General recommendations (العربية)

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This document is an annotated index of popular articles and important information for improving and adding functionalities to the installed Arch system. Readers are assumed to have read and followed the Installation guide to obtain a basic Arch Linux installation. Having read and understood the concepts explained in #System administration[broken link: invalid section] and #Package management[broken link: invalid section] is required for following the other sections of this page and the other articles in the wiki.

Contents

إدارة النظام

يتعامل هذا الجزء مع المهام الإدارية وإدارة النظام. للمزيد، فضلًا طالع Core utilities و Category:System administration.

المستخدمون والمجموعات

يتركك التثبيت الجديد مع حساب ذو امتيازات كاملة فقط، يسمى حساب «الجذر». Logging in as root for prolonged periods of time, possibly even exposing it via SSH on a server, is insecure. بدلًا من ذلك، يجب عليك إنشاء حسابات محدودة الامتيازات واستعمالها لمعظم المهام, only using the root account for system administration. See Users and groups#User management for details.

Users and groups are a mechanism for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Read the Users and groups article for details and potential security risks.

تصعيد الامتيازات

كلا الأمرين su و sudo يسمحان لك بتنفيذ أوامر باسم مستخدم آخر. يدخلك su مبدئيا إلى صدفة ولوج باسم المستخدم الجذر، و sudo مبدئيا يمنجك مؤقتا امتيازات الجذر لأمر واحد. طالع مقالتيهما الخاصتين لمعرفة الفروق.

إدارة الخدمات

Arch Linux uses systemd as the init process, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.

صيانة النظام

Arch is a rolling release system and has rapid package turnover, so users have to take some time to do system maintenance. Read Security for recommendations and best practices on hardening the system.

إدارة الحزم

This section contains helpful information related to package management. For more, please see FAQ#Package management and Category:Package management.

Note: It is imperative to keep up to date with changes in Arch Linux that require manual intervention before upgrading your system. Subscribe to the arch-announce mailing list or check the front page Arch news every time before you update. Alternatively, you may find it useful to subscribe to this RSS feed.

باكمان

باكمان هو مدير حزم آرتش لينكس: يجب على كل المستخدمين أن يألفوه قبل قراءة مقال آخر.

طالع pacman/Tips and tricks لاقتراحات حول كيفية تحسن تفاعلك مع باكمان وإدارة الحزم عموما.

المستودعات

طالع مقالة Official repositories لتفاصيل عن الغرض من كل مستودع مُصان رسميا.

إن كنت عازمًا على استعمال تطبيقات ذات 32 بتة، فستحتاج إلى تفعيل المستودع multilib.

تسرد المقالة Unofficial user repositories مستودعات أخرى عديدة غير مدعومة.

You may consider installing the pkgstats service.

المرايا

Visit the Mirrors article for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date mirrors of the official repositories. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check the Mirror Status page for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.

نظام بناء آرتش

Ports is a system initially used by BSD distributions consisting of build scripts that reside in a directory tree on the local system. Simply put, each port contains a script within a directory intuitively named after the installable third-party application.

The Arch Build System offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software; integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages that are cleanly manageable by pacman.

Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.

مخزن مستخدمي آرتش

While the Arch Build System allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the Arch User Repository (AUR) is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or through the Aurweb RPC interface.

الإقلاع

This section contains information pertaining to the boot process. An overview of the Arch boot process can be found at Arch boot process. For more, please see Category:Boot process.

التمييز الآلي للعتاد

Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in Kernel modules. Additionally, Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.

Microcode

Processors may have faulty behaviour, which the kernel can correct by updating the microcode on startup. See Microcode for details.

الاحتفاظ برسائل الإقلاع

Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.

Num Lock activation

Num Lock is a toggle key found in most keyboards. For activating Num Lock's number key-assignment during startup, see Activating Numlock on Bootup.

واجهة المستخدم الرسومية

This section provides orientation for users wishing to run graphical applications on their system. See Category:Graphical user interfaces for additional resources.

خادوم العرض

Xorg هو تنفيذ عام ومفتوح المصدر لنظام النوافذ إكس (X Window System) (معروف باسم X11 أو X)، وهو مطلوب لتشغيل التطبيقات التي لها واجهات مستخدم رسومية (GUIs). معظم المستخدمين سيحتاجون إلى تثبيته.

Wayland هو ميفاق بديل وأحدث لخادوم العرض، وتنفيذه المرجعي Weston متاح.

تعريفات العرض

نعريف العرض المبدئي vesa سيعمل مع معظم بطاقات المرئيات، لكن يمكن تحسين الأداء بفرق واضح واستغلال الميزات الإضافية بتثبيت التعريف المناسب لمنتجات ATI و Intel و NVIDIA.

بيئات سطح المكتب

رغم أن Xorg يوفر هيكلًا بسيطًا لبناء بيئات رسومية، فإن بعض المكونات الإضافية قد تعتبر ضرورية لإكمال تجربة المستخدم. بيئات سطح المكتب مثل غنوم وكدي و LXDE و Xfce تحزم طيفًا عريضًا من عملاء X، مثل مديري النوافذ، والألواح، ومديري الملفات، ومحاكيات الطرفية، ومحررات النص، والأيقونات، وبرامج نافعة أخرى. قد يريد المستخدمون الذين لديهم تجربة أقل أن يثبتوا بيئة سطح مكتب مألوفة أكثر. طالع Category:Desktop environments لموارد إضافية.

مديرو النوافذ

A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager alone and hand-pick desired extras. Most desktop environments allow use of an alternative window manager as well. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.

مدير العرض

Most desktop environments include a display manager for automatically starting the graphical environment and managing user logins. Users without a desktop environment can install one separately. Alternatively you may start X at login as a simple alternative to a display manager.

إدارة الطاقة

هذا القسم لأصحاب الحواسيب المحمولة أو المستخدمين الذين يبحثون عن التحكم بإدارة الطاقة. رجاء طالع Category:Power management للمزيد.

طالع إدارة الطاقة لمقدمة أكثر عمومًا.

أحداث ACPI

Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid. For the new (recommended) method using systemd, see Power management with systemd. For the old method, see acpid.

CPU frequency scaling

Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to more quiet system and prolongs the life of hardware. See CPU frequency scaling for details.

الحواسيب المحمولة

For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.

التعليق والإسبات

طالع المقالة الرئيسة: Suspend and hibernate.

الوسائط المتعددة

Category:Multimedia يحوي موارد إضافية.

الصوت

الصوت توفره تعاريف النواة للصوت:

  • ALSA مضمن مع النواة ومنصوح به because usually it works out of the box (it just needs to be unmuted).
  • OSS is a viable alternative in case ALSA does not work.

Users may additionally wish to install and configure a sound server such as PulseAudio. For advanced audio requirements, see professional audio.

ملحقات المتصفحات

يمكن تثبيت ملحقات متصفحات مثل Adobe Acrobat Reader ومشغل الفلاش Adobe Flash Player والجافا للنفاذ إلى محتوى وب معين.

المرامز

Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.

ربط الشبكات

This section is confined to small networking procedures. Head over to Network configuration for a full guide. For more, please see Category:Networking.

مزامنة الساعة

[Wikipedia:Network Time Protocol|Network Time Protocol]] (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. See Time synchronization for implementations of such protocol.

أمان DNS

For better security while browsing web, paying online, connecting to SSH services and similar tasks consider using DNSSEC-enabled DNS resolver that can validate signed DNS records, and DNSCrypt to encrypt DNS traffic.

إعداد جدار ناري

A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. While the stock Arch kernel is capable of using Netfilter's iptables and nftables, neither are enabled by default. It is highly recommended to set up some form of firewall. See Category:Firewalls for available guides.

مشاركة الموارد

To share files among the machines in a network, follow the NFS or the SSHFS article.

Use Samba to join a Windows network. To configure the machine to use Active Directory for authentication, read Active Directory integration.

See also Category:Network sharing.

أجهزة الدخل

This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.

تخطيطات لوحة المفاتيح

Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. The necessary steps to configure the keymap are different for virtual console and Xorg, they are described in Keyboard configuration in console and Keyboard configuration in Xorg respectively.

أزرار الفأرة

Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in Mouse buttons.

لوحات اللمس في الحواسيب المحملة

Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. For these, and several other touchpad models, you can use either the Synaptics input driver or libinput; see Touchpad Synaptics and libinput for installation and configuration details.

TrackPoints

See the TrackPoint article to configure your TrackPoint device.

Optimization

This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.

تحسين الآداء

The Improving performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.

Solid state drives

The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.

حدمات النظام

This section relates to daemons. For more, please see Category:Daemons.

فهرسة الملفات والبحث

Most distributions have a locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality in Arch Linux, mlocate is the recommended install. After the install you should run updatedb to index the filesystems.

Desktop search engines provide a similar service, while better integrated into desktop environments.

نوصيل البريد المحلي

A default setup does not provide a way to sync mail. To configure Postfix for simple local mailbox delivery, see Postfix. Other options are SSMTP, msmtp and fdm.

الطباعة

CUPS is a standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple. See Category:Printers for printer-specific articles.

المظهر

This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Arch experience. For more, please see Category:Eye candy.

الخطوط

You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included in a basic Arch system. There are several general-purpose font families providing large Unicode coverage and even metric compatibility with fonts from other operating systems.

A plethora of information on the subject can be found in the Fonts and Font configuration articles.

If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Linux console#Fonts.

GTK+ and Qt themes

A big part of the applications with a graphical interface for Linux systems are based on the GTK+ or the Qt toolkits. See those articles and Uniform look for Qt and GTK applications for ideas to improve the appearance of your installed programs and adapt it to your liking.

تحسينات الكونسول

This section applies to small modifications that improve console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command shells.

Tab-completion enhancements

It is recommended to properly set up extended tab completion right away, as instructed in the article of your chosen shell.

Aliases

Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases, which are easily portable to zsh as well.

الصدفات البديلة

Bash is the shell that is installed by default in an Arch system. The live installation media, however, uses zsh with the grml-zsh-config addon package. See Command-line shell#List of shells for more alternatives.

إضافات باش

A list of miscellaneous Bash settings, history search and Readline macros is available in Bash#Tips and tricks.

الخرج الملون

This section is covered in Color output in console.

الملفات المضغوطة

Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply xzipped tarballs). See Archiving and compression.

محثّ الكونسول

The console prompt (PS1) can be customized to a great extent. See Bash/Prompt customization or Zsh#Prompts if using Bash or Zsh, respectively.

Emacs shell

Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.

دعم الفأرة

Using a mouse with the console for copy-paste operations can be preferred over GNU Screen's traditional copy mode. Refer to General purpose mouse for comprehensive directions. Note that you can already do this in terminal emulators with the clipboard.

Scrollback buffer

To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to General troubleshooting#Scrollback.

إدارة الجلسة

Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or GNU Screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session.