PhpMyAdmin (简体中文)

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翻译状态:本文是 PhpMyAdmin翻译。上次翻译日期:2021-03-18。如果英文版本有所更改,则您可以帮助同步翻译。

phpMyAdmin是一个基于网页的,帮助管理MySQL数据库的Apache/PHP前端。

安装

安装 软件包 phpmyadmin

运行

PHP

确保PHP的MySQL扩展已经被启用。

你也可以启用 extension=bz2extension=zip 扩展以支持压缩。

注意: 如果设置了open_basedir/usr/share/webapps/etc/weppapps/ 必须加入到/etc/php/php.ini 中的open_basedir。参考 PHP (简体中文)#配置

Apache

按照Apache HTTP Server (简体中文)#PHP设置PHP。 创建Apache配置文件:

/etc/httpd/conf/extra/phpmyadmin.conf
Alias /phpmyadmin "/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin"
<Directory "/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin">
    DirectoryIndex index.php
    AllowOverride All
    Options FollowSymlinks
    Require all granted
</Directory>

/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf加入配置文件:

# phpMyAdmin configuration
Include conf/extra/phpmyadmin.conf
注意: 默认情况下,每个可以访问Web服务器的人都可以通过这个URL访问phpMyAdmin登录页面。要改变此设置,编辑/etc/httpd/conf/extra/phpmyadmin.conf。例如,你只想从本地访问phpMyAdmin,将Require all granted改为Require local。注意,这将禁止远程访问phpMyAdmin,如果你想安全地远程访问phpMyAdmin,你可以设置一个加密的SOCKS通道[断开的链接:无效的部分]

修改了 Apache 配置文件之后,restart httpd.service

Lighttpd

配置Lighttpd,确保能正常使用PHP,并且启用mod_alias

在配置文件中为phpmyadmin加入下列alias:

 alias.url = ( "/phpmyadmin" => "/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/")

Nginx

确保正确配置FastCGI,并使用 nginx#Server blocks 来使得管理更简单。

子域名

根据个人喜好,通过子域名访问 phpMyAdmin, 如 https://pma.domain.tld

/etc/nginx/sites-available/pma.domain.tld
server {
    server_name pma.domain.tld;
    ; listen 80; # also listen on http
    ; listen [::]:80;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    index index.php;
    access_log /var/log/nginx/pma.access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/pma.error.log;

    # Allows limiting access to certain client addresses.
    ; allow 192.168.1.0/24;
    ; allow my-ip;
    ; deny all;

    root /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin;
    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
    }

    error_page 404 /index.php;

    location ~ \.php$ {
        try_files $uri $document_root$fastcgi_script_name =404;

        fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;

        fastcgi_param HTTP_PROXY "";
        fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
        fastcgi_request_buffering off;
   }
}

子目录

或者使用子目录,如 https://domain.tld/phpMyAdmin

/etc/nginx/sites-available/domain.tld
server {
    server_name domain.tld;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
    index index.php;
    access_log /var/log/nginx/domain.tld.access.log;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/domain.tld.error.log;

    root /srv/http/domain.tld;
    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
    }

    location /phpMyAdmin {
        root /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin;
    }

    # Deny static files
    location ~ ^/phpMyAdmin/(README|LICENSE|ChangeLog|DCO)$ {
       deny all;
    }

    # Deny .md files
    location ~ ^/phpMyAdmin/(.+\.md)$ {
      deny all;
   }

   # Deny setup directories
   location ~ ^/phpMyAdmin/(doc|sql|setup)/ {
      deny all;
   }

   #FastCGI config for phpMyAdmin
   location ~ /phpMyAdmin/(.+\.php)$ {
      try_files $uri $document_root$fastcgi_script_name =404;

      fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
      fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
      include fastcgi_params;

      fastcgi_param HTTP_PROXY "";
      fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
      fastcgi_request_buffering off;
   }
}

配置

主配置文件位于 /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php

定义远程 MySQL 服务器

如果MySQL服务器不在本机上,添加如下行到配置文件:

$cfg['Servers'][$i]['host'] =  'example.com';

使用安装脚本

要使用phpMyAdmin安装脚本(例如 http://localhost/phpmyadmin/setup ),确保http用户可以写入/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin

# mkdir /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config
# chown http:http /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config
# chmod 750 /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config

添加blowfish_secret passphrase

需要设置一个唯一的32位的字符串从而充分地使用blowfish算法,从而避免……(配置文件现在需要一个短语密码)的错误。

(blowfish_secret):

/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php
$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = '...';

启用配置存储

例如table linking,change tracking,PDF creation,bookmarking queries的附加功能默认是被禁用的,并且会提示The phpMyAdmin configuration storage is not completely configured, some extended features have been deactivated.

注意: 下面的例子将controluser假设为pmacontrolpass 假设为pmapass

/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php取消注释(移除开头的//),并按需更改为所需的凭据:

/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php
/* User used to manipulate with storage */
// $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlhost'] = 'my-host';
// $cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlport'] = '3306';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser'] = 'pma';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass'] = 'pmapass';

/* Storage database and tables */
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['pmadb'] = 'phpmyadmin';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['bookmarktable'] = 'pma__bookmark';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['relation'] = 'pma__relation';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['table_info'] = 'pma__table_info';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['table_coords'] = 'pma__table_coords';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['pdf_pages'] = 'pma__pdf_pages';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['column_info'] = 'pma__column_info';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['history'] = 'pma__history';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['table_uiprefs'] = 'pma__table_uiprefs';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['tracking'] = 'pma__tracking';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['userconfig'] = 'pma__userconfig';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['recent'] = 'pma__recent';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['favorite'] = 'pma__favorite';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['users'] = 'pma__users';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['usergroups'] = 'pma__usergroups';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['navigationhiding'] = 'pma__navigationhiding';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['savedsearches'] = 'pma__savedsearches';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['central_columns'] = 'pma__central_columns';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['designer_settings'] = 'pma__designer_settings';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['export_templates'] = 'pma__export_templates';
创建数据库

有两种方法来创建需要的表:

  • 使用phpMyAdmin导入 /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/sql/create_tables.sql
  • 在命令行中执行mysql -u root -p < /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/sql/create_tables.sql
创建数据库用户

要赋予controluser所需的权限,执行如下的查询:

注意: 确保将所有的pmapmapass替换为在config.inc.php设置的值。如果正在为远程数据库配置,还需将localhost改为适当的主机。
GRANT USAGE ON mysql.* TO 'pma'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'pmapass';
GRANT SELECT (
    Host, User, Select_priv, Insert_priv, Update_priv, Delete_priv,
    Create_priv, Drop_priv, Reload_priv, Shutdown_priv, Process_priv,
    File_priv, Grant_priv, References_priv, Index_priv, Alter_priv,
    Show_db_priv, Super_priv, Create_tmp_table_priv, Lock_tables_priv,
    Execute_priv, Repl_slave_priv, Repl_client_priv
    ) ON mysql.user TO 'pma'@'localhost';
GRANT SELECT ON mysql.db TO 'pma'@'localhost';
GRANT SELECT ON mysql.host TO 'pma'@'localhost';
GRANT SELECT (Host, Db, User, Table_name, Table_priv, Column_priv)
    ON mysql.tables_priv TO 'pma'@'localhost';

为了使用书签和关系特性,设置如下的权限:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON phpmyadmin.* TO 'pma'@'localhost';

重新登录以启用新特性。

启用templates catching

/usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php添加如下行:

 $cfg['TempDir'] = '/tmp/phpmyadmin'

移除配置目录

当配置完成之后,可以移除临时配置目录,这也会抑制来自网页交互的警告:

# rm -r /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/config

安装主题

主题的位置在 /usr/share/webapps/phpMyAdmin/themes。你可以在 https://www.phpmyadmin.net/themes/ 找到新主题。

直接下载并将主题提取到相应位置,在 phpmyadmin 刷新之后它将正常工作。然而,你下载的主题必须与 phpmyadmin 的版本相对应,适用于老版本的主题无法使用。

参见