Kernels (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Kernels翻译,最后翻译时间:2016-06-12,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

来自 Wikipedia:

内核是计算机操作系统的核心组件,对系统有完全的控制。开机时最先启动,然后负责后续的启动工作。它负责处理其它软件的请求,讲这些请求转化为中央处理器的数据处理请求。内核还负责管理内存,管理系统和其它打印机、扬声器等外围设备的通讯,是操作系统最基础的部分。

在Arch Linux中,除了官方内核之外,还有许多各种各样的内核可供选择。这篇文章列出了这些内核和它们的简短介绍。这里还列出了一些可用的内核补丁的介绍。在文章的最后介绍了自行编译内核的方法。

预编译的内核

官方软件包

linux
位于[core]仓库中,包含了对应的 Linux 内核和内核模块。官方原版内核再加 几个补丁.
linux-lts
长期支持版 (LTS) 位于[core]仓库中,包含了长期支持的 Linux 内核和内核模块。
linux-grsec
支持 Grsecurity Patchset 和 PaX 的内核及模块,增加了系统安全性。
linux-zen
ZEN Kernel 是一些内核黑客合作的结果,提供了适合日常使用的优秀内核。

AUR 软件包

对于下面的 AUR 软件包,"预先编译" 意味着这些软件包被持续维护、测设和验证,有些软件包可以通过 Unofficial repositories 非官方软件仓库获取。

linux-aufs_friendlyAUR
兼容 aufs 的 linux 内核及模块,适合使用 docker 的场景.
linux-apparmorAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
Linux kernel with AppArmor capabilities enabled.
linux-bfsAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
Linux kernel and modules with the Brain Fuck Scheduler (BFS) - created by Con Kolivas for desktop computers with fewer than 4096 cores, with BFQ I/O scheduler as optional.
linux-chromebookAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux kernel with patches added to support chromebook hardware.
linux-ckAUR
Linux Kernel built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
Additional options which can be toggled on/off in the PKGBUILD include: BFQ scheduler, nconfig, localmodconfig and use running kernel's config.
These are patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The ck patches include BFS.
For further information and installation instructions, please read the linux-ck main article.
linux-eee-ckAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux Kernel and modules for the Asus Eee PC 701, built with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset.
linux-fbcondecorAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with fbcondecor support.
linux-gitAUR
Linux kernel and modules built using sources from Linus Torvalds' Git repository.
linux-iceAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with gentoo-sources patchset and TuxOnIce support.
linux-libreAUR, linux-libre-ltsAUR, linux-libre-grsecAUR, linux-libre-rtAUR, linux-libre-xenAUR
The Linux Kernels without "binary blobs".
linux-lqxAUR
Liquorix is a distro kernel replacement built using a Debian-targeted configuration and the ZEN kernel sources. Designed for desktop, multimedia, and gaming workloads, it is often used as a Debian Linux performance replacement kernel. Damentz, the maintainer of the Liquorix patchset, is a developer for the ZEN patchset as well.
linux-lts34AUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
The Linux 3.4 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-lts310AUR
The Linux 3.10 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-lts312AUR
The Linux 3.12 Long-Term Support Kernel and modules.
linux-mainlineAUR
The Mainline Linux Kernel and modules.
linux-mptcpAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with Multipath TCP support.
kernel-netbookAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
Static kernel for netbooks with Intel Atom N270/N280/N450/N550 such as the Eee PC with the add-on of external firmware (broadcom-wlAUR) and patchset (BFS + TuxOnIce + BFQ optional) - Only Intel GPU
linux-paxAUR
The Linux Kernel and modules with PaX patches for increased security.
linux-pfAUR
Linux kernel and modules with the pf-kernel patch [-ck patchset (BFS included), TuxOnIce, BFQ] and aufs3.
linux-tresorAUR/linux-lts-tresorAUR
The current/LTS Linux Kernel and modules with integrated TRESOR
linux-vfioAUR/linux-vfio-ltsAUR
The Linux kernel and a few patches written by Alex Williamson (acs override and i915) to enable the ability to do PCI Passthrough with KVM on some machines.

补丁与补丁集

There are lots of reasons to patch your kernel, the major ones are for performance or support for non-mainline features such as reiser4 file system support. Other reasons might include fun and to see how it is done and what the improvements are.

However, it is important to note that the best way to increase the speed of your system is to first tailor your kernel to your system, especially the architecture and processor type. For this reason using pre-packaged versions of custom kernels with generic architecture settings is not recommended or really worth it. A further benefit is that you can reduce the size of your kernel (and therefore build time) by not including support for things you do not have or use. For example, you might start with the stock kernel config when a new kernel version is released and remove support for things like bluetooth, video4linux, 1000Mbit ethernet, etc.; functionality you know you will not require for your specific machine. Although this page is not about customizing your kernel config, it is recommended as a first step--before moving on to using a patchset once you have grasped the fundamentals involved.

The config files for the Arch kernel packages can be used as a starting point. They are in the Arch package source files, for example [1] linked from linux. The config file of your currently running kernel may also be available in your file system at /proc/config.gz if the CONFIG_IKCONFIG_PROC kernel option is enabled.

如何安装

The installation process of custom kernel packages relies on the Arch Build System (ABS). If you have not built any custom packages yet you may consult the following articles: Arch Build System and Creating packages.

If you have not actually patched or customized a kernel before it is not that hard and there are many PKGBUILDs on the forum for individual patchsets. However, you are advised to start from scratch with a bit of research on the benefits of each patchset, rather than just arbitrarily picking one. This way you will learn much more about what you are doing rather than just choosing a kernel at startup and then be left wondering what it actually does.

See #编译.

Note: Do not forget to change the boot options in your bootloader, e.g. GRUB, to use the new kernel.

主要补丁集

First of all it is important to note that patchsets are developed by a variety of people. Some of these people are actually involved in the production of the linux kernel and others are hobbyists, which may reflect its level of reliability and stability.

It is also worth noting that some patchsets are built on the back of other patchsets (which may or may not be reflected in the title of the patch). Patchsets (and kernel updates) can be released very frequently and often it is not worth keeping up with ALL of them; so, do not go crazy, unless you make it your hobby!

You can search Google for more sets, but remember to use quotes ("-nitro", for example); otherwise, Google will deliberately NOT show the results you want!

Note: This section is for information only - clearly no guarantees of stability or reliability are implied by inclusion on this page.

-ck

Linux-ck contains patches designed to improve system responsiveness with specific emphasis on the desktop, but suitable to any workload. The patches are created and maintained by Con Kolivas, his site is at http://users.on.net/~ckolivas/kernel/. Con maintains a full set but also provides the patches broken down so you can add only those you prefer.

The -ck patches can be found at http://ck.kolivas.org/patches/

-rt

This patchset is maintained by a small group of core developers, led by Ingo Molnar. This patch allows nearly all of the kernel to be preempted, with the exception of a few very small regions of code ("raw_spinlock critical regions"). This is done by replacing most kernel spinlocks with mutexes that support priority inheritance, as well as moving all interrupt and software interrupts to kernel threads.

It further incorporates high resolution timers - a patch set, which is independently maintained.

[as said from the Real-Time Linux Wiki]

patch at https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/projects/rt/

-bld

Warning: This patch is in development.

BLD is best described as a O(1) CPU picking technique. Which is done by reordering CPU runqueues based on runqueue loads. In other words, it keeps the scheduler aware of the load changes, which helps scheduler to keep runqueues in an order. This technique does not depend on scheduler ticks. The two most simple things in this technique are: load tracking and runqueue ordering; these are relatively simpler operations. Load tracking will be done whenever a load change happens on the system and based on this load change runqueue will be ordered. So, if we have an ordered runqueue from lowest to highest, then picking the less (or even busiest) runqueue is easy. Scheduler can pick the lowest runqueue without calculation and comparison at the time of placing a task in a runqueue. And while trying to distribute load at sched_exec and sched_fork our best choice is to pick the lowest busiest runqueue of the system. And in this way, system remains balanced without doing any load balancing. At the time of try_to_wake_up picking the idlest runqueue is topmost priority but it has been done as per domain basis to utilize CPU cache properly and it's an area where more concentration is requires.

Google Code web page: https://code.google.com/p/bld/

-grsecurity

Grsecurity is a security focused patchset. It adds numerous security related features such as Role-Based Access Control and utilizes features of the PaX project. It can be used on a desktop but a public server would receive the greatest benefit. Some applications are incompatible with the additional security measures implemented by this patchset. If this occurs, consider using a lower security level.

The -grsecurity patches can be found at https://grsecurity.net

Tiny-Patches

The goal of Linux Tiny is to reduce its memory and disk footprint, as well as to add features to aid working on small systems. Target users are developers of embedded system and users of small or legacy machines such as 386s.

Patch releases against the mainstream Linux kernel have been discontinued. The developers chose to focus on a few patches and spend their time trying to get them merged into the mainline kernel.

-pf

linux-pfAUR is yet another Linux kernel fork which provides you with a handful of awesome features not merged into mainline. It is based on neither existing Linux fork nor patchset, although some unofficial ports may be used if required patches have not been released officially. The most prominent patches of linux-pf are TuxOnIce, the CK patchset (most notably BFS), AUFS3, LinuxIMQ, l7 filter and BFQ.

See linux-pf for more information.

独立补丁

这里有一些补丁可以直接应用在任何一个主流内核中,或加入到其它补丁集中(可能需要一些调整)。I have included some common ones for starters.

Reiser4

Reiser4

fbsplash

fbsplash

编译

Arch Linux 提供了多种内核构建方式。

使用 Arch 构建系统(ABS)(推荐)

推荐使用 Arch 构建系统,这样可以充分利用已有的 linux PKGBUILD 以及包管理系统。PKGBUILD 已经是结构化的,你可以在下载源代码之后配置内核。

参见 编译内核/Arch 构建系统.

传统方式

另外,也可以不使用 Arch 构建系统 编译内核(传统方式)。这个方法需要手动下载内核源代码包,然后在自己的主目录里以普通用户的权限编译。一旦完成配置之后,有两种编译(安装)方式:传统的安装和适用makepkg/pacman 的安装。

使用传统方式的一个优点是在其他发行版中也可以使用。

参见 传统方式 .

参见