User:Andy Crowd/sandbox/Desktop users/Basic Linux set up

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Basic Linux set up

Language

Console

Temporary:

$ loadkeys sv-latin1

To set it permanently:

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP="sv-latin1.map.gz"

The KEYMAP="sv-latin1.map.gz" is the same as KEYMAP="sv-latin1" All of them will load the keymap «/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/sv-latin1.map.gz» file for the Swedish language.

See also vconsole man page

  • vconsole.conf
LOCALE="en_US.UTF-8"
KEYMAP="sv-latin1"
FONT="lat0-12.psfu.gz"
FONT_UNIMAP="iso01.uni"
FONT_MAP="ISO8859-1"
CONSOLEFONT="lat0-16"
CONSOLEMAP="8859-1"
HARDWARECLOCK="localtime"
TIMEZONE="Europe/Stockholm"
USECOLOR="yes"

console-setup

/etc/default/console-setup

See also: Arch Forum

# A configuration file for setupcon

# Change to "yes" and setupcon will explain what is being doing
VERBOSE_OUTPUT=no

# Setup these consoles.  Most people do not need to change this.
ACTIVE_CONSOLES="/dev/tty[1-6]"

# Put here your encoding.  Valid charmaps are: UTF-8 ARMSCII-8 CP1251
# CP1255 CP1256 GEORGIAN-ACADEMY GEORGIAN-PS IBM1133 ISIRI-3342
# ISO-8859-1 ISO-8859-2 ISO-8859-3 ISO-8859-4 ISO-8859-5 ISO-8859-6
# ISO-8859-7 ISO-8859-8 ISO-8859-9 ISO-8859-10 ISO-8859-11 ISO-8859-13
# ISO-8859-14 ISO-8859-15 ISO-8859-16 KOI8-R KOI8-U TIS-620 VISCII
CHARMAP="UTF-8"

# The codeset determines which symbols are supported by the font.
# Valid codesets are: Arabic Armenian CyrAsia CyrKoi CyrSlav Ethiopian
# Georgian Greek Hebrew Lao Lat15 Lat2 Lat38 Lat7 Thai Uni1 Uni2 Uni3
# Vietnamese.  Read README.fonts for explanation.
CODESET="Lat15"

# Valid font faces are: VGA (sizes 8, 14 and 16), Terminus (sizes
# 12x6, 14, 16, 20x10, 24x12, 28x14 and 32x16), TerminusBold (sizes
# 14, 16, 20x10, 24x12, 28x14 and 32x16), TerminusBoldVGA (sizes 14
# and 16), Fixed (sizes 13, 14, 15, 16 and 18), Goha (sizes 12, 14 and
# 16), GohaClassic (sizes 12, 14 and 16).
FONTFACE="VGA"
FONTSIZE="16"

# You can also directly specify nonstandard font and ACM to load.
# Use space as separator if you want to load more than one font.
# FONT='lat9w-08.psf.gz /usr/local/share/brailefonts/brl-08.psf'
# ACM=/usr/local/share/consoletrans/my_special_encoding.acm


# The following variables describe your keyboard and can have the same
# values as the XkbModel, XkbLayout, XkbVariant and XkbOptions options
# in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.
XKBMODEL="pc105"
XKBLAYOUT="de"
XKBVARIANT="nodeadkeys"
XKBOPTIONS="lv3:ralt_switch"

Xorg for the window managers

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-keyboard.conf
Section "InputClass"
        Identifier "system-keyboard"
        MatchIsKeyboard "on"
        Option "XkbLayout" "se"
        Option "XkbModel" "pc104"
EndSection

Command to change languages in X

$ setxkbmap se

Boot config

  • Auto configure grub: $ grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
  • Generate fstab

Status

PC

Installed Arch Linux.
I did a full partition backup with dd then added to a Squash FS to save some free space. The files were recovered with the photorec utility.
Motherboard GA-Z97.
Enviroment: OpenBox & XFCE plugings.

Installed KDE for other users because of a good language support:

 ~/.bashrc
export LANG=km_KH.UTF-8

export LC_PAPER=$LANG
export LC_ADDRESS=$LANG
export LC_MONETARY=$LANG
export LC_NUMERIC=$LANG
export LC_TELEPHONE=$LANG
export LC_MESSAGES=$LANG
export LC_IDENTIFICATION=$LANG
export LC_COLLATE=$LANG
export LC_MEASUREMENT=$LANG
export LC_CTYPE=$LANG
export LC_TIME=$LANG
export LC_NAME=$LANG
export LANGUAGE=$LANG

[[ -z $DISPLAY && $XDG_VTNR -eq 1 ]] && exec startx /usr/bin/startkde
$ sudo echo a4 > /etc/papersize 

Printer default paper size.

Laptop

Installed: «Linux wmaker 3.13.0-32-generic #57-Ubuntu SMP Tue Jul 15 03:51:08 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux», used Ubuntu mini.iso.
Problems that were found and fixed:

/etc/init/tty1.conf
exec /bin/login -f MyUserName < /dev/tty1 > /dev/tty1 2>&1
  • Shutdown as a normal user: $ chmod u+s /sbin/shutdown, add to /etc/sudoers %yourusergroup ALL=NOPASSWD: /sbin/shutdown, same steps are for reboot/poweroff. To save a write protected file like sudoers with vim editor need use the :w! command.
  • Configured wlan0
/etc/network/interfaces
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
wpa-ssid SSID
wpa-psk PASSWORD
Note: No need to use /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf or wicd. Password for wpa-psk can be in raw without using of wpa_passphrase utility that is a part of WPA_supplicant.

In /etc/init/rc-sysinit.conf replaced start on (filesystem and static-network-up) or failsafe-boot with start on (filesystem) or failsafe-boot

/var/lib/locales/supported.d/sv
sv_SE.UTF-8 UTF-8

Environment: windowmaker
Most wanted dockapps for WindowMaker are sound mixer that uses alsa (wmmixer-alsa, alsamixer.app) and a volume mount storage device manager (wmvolman).
WindowMaker is good for a wide screen laptops, from my point of view.
Installed dockapps with used switches:

And two buttons, one for browser and one for terminal.

Eee PC

Installed nothing and not decided which Linux to use. Tested with gentoo, but it took long time and eeepc became so hot due all compilings and I stoped.. will look for another distro for eeepc.
Planning to use for a voice and video Skype phone only but still unsure.
Wanted enviroment: Window Maker

Tested Linux for Home users

Here will be described which additional settings need to be done and review of them.

New project that might help to set up and configure desktop for a native user: README

Debian 8.2 (Jessie)

  • Easy to install
  • Easy to configure
  • Good repositories

Scripts to install missing programs and adding repositories.

The main purpose of the scripts is that you need only a harddisk from a computer to install Linux on it by connecting to a virtual environments such as QEMU. When done then just put harddisk back into computer.

Tested on XFCE4 installed Debian but should work even on other GTK based desktops.

  • debian-jessie-Repositories-sources.list => save to /etc/apt/sources.list
  • debian-jessie-apt-keys-repositories => register new repositories
  • debian-jessie-app-list == run script to install updates:

apt-get install $(debian-jessie-app-list | cut -d" " -f1 | grep -v -e \-dev -e \-dbg -e \-doc | uniq)

It helps to install almost all available fonts in repositories, drivers for printers and graphic cards(except non-free nvidia), more web browsers + pepperflash, more media players and office programs. The flashplugin-nonfree must be removed manually.

Warning: The scripts are only for testing purposes! Use on your own risk! Tested only in VirtualBox with XFCE4 as default!

PCLinuxOS

PCLinuxOS at Distro Watch

Negative parts

  • Easy to install but partitions must be created manually with it's GUI installer.
  • Missing firmware for broadcome wireless card but can be installed manually.
  • Pepper flash and freshplayer need to be downloaded and installed.
  • Almost everything must be configured only with the PCLinuxOS configuration tools

To install pepperflash and freshplayerplugin uncomment or add an EU related mirror in the /etc/apt/sources.list or do it with synaptic. See also Wikipedia:synaptic.

# apt-get install fresh-player-plugin
# apt-get install chromium-pepper-flash

and remove: apt-get remove flash-player-plugin

Warning:
  • Do not use apt-get upgrade! Use dist-upgrade instead of upgrade option.
  • Only one repository must be uncommented and all other must be commented out!

To add locales use PCLinuxOS configuration tool Configure Your Computer /usr/sbin/drakconf or System Regional Settings /usr/bin/drakconf --start-with=Localization

full monty

Positive parts

  • Has a lot of applications out of the box.
  • Has own GUI tool to configure locale and language.
  • Has good support for many languages even for own tools.
  • Really big repository and using RPM packages.

Very good for beginners to use but need someone who know how to install.

LXDE

To install libreoffice use the LibreOffice Manager lomanager because it downloads from another location and not available in the official repositories and additional languages can be installed only with PCLinuxOS localization manager.

Solus

Solus at Distro Watch

Negative parts

  • Very low repository.
  • No pepper falsh/opera/chrome in official repositories.

Positive parts

  • Very easy to install and use.
  • Easy to configure locales.

PC-BSD

Everything is perfect but no ported pepperflash/google-chrome

Pinguy OS

Pinguy OS at Distro Watch

Negative parts

  • Needs very good computer performance or even installer may crash if low RAM.

Positive parts

  • Easy to install and configure

Sabayon

Sabayon at Distro Watch

Set up locales manually: forum.

/etc/env.d/02locale
LANG=sv_SE.UTF-8
LANGUAGE=sv_SE.UTF-8
LC_ALL=sv_SE.UTF-8
~/.config/user-dirs.locale
sv_SE

Negative parts

  • Manual configuration of language
  • Libreoffice must be installed
  • Good repository
  • Not so many programs on installation ISO

Positive parts

  • Very easy to install
  • No own configuration tools except update manager
  • Includes google-chrome as default browser.

Mageia

Mageia at Distro Watch

Negative parts

  • Not so many programs follows from begin as it does with PCLinuxOS full monty

Positive

  • Good repository
  • Easy to install
  • Easy to configure language

Hanthana Linux

Hanthana Linux at Distro Watch

Solutions

How to add repository docs

register google repositories

Enable google repositories

Negative parts

  • Need manually add repository that contains google-chrome and some more programs
  • Not so many programs follows on ISO
  • No pepperflash and freshplayer

Positive parts

  • Easy to install
  • Easy to configure languages

KaOS

KaOS at Distro Watch

Negative parts

  • No pepper flash and freshplayer in official repositories
  • Not so man programs on installation ISO

Positive parts

  • Easy to install
  • Easy to configure
  • It has google chrome in official repositories