iwd

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IWD (iNet wireless daemon) is a wireless daemon for Linux written by Intel that aims to replace WPA supplicant. The core goal of the project is to optimize resource utilization by not depending on any external libraries and instead utilizing features provided by the Linux Kernel to the maximum extent possible. [1]

IWD can work in standalone mode or in combination with comprehensive network managers like ConnMan, systemd-networkd and NetworkManager.

Installation

Install the iwd package.

Usage

The iwd package provides the client program iwctl, the daemon iwd and the Wi-Fi monitoring tool iwmon.

Once the iwd daemon is running, start/enable iwd.service so it can be controlled using the iwctl command.

iwctl

Running iwctl gets you an interactive prompt. From now on commands that need to be run in the iwctl prompt will be prefixed by [iwd]#.

Tip: In the iwctl prompt you can auto-complete commands and device names by hitting Tab.

List available commands:

[iwd]# help

List all wifi devices:

[iwd]# device list

Scan for networks:

[iwd]# station interface scan

List networks:

[iwd]# station interface get-networks

Connect to a WPA2 protected network (will prompt you for the passphrase):

[iwd]# station interface connect network_name

To disconnect from a network:

[iwd]# station interface disconnect
Note:
  • iwd automatically stores network passphrases (as encrypted PreSharedKey) in the /var/lib/iwd directory and uses them to auto-connect in the future.
  • To connect to a network with spaces in the SSID, the network name should be double quoted when connecting.
  • IWD only supports PSK pass-phrases from 8 to 63 ASCII-encoded characters. The following error message will be given if the requirements are not met: "PMK generation failed. Ensure Crypto Engine is properly configured"

Displaying details of a WiFi device (like MAC address, state and connected network):

[iwd]# device interface show

List known networks:

[iwd]# known-networks list

Forget a known network:

[iwd]# known-networks forget network_name
Tip: You can use all commands from the interactive session as command line arguments. For example: iwctl device wlp3s0 show.

WPA Enterprise

EAP-PWD

For connecting to a EAP-PWD protected enterprice access point you need to create a file called: essid.8021x in the folder /var/lib/iwd with the following content:

/var/lib/iwd/essid.8021x
[Security]
EAP-Method=PWD
EAP-Identity=your_enterprise_email
EAP-PWD-Password=your_password

[Settings]
Autoconnect=True

If you do not want autoconnect to the AP you can set the option to False and connect manually to the access point via iwctl. The same applies to the password, if you do not want to store it plaintext leave the option out of the file and just connect to the enterprise AP.

TLS Based EAP Methods

Until Linux kernel v4.20, to connect to EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, and EAP-PEAP, the kernel has to be patched. Edit the PKGBUILD for the kernel and add the following sources

PKGBUILD
"iwd1.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=ab2a33c1c0b1b0a45c16746dd0101057c6d432ed"
"iwd2.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=3a478ace6154e33009f9b01acbd4eaf7615fef0e"
"iwd3.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=5faadff684460b7f4064f9f28db8915a56601147"
"iwd4.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=3c7f3a6c70b47858a065b7a86313f390b083ee40" 
"iwd5.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=5362bbfdf2a8a5810d4237e4dbbf5da043e47fb6"
"iwd6.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=5c93ce3acc010425eab01dc8e0ffb5529f3f85c1"
"iwd7.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=ca4d545b92cf52ffe777cc7cfbaf64100dfa6e9c"
"iwd8.patch::https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/dhowells/linux-fs.git/patch/?id=f2ac228eaba9fe3f4fcf80b121eb92707afdd4de"

And add the following line to the end of the kernel config:

config
CONFIG_PKCS8_PRIVATE_KEY_PARSER=y

Then update the checksums of the PKGBUILD:

$ updpkgsums

and build the package.

Example configuration files for these network types can be found in subdirectories here https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/network/wireless/iwd.git/tree/autotests

Optional configuration

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Mention what can be configured and how? (Discuss in Talk:Iwd#)

File /etc/iwd/main.conf can be used for main configuration.

Directory /var/lib/iwd can be used for network (SSID) configuration.

Disable auto-connect for a particular network

Create / edit file /var/lib/iwd/network.type, where network is network SSID and type is network type i.e. one of "open", "wep", "psk", "8021x". Add the following section to it:

/var/lib/iwd/spaceship.psk (for example)
[Settings]
Autoconnect=false

Deny console (local) user from modifying the settings

By default iwd D-Bus interface allows any console user to connect to iwd daemon and modify the settings, even if that user is not a root user.

If you do not want to allow console user to modify the settings but allow reading the status information, then create a D-Bus configuration file as follows.

/etc/dbus-1/system.d/iwd-strict.conf
<!-- prevent local users from changing iwd settings, but allow
     reading status information. overrides some part of
     /usr/share/dbus-1/system.d/iwd-dbus.conf. -->

<!-- This configuration file specifies the required security policies
     for iNet Wireless Daemon to work. -->

<!DOCTYPE busconfig PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Bus Configuration 1.0//EN"
 "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/busconfig.dtd">
<busconfig>

  <policy at_console="true">
    <deny send_destination="net.connman.iwd"/>
    <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties" send_member="GetAll" />
    <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties" send_member="Get" />
    <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager" send_member="GetManagedObjects" />
    <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="net.connman.iwd.Device" send_member="RegisterSignalLevelAgent" />
    <allow send_destination="net.connman.iwd" send_interface="net.connman.iwd.Device" send_member="UnregisterSignalLevelAgent" />
  </policy>

</busconfig>
Tip: Remove <allow> lines above to deny reading the status information as well.

See also