Pacman/Rosetta (简体中文)

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这个页面从 openSUSE 的 Software Management Command Line Comparison 页拉取了大量内容。(This page pulls heavily from openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison.)我们对它进行了一些简化,把 Arch 加入对比列表,并且为了方便 Arch 用户而修改了不同发行版的顺序。

其他发行版的用户可以通过一个简单的包装器——pacapt——来享受 pacman 的好处。这个脚本也可以让 Arch 用户在临时处理其他发行版时使用。

pacapt 是 pacman 的 shell 脚本实现,它是为其他 Linux 发行版而制作的。

注意:
  • 这里描述的一些工具只针对特定版本的 pacman。其中的 -Qk 选项是在 pacman 4.1 中新实现的。
  • 您可以在 pkgfile 包中找到 pkgfile 命令。
动作 Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SUSE/openSUSE Gentoo
按名安装包 pacman -S yum install apt-get install zypper install zypper in emerge [-a]
按名移除包 pacman -Rc yum remove/erase apt-get remove zypper remove zypper rm emerge -C
通过软件名、描述、简短描述来搜索包。默认搜索域依工具不同而异。Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss yum search apt-cache search zypper search zypper se [-s] emerge -S
升级包/安装已有包的更新版本 pacman -Syu yum update apt-get upgrade zypper update zypper up emerge -u world
更新包(更新命令的另一种形式,可以进行更复杂形式的更新,例如发行版升级。当通常的更新命令会忽略软件更新时——例如依赖改变——本命令可以进行这些更新) pacman -Syu yum distro-sync apt-get dist-upgrade zypper dup emerge -uDN world
重新安装指定的包(会重新安装指定的包而不考虑依赖) pacman -S yum reinstall apt-get install --reinstall zypper install --force emerge [-a]
安装本地包(例如app.rpm)并使用安装源解决依赖关系 pacman -U yum localinstall dpkg -i && apt-get install -f zypper in /path/to/local.rpm emerge
从本地更新包并使用安装源解决依赖关系 pacman -U yum localupdate n/a emerge
使用一些手段来修复系统中的不完整依赖 pacman dep level - testdb, shared lib level - findbrokenpkgs or lddd package-cleanup --problems apt-get --fix-broken / aptitude install zypper verify revdep-rebuild
仅下载而不解包或安装 pacman -Sw yumdownloader (found in yum-utils package) apt-get --download-only / aptitude download zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly
移除不再需要的依赖(例如当依赖某包的软件被移除) pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - yum autoremove apt-get autoremove zypper rm -u emerge --depclean
下载给定名称包的源码包 Use ABS && makepkg -o yumdownloader --source apt-get source / debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly
移除不再处于任何仓库中的包 package-cleanup --orphans
安装/移除包以适合构建依赖(使用源码包中的信息) automatic yum-builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o
增加包锁定规则来保持其当前状态不被改变 ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf
modify IgnorePkg array
yum.conf <--”exclude” option (add/amend) echo "$PKGNAME hold" | dpkg --set-selections Put package name in /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask
删除包锁定规则 remove package from IgnorePkg line in /etc/pacman.conf yum.conf <--”exclude” option (remove/amend) echo "$PKGNAME install" | dpkg --set-selections Remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
展示所有锁定规则的列表 cat /etc/pacman.conf yum.conf (research needed) /etc/apt/preferences View /etc/zypp/locks cat /etc/portage/package.mask
为包系统增加一个检查点以便未来回滚 (unnecessary, done on every transaction) n/a
删除系统中的一个检查点 N/A N/A n/a
提供所有系统检查点的列表 N/A yum history list n/a
将所有包滚回特定日期或检查点 N/A yum history rollback n/a
撤销特定改动 N/A yum history undo n/a
明示要求将之前安装的某包作为依赖 pacman -D --asexplicit aptitude unmarkauto emerge --select
将某包作为依赖安装且不标记为明确要求安装 pacman -S --asdeps emerge -1
Package information management
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) (see /var/lib/pacman/local) (see /var/lib/rpm/Packages) apt-cache stats n/a emerge --info
Show all or most information about a package. The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -[S|Q]i yum list or info apt-cache show / apt-cache policy zypper info zypper if emerge -S; emerge -pv; eix
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss yum search apt-cache search zypper search zypper se [-s] emerge -S
Lists packages which have an update available. Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu yum list updates yum check-update apt-get upgrade -> n zypper list-updates zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl yum list available apt-cache dumpavail apt-cache dump (Cache only) apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages emerge -ep world
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pkgfile <filename> yum whatprovides yum provides apt-file search <filename> zypper what-provides zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages); pfl
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse/ dependencies. pacman -Sii yum resolvedep apt-cache rdepends / aptitude search ~Dpattern IN PROGRESS equery depends
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. (none) repoquery --whatconflicts aptitude search '~Cpattern' IN PROGRESS
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -[S|Q]i yum deplist apt-cache depends / apt-cache show IN PROGRESS emerge -ep
List what the current package provides yum provides IN PROGRESS equery files
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql $pkgname
pkgfile -l
repoquery -l $pkgname dpkg-query -L $pkgname IN PROGRESS equery files
List all packages that require a particular package repoquery --whatrequires [--recursive] equery depends -a
Search all packages to find the one which holds the specified file. auto-apt is using this functionality. pkgfile -s yum provides yum whatprovides apt-file search IN PROGRESS equery belongs
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. yum list obsoletes apt-cache show IN PROGRESS
Verify dependencies of the complete system. Used if installation process was forcefully killed. testdb yum deplist apt-get check n/a emerge -uDN world
Generates a list of installed packages pacman -Q yum list installed dpkg --get-selections zypper emerge -ep world
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm yum list extras deborphan zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. (none) yum list recent aptitude search '~N' / aptitude forget-new n/a eix-diff
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. cat /var/log/pacman.log yum history cat /var/log/yum.log cat /var/log/dpkg.log cat /var/log/zypp/history located in /var/log/portage
Clean up all local caches. Options might limit what is actually cleaned. Autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information. pacman -Sc
pacman -Scc
yum clean all apt-get clean / apt-get autoclean / aptitude clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp $pkgname /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add n/a cp $srcfile /usr/portage/distfiles
Display the source package to the given package name(s) repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty n/a
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf
Modify HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays
yum-plugin-priorities and yum-plugin-protect-packages /etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
Add a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p ${EDITOR} /etc/portage/package.keywords
remove offending line
Show a list of set priorities. apt-cache policy /etc/apt/preferences n/a cat /etc/portage/package.keywords
Ignores problems that priorities may trigger. n/a
Installation sources management ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo ${EDITOR} /etc/apt/sources.list layman
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt and yum force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. ${EDITOR} /etc/pacman.conf ${EDITOR} /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo apt-cdrom add zypper service-add layman, overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy yum clean expire-cache && yum check-update apt-get update zypper refresh zypper ref layman -f
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* zypper service-list layman -l
Disable an installation source for an operation yum --disablerepo=${REPO} emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. yum --releasever=${VERSION} apt-get install -t release package/ apt-get install package/release (deps not covered) echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords && emerge package
Other commands
Start a shell to enter multiple commands in one session yum shell apt-config shell zypper shell
Package Verification
Single package pacman -Qk[k] <package> rpm -V <package> debsums rpm -V <package> equery check
All packages pacman -Qk[k] rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
Package Querying
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l emerge -e world
Display local package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Qi rpm -qi dpkg -s emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display remote package information: Name, version, description, etc. pacman -Si yum info apt-cache show / aptitude show emerge -pv and emerge -S
Display files provided by local package pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L equery files
Display files provided by a remote package pkgfile -l repoquery -l pfl
Query the package which provides FILE pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or yum whatprovides (everything) dpkg -S/dlocate equery belongs
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Show the changelog of a package pacman -Qc rpm -q --changelog apt-get changelog equery changes -f
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs aptitude search '~i(~nexpr|~dexpr)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qt package-cleanup --all --leaves deborphan -an
Building Packages
Build a package makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal) mock (in chroot) debuild rpmbuild -ba ebuild; quickpkg
Check for possible packaging issues rpmlint lintian repoman
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl <file> rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Extract a package tar -Jxvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid ar vx | tar -zxvf data.tar.gz rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SUSE/openSUSE Gentoo