systemd/Journal (简体中文)

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Systemd/Journal翻译,最后翻译时间:2019-01-31,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

主文档请参考 systemd (简体中文)

systemd 提供了自己的日志系统(logging system),称为 journal。使用 systemd 日志,无需额外安装日志服务(syslog)。读取日志的命令:

# journalctl

默认情况下(当 Storage= 在文件 /etc/systemd/journald.conf 中被设置为 auto),日志记录将被写入 /var/log/journal/。该目录是 systemd 软件包的一部分。若被删除,systemd 不会自动创建它,直到下次升级软件包时重建该目录。如果该目录缺失,systemd 会将日志记录写入 /run/systemd/journal。这意味着,系统重启后日志将丢失。

提示: 如果 /var/log/journal/ 位于 btrfs 文件系统,应该考虑对这个目录禁用写入时复制,方法参阅Btrfs#Copy-on-Write (CoW)

Systemd 日志事件提示信息的记录安装优先级和更能进行分离,符合经典的 BSD syslog 协议风格(维基百科RFC 5424)。

优先级

A syslog severity code (in systemd called priority) is used to mark the importance of a message RFC 5424 Section 6.2.1.

Value Severity Keyword Description Examples
0 Emergency emerg System is unusable Severe Kernel BUG, systemd dumped core.
This level should not be used by applications.
1 Alert alert Should be corrected immediately Vital subsystem goes out of work. Data loss.
kernel: BUG: unable to handle kernel paging request at ffffc90403238ffc.
2 Critical crit Critical conditions Crashes, coredumps. Like familiar flash:
systemd-coredump[25319]: Process 25310 (plugin-containe) of user 1000 dumped core
Failure in the system primary application, like X11.
3 Error err Error conditions Not severe error reported:
kernel: usb 1-3: 3:1: cannot get freq at ep 0x84,
systemd[1]: Failed unmounting /var.,
libvirtd[1720]: internal error: Failed to initialize a valid firewall backend).
4 Warning warning May indicate that an error will occur if action is not taken. A non-root file system has only 1GB free.
org.freedesktop. Notifications[1860]: (process:5999): Gtk-WARNING **: Locale not supported by C library. Using the fallback 'C' locale.
5 Notice notice Events that are unusual, but not error conditions. systemd[1]: var.mount: Directory /var to mount over is not empty, mounting anyway. gcr-prompter[4997]: Gtk: GtkDialog mapped without a transient parent. This is discouraged.
6 Informational info Normal operational messages that require no action. lvm[585]: 7 logical volume(s) in volume group "archvg" now active.
7 Debug debug Information useful to developers for debugging the application. kdeinit5[1900]: powerdevil: Scheduling inhibition from ":1.14" "firefox" with cookie 13 and reason "screen".

If issue you are looking for, was not found on according level, search it on couple of priority levels above and below. This rules are recommendations. Some errors considered a normal occasion for program so they marked low in priority by developer, and on the contrary, sometimes too many messages plaques too high priorities for them, but often it's an arguable situation. And often you really should solve an issue, also to understand architecture and adopt best practices.

Examples:

  • Info message:
    pulseaudio[2047]: W: [pulseaudio] alsa-mixer.c: Volume element Master has 8 channels. That's too much! I can't handle that!
    It is an warning or error by definition.
  • Plaguing alert message:
    sudo[21711]:     user : a password is required ; TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/user ; USER=root ; COMMAND=list /usr/bin/pacman --color auto -Sy
    The reason - user was manually added to sudoers file, not to wheel group, which is arguably normal action, but sudo produced an alert on every occasion.

功能

A syslog facility code is used to specify the type of program that is logging the message RFC 5424 Section 6.2.1.

Facility code Keyword Description Info
0 kern kernel messages
1 user user-level messages
2 mail mail system Archaic POSIX still supported and sometimes used system, for more mail(1))
3 daemon system daemons All deamons, including systemd and its subsystems
4 auth security/authorization messages Also watch for different facility 10
5 syslog messages generated internally by syslogd As it standartized for syslogd, not used by systemd (see facility 3)
6 lpr line printer subsystem (archaic subsystem)
7 news network news subsystem (archaic subsystem)
8 uucp UUCP subsystem (archaic subsystem)
9 clock daemon systemd-timesyncd
10 authpriv security/authorization messages Also watch for different facility 4
11 ftp FTP daemon
12 - NTP subsystem
13 - log audit
14 - log alert
15 cron scheduling daemon
16 local0 local use 0 (local0)
17 local1 local use 1 (local1)
18 local2 local use 2 (local2)
19 local3 local use 3 (local3)
20 local4 local use 4 (local4)
21 local5 local use 5 (local5)
22 local6 local use 6 (local6)
23 local7 local use 7 (local7)

So, useful facilities to watch: 0,1,3,4,9,10,15.

过滤输出

journalctl可以根据特定字段过滤输出。如果过滤的字段比较多,需要较长时间才能显示出来。

示例:

显示本次启动后的所有日志:

# journalctl -b

不过,一般大家更关心的不是本次启动后的日志,而是上次启动时的(例如,刚刚系统崩溃了)。可以使用 -b 参数:

  • journalctl -b -0 显示本次启动的信息
  • journalctl -b -1 显示上次启动的信息
  • journalctl -b -2 显示上上次启动的信息 journalctl -b -2
  • 只显示错误、冲突和重要告警信息
    # journalctl -p err..alert
    也可以使用数字, journalctl -p 3..1。If single number/keyword used, journalctl -p 3 - all higher priority levels also included.
  • 显示从某个日期 ( 或时间 ) 开始的消息:
    # journalctl --since="2012-10-30 18:17:16"
  • 显示从某个时间 ( 例如 20分钟前 ) 的消息:
    # journalctl --since "20 min ago"
  • 显示最新信息
    # journalctl -f
  • 显示特定程序的所有消息:
    # journalctl /usr/lib/systemd/systemd
  • 显示特定进程的所有消息:
    # journalctl _PID=1
  • 显示指定单元的所有消息:
    # journalctl -u man-db.service
  • 显示内核环缓存消息r:
    # journalctl -k
  • Show auth.log equivalent by filtering on syslog facility:
    # journalctl -f -l SYSLOG_FACILITY=10
  • If your journal directory (by default located under /var/log/journal) contains huge amount of log data then journalctl can take several minutes in filtering output. You can speed it up significantly by using --file option to force journalctl to look only into most recent journal:
    # journalctl --file /var/log/journal/*/system.journal -f

详情参阅journalctl(1)systemd.journal-fields(7),以及 Lennert 的这篇博文

日志大小限制

如果按上面的操作保留日志的话,默认日志最大限制为所在文件系统容量的 10%,即:如果 /var/log/journal 储存在 50GiB 的根分区中,那么日志最多存储 5GiB 数据。可以修改配置文件指定最大限制。如限制日志最大 50MiB:

/etc/systemd/journald.conf
SystemMaxUse=50M

还可以通过配置片段而不是全局配置文件进行设置:

/etc/systemd/journald.conf.d/00-journal-size.conf
[Journal]
SystemMaxUse=50M

修改配置后要立即生效,请重启 systemd-journald.service 服务。

详情参见 journald.conf(5).

配合 syslog 使用

systemd 提供了 socket /run/systemd/journal/syslog,以兼容传统日志服务。所有系统信息都会被传入。要使传统日志服务工作,需要让服务链接该 socket,而非 /dev/log官方说明)。Arch 软件仓库中的 syslog-ng 已经包含了需要的配置。

journald.conf 使用 no 转发socket . 为了使 syslog-ng 配合 journald , 你需要在 /etc/systemd/journald.conf 中设置 ForwardToSyslog=yes . 参阅 Syslog-ng#Overview 了解更多细节.

如果你选择使用 rsyslogAUR , 因为 rsyslog 从日志中 直接 传出消息,所以不再必要改变那个选项..

设置开机启动 syslog-ng:

 # systemctl enable syslog-ng

这里有一份很不错的 journalctl 指南。

手动清理日志

/var/log/journal 存放着日志, rm 应该能工作. 或者使用journalctl,

例如:

  • 清理日志使总大小小于 100M:
    # journalctl --vacuum-size=100M
  • 清理最早两周前的日志.
    # journalctl --vacuum-time=2weeks

参阅 journalctl(1) 获得更多信息.

Journald in conjunction with syslog

Compatibility with a classic, non-journald aware syslog implementation can be provided by letting systemd forward all messages via the socket /run/systemd/journal/syslog. To make the syslog daemon work with the journal, it has to bind to this socket instead of /dev/log (official announcement).

As of systemd 216 the default journald.conf for forwarding to the socket was changed to ForwardToSyslog=no to avoid system overhead, because rsyslog or syslog-ng (since 3.6) pull the messages from the journal by itself.

See Syslog-ng#Overview and Syslog-ng#syslog-ng and systemd journal, or rsyslog respectively, for details on configuration.

转发 journald 到 /dev/tty12

建立一个 drop-in directory[broken link: invalid section] /etc/systemd/journald.conf.d 然后在其中建立 fw-tty12.conf :

/etc/systemd/journald.conf.d/fw-tty12.conf
[Journal]
ForwardToConsole=yes
TTYPath=/dev/tty12
MaxLevelConsole=info

然后重新启动 systemd-journald.

查看特定位置的日志

有时你希望查看另一个系统上的日志.例如从 Live 环境修复现存的系统.

这种情况下你可以挂载目标系统 ( 例如挂载到 /mnt ),然后用 -D/--directory 参数指定目录,像这样:

$ journalctl -D /mnt/var/log/journal -xe