OpenSSL (简体中文)

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Warning: 2015年5月发布的对OpenSSL协议使用情况的合作研究显示,SSL连接存在风险( Logjam attack)。有关建议的服务器端配置,请参阅:

OpenSSL是SSL和TLS协议的开源实现,在OpenSSL(Apache License 1.0)和SSLeay(4-clause BSD)下拥有双重开源许可证。在各种平台上得到支持:BSD,Linux,OpenVMS,Solaris,Windows。 可以免费用于个人和商业用途。基于早期的SSLeay库。OpenSSL 1.0.0版发布于2010年3月29日。

Arch Linux已默认安装openssl(作为coreutils的依赖)。



有关更多信息,请参阅Wikipedia:Certificate authorityWikipedia:Public key infrastructure

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Reason: Wikipedia在概念解释方面优于本文。本文对某些定义的解释不甚严谨。 (Discuss in Talk:OpenSSL (简体中文)#Plan)
根据用户请求,返回证书的机构。返回的最终用户证书(end-user certificate)使用CA的私钥和CA的证书签名,CA证书又包含CA公钥。CA还分发证书吊销列表(CRL),通知用户哪些证书不再有效和下一个CRL何时到期。
CA private key

The CA private key is the crucial part of the trifecta. Exposing it would defeat the purpose of designating a central authority that validates and revokes permissions, and at the same time, it is the signed counter part to the CA public key used to certify against the CA certificate. An exposed CA private key could allow an attacker to replicate the CA certificate since the CA private key signature is embedded in the CA certificate itself.


These are distributed in a single file to all end-users. They are used to certify other end-user certificates that claimed to be signed by the matching CA, such as mail servers or websites.

终端用户向CA提交包含独一无二名称DN(distinguished name)的证书请求。通常,CA不允许在撤消前一个证书前,签发具有相同DN的多个有效证书。如果最终用户证书在证书到期时未续期或者因为其他原因,证书会被撤销。
最终用户生成密钥以便签署提交给CA的证书请求。 与CA私钥一样,暴露用户密钥,会导致别人假冒你的身份,攻击者可以使用相同的用户名提交请求,从而导致CA撤销前一个合法的用户证书。

最终用户证书与CA证书之间的主要区别在于最终用户证书本身无法签署证书; 它们只是在信息交换中提供识别手段。

证书撤销清单CRL(Certificate revocation list)


OpenSSL配置文件通常在/etc/ssl/openssl.cnf,并且显得很复杂。 Remember that variables may be expanded in assignments, much like how shell scripts work. For a thorough explanation of the configuration file format, see config(5ssl). In some operating systems, this man page is named config(5) or openssl-config(5). Sometimes, it may not even be available through the man hierarchy at all, for example, it may be placed in the following location /usr/share/openssl.


Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with #Creating certificate signing requests.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Same topic. (Discuss in Talk:OpenSSL (简体中文)#Plan)

Settings related to generating keys, requests and self-signed certificates.

The req section is responsible for the DN prompts. A general misconception is the Common Name (CN) prompt, which suggests that it should have the user's proper name as a value. End-user certificates need to have the machine hostname as CN, whereas CA should not have a valid TLD, so that there is no chance that, between the possible combinations of certified end-users' CN and the CA certificate's, there is a match that could be misinterpreted by some software as meaning that the end-user certificate is self-signed. Some CA certificates do not even have a CN, such as Equifax:

$ openssl x509 -subject -noout < /etc/ssl/certs/Equifax_Secure_CA.pem
subject= /C=US/O=Equifax/OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority

Even though splitting the files is not strictly necessary to normal functioning, it is very confusing to handle request generation and CA administration from the same configuration file, so it is advised to follow the convention of clearly separating the settings into two cnf files and into two containing directories.

Here are the settings that are common to both tasks:

[ req ]
# Default bit encryption and out file for generated keys.
default_bits=	2048

string_mask=	utf8only	# Only allow utf8 strings in request/ca fields.
prompt=		no		# Do not prompt for field value confirmation.


Makes a v3 request suitable for most circumstances:

distinguished_name=ca_dn	# Distinguished name contents.
req_extensions=req_v3		# For generating ca certificates.

[ ca_dn ]
ST=	New Jersey
O=	localdomain
CN=	localhost

[ req_v3 ]
basicConstraints=	CA:FALSE
keyUsage=		nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment


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Reason: What is GOST, why would you want to use it? (Discuss in Talk:OpenSSL (简体中文)#)

First, be sure that exist on your system

$ pacman -Ql openssl | grep libgost

In case everything is fine, add the following lines to the config:

openssl_conf = openssl_def # this must be a top-level declaration

Put the following lines in the end of the document:

[ openssl_def ]
engines = engine_section

[ engine_section ]
gost = gost_section

[ gost_section ]
engine_id = gost
soft_load = 1
dynamic_path = /usr/lib/engines/
default_algorithms = ALL
CRYPT_PARAMS = id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-A-ParamSet

The official README.gost should contain more examples on this.


Warning: The openssl package doesn't properly safeguard the /etc/ssl/private/ directory like most other distributions do, see FS#43059.

Before generating the key, make a secure directory to host it:

$ mkdir -m0700 private

Followed by preemptively assigning secure permissions for the key itself:

$ touch private/key.pem
$ chmod 0600 private/key.pem

Alternatively set umask to restrict permissions of newly created files and directories:

$ umask 077

An example genpkey key generation:

$ openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out private/key.pem -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:4096

If an encrypted key is desired, use the following command. Password will be prompted for:

$ openssl genpkey -aes-256-cbc -algorithm RSA -out private/key.pem -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:4096


If you want to communicate securely with a server for the first time, you need to trust an unknown public key. TLS solves this using the Public Key Infrastructrue. Basically clients trust a set of certificate authorities (CAs) (on Arch Linux the ca-certificates packages). When a certificate is received from a server, your client (mostly gnutls) verifies that it is signed by a certificate authority you trust.


To obtain a certificate from a certificate authority, you need to create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and sign it with a previously generated private key[broken link: invalid section]:

$ openssl req -new -sha256 -key private/key.pem -out req.csr
Tip: You can get free certificates from the Let's Encrypt certificate authority using an ACME client.


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Reason: It might be more educational to split up the command into openssl req and openssl x509. The former could then just be referenced as #Creating certificate signing requests. (Discuss in Talk:OpenSSL (简体中文)#)

Clients reject self-signed certificates by default, requiring you to manually configure every client to trust your self-signed certificate. Maintaining more than one self-signed certificate is more trouble than investing the initial effort in setting up a certificate authority[broken link: invalid section].

To create a self-signed certificate with a previously generated private key[broken link: invalid section]:

$ openssl req -key private/key.pem -x509 -new -days 3650 -out selfcert.pem


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Reason: It's not the style of the ArchWiki to tell the reader to copy and paste 43 lines of a Makefile. (Discuss in Talk:OpenSSL (简体中文)#Plan)

OpenSSL Certificate Authority is a detailed guide on using OpenSSL to act as a CA.

The method shown in this section is mostly meant to show how signing works; it is not suited for large deployments that need to automate signing a large number of certificates. Consider installing an SSL server for that purpose.

Before using the Makefile, make a configuration file according to #Configuration[broken link: invalid section]. Be sure to follow instructions relevant to CA administration; not request generation.


Saving the file as Makefile and issuing make in the containing directory will generate the initial CRL along with its prerequisites:

OPENSSL=	openssl
CNF=		openssl.cnf
CA=		${OPENSSL} ca -config ${CNF}
REQ=		${OPENSSL} req -config ${CNF}

KEY=		private/cakey.pem

CACERT=		cacert.pem
CADAYS=		3650

CRL=		crl.pem
INDEX=		index.txt
SERIAL=		serial


all:	${CRL}

	${CA} -gencrl -out ${CRL}

${CACERT}: ${CNF} ${KEY}
	${REQ} -key ${KEY} -x509 -new -days ${CADAYS} -out ${CACERT}
	rm -f ${INDEX}
	touch ${INDEX}
	echo 100001 > ${SERIAL}

${KEY}: ${CNF}
	mkdir -m0700 -p $(dir ${KEY})
	touch ${KEY}
	chmod 0600 ${KEY}
	${OPENSSL} genpkey -algorithm ${KEYMODE} -out ${KEY}

revoke:	${CADEPS} ${item}
	@test -n $${item:?'usage: ${MAKE} revoke item=cert.pem'}
	${CA} -revoke ${item}
	${MAKE} ${CRL}

sign:	${CADEPS} ${item}
	@test -n $${item:?'usage: ${MAKE} sign item=request.csr'}
	mkdir -p newcerts
	${CA} -in ${item} -out ${item:.csr=.crt}

To sign certificates:

$ make sign item=req.csr

To revoke certificates:

$ make revoke item=cert.pem


解密时”解密不好”("bad decrypt")

OpenSSL 1.1.0 changed the default digest algorithm for the dgst and enc commands from MD5 to SHA256. [1]

Therefore if a file has been encrypted using OpenSSL 1.0.2 or older, trying to decrypt it with an up to date version may result in an error like:

error:06065064:digital envelope routines:EVP_DecryptFinal_ex:bad decrypt:crypto/evp/evp_enc.c:540

Supplying the -md md5 option should solve the issue:

$ openssl enc -d -md md5 -in encrypted -out decrypted