-click true

If you prefer to do this with a GUI, use:

# sudo -u gdm dconf-editor

To check the if it was set correctly, use:

$ sudo -u gdm gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.peripherals.touchpad tap-to-click

疑难解答

Failure to start with AMD Catalyst driver

Downgrade the xorg-server package or try to use another display manager like LightDM.

GDM注销失败

如果GDM在引导时正确启动,但在重复尝试注销后失败,尝试将此行添加到/etc/gdm/custom.conf的daemon区段:

GdmXserverTimeout=60

Xorg 1.16

See Xorg#Rootless Xorg (v1.16).

Use Xorg backend

As of GDM version 3.16, the Wayland backend is used by default and the Xorg backend is used only if the Wayland backend cannot be started. As the Wayland backend has been reported to cause problems for some users, use of the Xorg backend may be necessary. To use the Xorg backend by default, edit the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file and uncomment the following line:

#WaylandEnable=false

Xorg 1.16

See Xorg#Rootless Xorg (v1.16).

Use Xorg backend

As of GDM version 3.16, the Wayland backend is used by default and the Xorg backend is used only if the Wayland backend cannot be started. As the Wayland backend has been reported to cause problems for some users, use of the Xorg backend may be necessary. To use the Xorg backend by default, edit the /etc/gdm/custom.conf file and uncomment the following line:

#WaylandEnable=false

gconf-sanity-check-2 exited with status 256

如果GDM弹出一个关于gconf-sanity-check-2的错误,你可能需要检查在/home 和 /etc/gconf/gconf.xml.system (the latter should be 755)中的权限。 如果GDM依然显示这个错误信息,尝试清空GDM的目录(GDM home)。以 Root 身份运行:

rm -rf /var/lib/gdm/.*

如果还是不行,尝试将/tmp的所有者和权限设为:

# chown -R root:root /tmp
# chmod 777 /tmp

GDM总是使用默认US-键盘布局

问题:键盘布局总被切换成us;键盘布局总是在一个信键盘插上后被重置。解决方法:

GDM 2.x

编辑 ~/.dmrc

[Desktop]
Language=de_DE.UTF-8   # change to your default lang
Layout=de   nodeadkeys # change to your keyboard layout

GDM 3.x

将下面内容加入/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf,将 fr 替换为您要使用的键盘

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf
Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall"
        MatchIsKeyboard "on"
        MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
        Driver "evdev"
        Option "XkbLayout" "fr"
EndSection
警告: 加入keyboard InputClass 段,而不是 pointer 段。

GDM在设置自动登录后无法启动

编辑 /etc/gdm/custom.conf,注释掉"AutomaticLoginEnable" 和 "AutomaticLogin".

# GDM configuration storage

[daemon]

#AutomaticLoginEnable=True
#AutomaticLogin=user
...
EndSection

参阅