VirtualBox (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 VirtualBox翻译,最后翻译时间:2016-5-19,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

VirtualBox 是一个类似 VMware 的虚拟 PC 模拟器,处于不断的开发中。使用 Qt 图形界面,提供了无界面运行和 SDL 命令行工具进行运行管理。它包含guest additions为一些虚拟系统提供附加功能,包括文件共享、剪贴板和图形加速,支持 “无缝” 窗口整合模式。

Wikipedia:Virtualbox

Contents

在Archlinux中安装VirtualBox的安装步骤

为了在您的Archlinux中安装VirtualBox,请遵循以下步骤。

安装基本软件包

安装 软件包 virtualbox。从下面选择一个内核模块获取方式

要编译 virtualbox-host-dkms 提供的内核文件,需要同时安装对应的内核头文件(例如安装 linux-lts 的头文件 linux-lts-headers). [1] VirtualBox 或内核更新的时候,DKMS Pacman 钩子会自动编译内核模块。

要使用基于 Qt 的图形界面,需要安装 qt4 软件包。如果使用命令行命令,则不需要安装。

加载VirtualBox的内核模块

从版本 5.0.16 开始,virtualbox-host-modules-archvirtualbox-host-dkms 使用 systemd-modules-load.service 在启动时自动加载内核模块。

Note: 如果不希望启动时就加载 VirtualBox 模块,需要屏蔽默认的 /usr/lib/modules-load.d/virtualbox-host-modules-arch.conf (或 -dkms.conf)。创建一个同名空文件或链接到 /dev/null.

VirtualBox 在 Linux 上运行需要使用自己的内核模块vboxdrv模块必须在虚拟机运行前加载。

手动加载模块:

# modprobe vboxdrv
Note: 使用命令前可能需要更新内核模块数据库以避免 'no such file or directory' 错误,执行: depmod -a.

启动 VirtualBox 图形界面:

$VirtualBox

以下模块是可选的,但建议选上如果您不想在进行一些高级配置时被打扰(如下): vboxnetadp, vboxnetfltvboxpci.

  • vboxnetadpvboxnetflt 都是需要的当你使用网桥时 bridged or host-only networking feature. More precisely, vboxnetadp is needed to create the host interface in the VirtualBox global preferences, and vboxnetflt is needed to launch a virtual machine using that network interface.
  • vboxpci是需要的, 当你的虚拟机需要使用一个你的主机上的pci设备时
Note: 如果在virtualbox内核模块运行时你更新了模块,你需要手动重新加载这些模块以使用新版本。为了这么做,请在 root 权限下运行 vboxreload

最后,如果你使用前面提到的 "Host-only" 或是 "bridge networking" 功能,请确保 net-tools 已经安装。VirtualBoxt 为主机接口配置命令 VBoxManage hostonlyif 使用 ifconfigroute 来定位 IP 和 route,或通过 GUI 的Settings > Network > Host-only Networks > Edit host-only network (space) > Adapter选项。

在客户端系统访问主机 USB

将需要运行 Virtualbox 的用户名添加到 vboxusers 用户组,USB 设备才能被访问。

Guest 附加光盘

建议在运行VirtualBox 的主机系统上安装virtualbox-guest-iso 软件包 。 这个包是一个磁盘镜像,用来安装虚拟系统的附加功能。 这个 .iso 文件会被定位在 /usr/lib/virtualbox/additions/VBoxGuestAdditions.iso,也许需要手动在虚拟机中加载,当挂载之后你可以安装增强工具。

扩展组件

Oracle 的扩展组件以仅供个人使用的协议发布,在这里提供 additional features。安装 virtualbox-ext-oracleAUR 可获得这些组件, 已编译的版本可以在 seblu仓库找到。

如果你喜欢使用传统的手动方法:手动下载扩展组件并通过 GUI 安装 (File > Preferences > Extensions) 或通过 VBoxManage extpack install <.vbox-extpack>命令来安装, 请确保你拥有 toolkit (like Polkit, gksu, etc.) 来获准进入 VirtualBox。安装过程 需要 root 权限.

使用正确的前端

恭喜你!现在,你已经准备好使用VirtualBox了。

这里有多个前端提供给您,其中两个是默认提供:

  • 如果你只想在命令行下使用 VirtualBox (只想启动现有的虚拟机或是更改一些配置),你可以使用 VBoxSDL 命令。VBoxSDL 仅仅提供一个简单的窗口包含所有虚拟机,没有菜单或是其他控制项。
  • 如果你想使用命令行并且不使用任何 GUI (例如在服务器上) 来创建、运行和配置虚拟机,使用 VBoxHeadless 命令,不会有任何图形输出,但是仅仅使用 VRDP 数据(安装扩展模块之后才能使用)

如果你安装了 qt4这一可选依赖,你可以运行 VirtualBox 来获得一个美观易用的图形界面并能够使用鼠标。

最后你可以使用 PhpVirtualBox 来通过网页界面来管理你的虚拟机。

查阅 VirtualBox manual 来了解如何创建虚拟机。

Warning: 如果你打算在 Btrfs 文件系统上存储虚拟硬盘镜像在创建任何镜像之前,你应该考虑在镜像的目标文件夹中关闭Copy-on-Write

在 VirtualBox 中安装 Archlinux

在 VirtualBox 中新建一个虚拟机,并在加载 Archlinux 镜像,按照一般步骤完整安装 Archlinux系统,参考Beginners' guide (简体中文) 或是 Installation guide (简体中文)

在EFI模式下安装

If you want to install Arch Linux in EFI mode inside VirtualBox, in the settings of the virtual machine, choose System item from the panel on the left and Motherboard tab from the right panel, and check the checkbox Enable EFI (special OSes only). After selecting the kernel from the Arch Linux installation media's menu, the media will hang for a minute or two and will continue to boot the kernel normally afterwards. Be patient.

Once the system and the boot loader are installed, VirtualBox will first attempt to run /EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI from the ESP. If that first option fails, VirtualBox will then try the EFI shell script startup.nsh from the root of the ESP. This means that in order to boot the system you have the following options:

  • Launch the bootloader manually from the EFI shell every time;
  • Move the bootloader to the default /EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI path;
  • Create the startup.nsh script at the ESP root containing the path to the boot loader application, e.g. \EFI\grub\grubx64.efi.

Do not bother with the VirtualBox Boot Manager (accessible with F2 at boot): EFI entries added to it manually at boot or with efibootmgr will persist after a reboot but are lost when the VM is shut down.

See also UEFI Virtualbox installation boot problems.

Install the Guest Additions

VirtualBox Guest Additions provides drivers and applications that optimize the guest operating system including improved image resolution and better control of the mouse. Within the installed guest system, install:

Both packages will make you choose a package to provide guest modules:

To compile the virtualbox modules provided by virtualbox-guest-dkms, it will also be necessary to install the appropriate headers package(s) for your installed kernel(s) (e.g. linux-lts-headers for linux-lts). [2] When either VirtualBox or the kernel is updated, the kernel modules will be automatically recompiled thanks to the DKMS Pacman hook.

Note:
  • You can alternatively install the Guest Additions with the ISO from the virtualbox-guest-iso package, provided you installed this on the host system. To do this, go to the device menu click Insert Guest Additions CD Image.
  • To recompile the vbox kernel modules, run rcvboxdrv as root.

Load the Virtualbox kernel modules

To load the modules automatically, enable the vboxservice service which loads the modules and synchronizes the guest's system time with the host.

To load the modules manually, type:

# modprobe -a vboxguest vboxsf vboxvideo

Since version 5.0.16, virtualbox-guest-modules-arch and virtualbox-guest-dkms use systemd-modules-load service to load their modules at boot time.

Note: If you don't want the VirtualBox modules to be loaded at boot time, you have to mask the default /usr/lib/modules-load.d/virtualbox-guest-modules-arch.conf (or -dkms.conf) by creating an empty file (or symlink to /dev/null) with the same name in /etc/modules-load.d.

Launch the VirtualBox guest services

After the rather big installation step dealing with VirtualBox kernel modules, now you need to start the guest services. The guest services are actually just a binary executable called VBoxClient which will interact with your X Window System. VBoxClient manages the following features:

  • shared clipboard and drag and drop between the host and the guest;
  • seamless window mode;
  • the guest display is automatically resized according to the size of the guest window;
  • checking the VirtualBox host version

All of these features can be enabled independently with their dedicated flags:

$ VBoxClient --clipboard --draganddrop --seamless --display --checkhostversion

As a shortcut, the VBoxClient-all bash script enables all of these features.

virtualbox-guest-utils installs /etc/xdg/autostart/vboxclient.desktop that launches VBoxClient-all on logon. If your desktop environment or window manager does not support this scheme, you will need to set up autostarting yourself, see Autostarting#Graphical for more details.

VirtualBox can also synchronize the time between the host and the guest, to do this, start/enable the vboxservice.service.

Now, you should have a working Arch Linux guest. Note that features like clipboard sharing are disabled by default in VirtualBox, and you will need to turn them on in the per-VM settings if you actually want to use them (e.g. Settings > General > Advanced > Shared Clipboard).

Hardware acceleration

Hardware acceleration can be activated from the VirtualBox options on the host computer. Note the GDM display manager 3.16+ is known to break hardware acceleration support. So if you get issues with hardware acceleration, try out another display manager (lightdm seems to work fine).[3] [4]

If you want to share folders between your host and your Arch Linux guest, read on.

Enable shared folders

Shared folders are managed on the host, in the settings of the Virtual Machine accessible via the GUI of VirtualBox, in the Shared Folders tab. There, Folder Path, the name of the mount point identified by Folder name, and options like Read-only, Auto-mount and Make permanent can be specified. These parameters can be defined with the VBoxManage command line utility. See there for more details.

No matter which method you will use to mount your folder, all methods require some steps first.

To avoid this issue /sbin/mount.vboxsf: mounting failed with the error: No such device, make sure the vboxsf kernel module is properly loaded. It should be, since we enabled all guest kernel modules previously.

Two additional steps are needed in order for the mount point to be accessible from users other than root:

Manual mounting

Use the following command to mount your folder in your Arch Linux guest:

# mount -t vboxsf shared_folder_name mount_point_on_guest_system

The vboxsf filesystem offers other options which can be displayed with this command:

# mount.vboxsf

For example if the user was not in the vboxsf group, we could have used this command to give access our mountpoint to him:

# mount -t vboxsf -o uid=1000,gid=1000 home /mnt/

Where uid and gid are values corresponding to the users we want to give access to. These values are obtained from the id command run against this user.

Automounting

In order for the automounting feature to work you must have checked the auto-mount checkbox in the GUI or used the optional --automount argument with the command VBoxManage sharedfolder.

The shared folder should now appear in /media/sf_shared_folder_name. If users in media cannot access the shared folders, check that media has permissions 755 or has group ownership vboxsf if using permission 750. This is currently not the default if media is created by installing the virtualbox-guest-utils.

You can use symlinks if you want to have a more convenient access and avoid to browse in that directory, e.g.:

$ ln -s /media/sf_shared_folder_name ~/my_documents

Mount at boot

You can mount your directory with fstab. However, to prevent startup problems with systemd, comment=systemd.automount should be added to /etc/fstab. This way, the shared folders are mounted only when those mount points are accessed and not during startup. This can avoid some problems, especially if the guest additions are not loaded yet when systemd read fstab and mount the partitions.

sharedFolderName  /path/to/mntPtOnGuestMachine  vboxsf  uid=user,gid=group,rw,dmode=700,fmode=600,comment=systemd.automount  0  0
  • sharedFolderName: the value from the VirtualMachine's Settings > SharedFolders > Edit > FolderName menu. This value can be different from the name of the real folder name on the host machine. To see the VirtualMachine's Settings go to the host OS VirtualBox application, select the corresponding virtual machine and click on Settings.
  • /path/to/mntPtOnGuestMachine: if not existing, this directory should be created manually (for example by using mkdir)
  • dmode/fmode are directory/file permissions for directories/files inside /path/to/mntPtOnGuestMachine.}}

As of 2012-08-02, mount.vboxsf does not support the nofail option:

desktop  /media/desktop  vboxsf  uid=user,gid=group,rw,dmode=700,fmode=600,nofail  0  0

VirtualBox虚拟机从其他虚拟机导入/导出的管理

If you plan to use your virtual machine on another hypervisor or want to import in VirtualBox a virtual machine created with another hypervisor, you might be interested in reading the following steps.

添加删除

Guest additions are available in most hypervisor solutions: VirtualBox comes with the Guest Additions, VMware with the VMware Tools, Parallels with the Parallels Tools, etc. These additional components are designed to be installed inside a virtual machine after the guest operating system has been installed. They consist of device drivers and system applications that optimize the guest operating system for better performance and usability by providing these features.

If you have installed the additions to your virtual machine, please uninstall them first. Your guest, especially if it is using an OS from the Windows family, might behave weirdly, crash or even might not boot at all if you are still using the specific drivers in another hypervisor.

使用正确的虚拟磁盘格式

这一步将取决于虚拟磁盘映像直接或不能转换的能力。

自动工具

Some companies provide tools which offer the ability to create virtual machines from a Windows or GNU/Linux operating system located either in a virtual machine or even in a native installation. With such a product, you do not need to apply this and the following steps and can stop reading here.

  • Parallels Transporter which is non free, is a product from Parallels Inc. This solution basically consists in an piece of software called agent that will be installed in the guest you want to import/convert. Then, Parallels Transporter, which only works on OS X, will create a virtual machine from that agent which is contacted either by USB or Ethernet network.
  • VMware vCenter Converter which is free upon registration on the VMware webiste, works nearly the same way as Parallels Transporter, but the piece of software that will gather the data to create the virtual machine only works on a Windows platform.

手动转换

First, familiarize yourself with the #Formats supported by VirtualBox and those supported by third-party hypervisors.

  • Importing or exporting a virtual machine from/to a VMware solution is not a problem at all if you use the VMDK or OVF disk format, otherwise converting #VMDK to VDI and VDI to VMDK is possible and the aforementioned VMware vCenter Converter tool is available.
  • Importing or exporting from/to QEMU is not a problem neither: some QEMU formats are supported directly by VirtualBox and conversion between #QCOW2 to VDI and VDI to QCOW2 is still available if needed.
  • Importing or exporting from/to Parallels hypervisor is the hardest way: Parallels does only support its own HDD format (even the standard and portable OVF format is not supported!).
  • To export your virtual machine to Parallels, you will need to use the Parallels Transporter tool described above.
  • To import your virtual machine to VirtualBox, you will need to use the VMware vCenter Converter described above to convert the VM to the VMware format first. Then, apply the solution to migrate from VMware.

创建虚拟机的配置为你的虚拟机管理程序

Each hypervisor have their own virtual machine configuration file: .vbox for VirtualBox, .vmx for VMware, a config.pvs file located in the virtual machine bundle (.pvm file), etc. You will have thus to recreate a new virtual machine in your new destination hypervisor and specify its hardware configuration as close as possible as your initial virtual machine.

Pay a close attention to the firmware interface (BIOS or UEFI) used to install the guest operating system. While an option is available to choose between these 2 interfaces on VirtualBox and on Parallels solutions, on VMware, you will have to add manually the following line to your .vmx file.

ArchLinux_vm.vmx
firmware = "efi"

Finally, ask your hypervisor to use the existing virtual disk you have converted and launch the virtual machine.

Tip:

虚拟磁盘管理

支持VirtualBox的格式

VirtualBox supports the following virtual disk formats:

  • VDI: The Virtual Disk Image is the VirtualBox own open container used by default when you create a virtual machine with VirtualBox.
  • VMDK: The Virtual Machine Disk has been initially developed by VMware for their products. The specification was initially closed source, but it became now an open format which is fully supported by VirtualBox. This format offers the ability to be split into several 2GB files. This feature is specially useful if you want to store the virtual machine on machines which do not support very large files. Other formats, excluding the HDD format from Parallels, do not provide such an equivalent feature.
  • VHD: The Virtual Hard Disk is the format used by Microsoft in Windows Virtual PC and Hyper-V. If you intend to use any of these Microsoft products, you will have to choose this format.
Tip: Since Windows 7, this format can be mounted directly without any additional application.
  • VHDX (read only): This is the eXtended version of the Virtual Hard Disk format developed by Microsoft, which has been released on 2012-09-04 with Hyper-V 3.0 coming with Windows Server 2012. This new version of the disk format does offer enhanced performance (better block alignment), larger blocks size, and journal support which brings power failure resiliency. VirtualBox should support this format in read only.
  • Version 2 of the HDD: The HDD format is developed by Parallels Inc and used in their hypervisor solutions like Parallels Desktop for Mac. Newer versions of this format (i.e. 3 and 4) are not supported due to the lack of documentation for this proprietary format.
    Note: There is currently a controversy regarding the support of the version 2 of the format. While the official VirtualBox manual only reports the second version of the HDD file format as supported, Wikipedia's contributors are reporting the first version may work too. Help is welcome if you can perform some tests with the first version of the HDD format.
  • QED: The QEMU Enhanced Disk format is an old file format for QEMU, another free and open source hypervisor. This format was designed from 2010 in a way to provide a superior alternative to QCOW2 and others. This format features a fully asynchronous I/O path, strong data integrity, backing files, and sparse files. QED format is supported only for compatibility with virtual machines created with old versions of QEMU.
  • QCOW: The QEMU Copy On Write format is the current format for QEMU. The QCOW format does support zlib-based transparent compression and encryption (the latter has flaw and is not recommended). QCOW is available in two versions: QCOW and QCOW2. The latter tends to supersede the first one. QCOW is currently fully supported by VirtualBox. QCOW2 comes in two revisions: QCOW2 0.10 and QCOW2 1.1 (which is the default when you create a virtual disk with QEMU). VirtualBox does not support this QCOW2 format (both revisions have been tried).
  • OVF: The Open Virtualization Format is an open format which has been designed for interoperability and distributions of virtual machines between different hypervisors. VirtualBox supports all revisions of this format via the VBoxManage import/export feature but with known limitations.

磁盘映像格式转换

VMDK to VDI and VDI to VMDK

VirtualBox can handle back and forth conversion between VDI and VMDK by itself with VBoxManage clonehd.

VMDK to VDI:

$ VBoxManage clonehd source.vmdk destination.vdi --format VDI

VDI to VMDK:

$ VBoxManage clonehd source.vdi destination.vmdk --format VMDK

VHD to VDI and VDI to VDH

VirtualBox can handle conversion back and forth this format with VBoxManage clonehd too.

VHD to VDI:

$ VBoxManage clonehd source.vhd destination.vdi --format VDI

VDI to VHD:

$ VBoxManage clonehd source.vdi destination.vhd --format VHD

QCOW2 to VDI and VDI to QCOW2

VBoxManage clonehd cannot handle the QEMU format conversion; we will thus rely on another tool. The qemu-img command from qemu can be used to convert images back and forth from VDI to QCOW2.
Note: qemu-img can handle a bunch of other formats too. According to the qemu-img --help, here are the supported formats this tool supports: "vvfat vpc vmdk vhdx vdi ssh sheepdog sheepdog sheepdog raw host_cdrom host_floppy host_device file qed qcow2 qcow parallels nbd nbd nbd iscsi dmg tftp ftps ftp https http cow cloop bochs blkverify blkdebug'".

QCOW2 to VDI:

$ qemu-img convert -pO vdi source.qcow2 destination.vdi

VDI to QCOW2:

$ qemu-img convert -pO qcow2 source.vdi destination.qcow2

As QCOW2 comes in two revisions (see #Formats supported by VirtualBox, use the flag -o compat= to specify the revision.

$ qemu-img convert -pO qcow2 source.vdi destination.qcow2 -o compat=0.10

or

$ qemu-img convert -pO qcow2 source.vdi destination.qcow2 -o compat=1.1
Tip: The -p parameter is used to get the progression of the conversion task.

从其他虚拟机中迁移

qemu-img 程序可以用来将映像从一种格式转换到另一种格式,或为一个映像添加压缩或加密。

  # pacman -S qemu

从QEMU映像转换

To convert a QEMU image for use with VirtualBox, first convert it to raw format, then use VirtualBox's conversion utility to convert and compact it in its native format.

  $ qemu-img convert -O raw test.qcow2 test.raw
  $ VBoxManage modifyvdi /full/path/to/test.vdi compact
or 
  $ qemu-img convert -O raw test.qcow2 test.raw
    (of course you must have installed qemu package for that)
  $ VBoxManage convertfromraw /full/path/to/test.raw /full/path/to/test.vdi
  $ VBoxManage modifyvdi      /full/path/to/test.vdi compact

从VMware映像转换

运行

  $ VBoxManage clonehd source.vmdk target.vdi --format VDI

对于当前VirtualBox版本来说也许是不必要的(有待证实)

挂载虚拟磁盘

VDI

Mounting vdi images only works with fixed size images (a.k.a. static images); dynamic (dynamically size allocating) images are not easily mountable.

The offset of the partition (within the vdi) is needed, then add the value of offData to 32256 (e.g. 69632 + 32256 = 101888):

$ VBoxManage internalcommands dumphdinfo <storage.vdi> | grep "offData"

The can now be mounted with:

# mount -t ext4 -o rw,noatime,noexec,loop,offset=101888 <storage.vdi> /mntpoint/

You can also use mount.vdi script that, which you can use as (install script itself to /usr/bin/):

# mount -t vdi -o fstype=ext4,rw,noatime,noexec vdi_file_location /mnt/

Alternately you can use qemu's kernel module that can do this [attrib]:

# modprobe nbd max_part=16
# qemu-nbd -c /dev/nbd0 <storage.vdi>
# mount /dev/nbd0p1 /mnt/dir/
# # to unmount:
# umount /mnt/dir/
# qemu-nbd -d /dev/nbd0

If the partition nodes are not propagated try using partprobe /dev/nbd0; otherwise, a vdi partition can be mapped directly to a node by: qemu-nbd -P 1 -c /dev/nbd0 <storage.vdi>.

压缩磁盘映像

Compacting virtual disks only works with .vdi files and basically consists in the following steps.

Boot your virtual machine and remove all bloat manually or by using cleaning tools like bleachbit which is available for Windows systems too.

Wiping free space with zeroes can be achieved with several tools:

  • If you were previously using Bleachbit, check the checkbox System > Free disk space in the GUI, or use bleachbit -c system.free_disk_space in CLI;
  • 在 UNIX基本系统,使用 dd or preferably dcfldd (see here to learn the differences) :
# dcfldd if=/dev/zero of=/fillfile bs=4M
When fillfile reaches the limit of the partition, you will get a message like 1280 blocks (5120Mb) written.dcfldd:: No space left on device. This means that all of the user-space and non-reserved blocks of the partition will be filled with zeros. Using this command as root is important to make sure all free blocks have been overwritten. Indeed, by default, when using partitions with ext filesystem, a specified percentage of filesystem blocks is reserved for the super-user (see the -m argument in the mkfs.ext4 man pages or use tune2fs -l to see how much space is reserved for root applications).
When the aforementioned process has completed, you can remove the file fillfile you created.
  • On Windows, there are two tools available:
  • sdelete from the Sysinternals Suite, type sdelete -s -z c:, where you need to reexecute the command for each drive you have in your virtual machine;
  • or, if you love scripts, there is a PowerShell solution, but which still needs to be repeated for all drives.
PS> ./Write-ZeroesToFreeSpace.ps1 -Root c:\ -PercentFree 0
Note: This script must be run in a PowerShell environment with administrator privileges. By default, scripts cannot be run, ensure the execution policy is at least on RemoteSigned and not on Restricted. This can be checked with Get-ExecutionPolicy and the required policy can be set with Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned.

Once the free disk space have been wiped, shut down your virtual machine.

The next time you boot your virtual machine, it is recommended to do a filesystem check.

  • On UNIX-based systems, you can use fsck manually;
  • On Windows systems, you can use:
  • either chkdsk c: /F where c: needs to be replaced by each disk you need to scan and fix errors;
  • or FsckDskAll from here which is basically the same software as chkdsk, but without the need to repeat the command for all drives;

Now, remove the zeros from the vdi file with VBoxManage modifyhd:

$ VBoxManage modifyhd your_disk.vdi --compact
Note: If your virtual machine has snapshots, you need to apply the above command on each .vdi files you have.

增加虚拟磁盘

If you are running out of space due to the small hard drive size you selected when you created your virtual machine, the solution adviced by the VirtualBox manual is to use VBoxManage modifyhd. However this command only works for VDI and VHD disks and only for the dynamically allocated variants. If you want to resize a fixed size virtual disk disk too, read on this trick which works either for a Windows or UNIX-like virtual machine.

First, create a new virtual disk next to the one you want to increase:

$ VBoxManage createhd -filename new.vdi --size 10000

where size is in MiB, in this example 10000MiB ~= 10GiB, and new.vdi is name of new hard drive to be created.

Next, the old virtual disk needs to be cloned to the new one which this may take some time:

$ VBoxManage clonehd old.vdi new.vdi --existing
Note: By default, this command uses the Standard (corresponding to dynamic allocated) file format variant and thus will not use the same file format variant as your source virtual disk. If your old.vdi has a fixed size and you want to keep this variant, add the parameter --variant Fixed.

Detach the old hard drive and attach new one, replace all mandatory italic arguments by your own:

$ VBoxManage storageattach VM_name --storagectl SATA --port 0 --medium none
$ VBoxManage storageattach VM_name --storagectl SATA --port 0 --medium new.vdi --type hdd

To get the storage controller name and the port number, you can use the command VBoxManage showvminfo VM_name. Among the output you will get such a result (what you are looking for is in italic):

[...]
Storage Controller Name (0):            IDE
Storage Controller Type (0):            PIIX4
Storage Controller Instance Number (0): 0
Storage Controller Max Port Count (0):  2
Storage Controller Port Count (0):      2
Storage Controller Bootable (0):        on
Storage Controller Name (1):            SATA
Storage Controller Type (1):            IntelAhci
Storage Controller Instance Number (1): 0
Storage Controller Max Port Count (1):  30
Storage Controller Port Count (1):      1
Storage Controller Bootable (1):        on
IDE (1, 0): Empty
SATA (0, 0): /home/wget/IT/Virtual_machines/GNU_Linux_distributions/ArchLinux_x64_EFI/Snapshots/{6bb17af7-e8a2-4bbf-baac-fbba05ebd704}.vdi (UUID: 6bb17af7-e8a2-4bbf-baac-fbba05ebd704)
[...]

Download GParted live image and mount it as a virtual CD/DVD disk file, boot your virtual machine, increase/move your partitions, umount GParted live and reboot.

Note: On GPT disks, increasing the size of the disk will result in the backup GPT header not being at the end of the device. GParted will ask to fix this, click on Fix both times. On MBR disks, you do not have such a problem as this partition table as no trailer at the end of the disk.

Finally, unregister the virtual disk from VirtualBox and remove the file:

$ VBoxManage closemedium disk old.vdi
$ rm old.vdi

Increase size for VDI disks

If your disk is a vdi one, simply run:

$ VBoxManage modifyhd your_virtual_disk.vdi --resize the_new_size

Then jump back to the Gparted step, to increase the size of the partition on the virtual disk.

从.vbox文件中手动更换虚拟磁盘

If you think that editing a simple XML file is more convenient than playing with the GUI or with VBoxManage and you want to replace (or add) a virtual disk to your virtual machine, in the .vbox configuration file corresponding to your virtual machine, simply replace the GUID, the file location and the format to your needs:

ArchLinux_vm.vbox
<HardDisk uuid="{670157e5-8bd4-4f7b-8b96-9ee412a712b5}" location="ArchLinux_vm.vdi" format="VDI" type="Normal"/>

then in the <AttachedDevice> sub-tag of <StorageController>, replace the GUID by the new one.

ArchLinux_vm.vbox
<AttachedDevice type="HardDisk" port="0" device="0">
  <Image uuid="{670157e5-8bd4-4f7b-8b96-9ee412a712b5}"/>
</AttachedDevice>
Note: If you do not know the GUID of the drive you want to add, you can use the VBoxManage showhdinfo file. If you previously used VBoxManage clonehd to copy/convert your virtual disk, this command should have outputted the GUID just after the copy/conversion completed. Using a random GUID does not work, as each UUID is stored inside each disk image.

Linux主机和其他操作系统之间的转移

The information about path to harddisks and the snapshots is stored between <HardDisks> .... </HardDisks> tags in the file with the .vbox extension. You can edit them manually or use this script where you will need change only the path or use defaults, assumed that .vbox is in the same directory with a virtual harddisk and the snapshots folder. It will print out new configuration to stdout.

#!/bin/bash
NewPath="${PWD}/"
Snapshots="Snapshots/"
Filename="$1"

 awk -v SetPath="$NewPath" -v SnapPath="$Snapshots" '{if(index($0,"<HardDisk uuid=") != 0){A=$3;split(A,B,"=");
L=B[2];
 gsub(/\"/,"",L);
  sub(/^.*\//,"",L);
  sub(/^.*\\/,"",L);
 if(index($3,"{") != 0){SnapS=SnapPath}else{SnapS=""};
  print $1" "$2" location="\"SetPath SnapS L"\" "$4" "$5}
else print $0}' "$Filename"
Note:
  • If you will prepare virtual machine for use in Windows host then in the path name end you should use backslash \ instead of / .
  • The script detects snapshots by looking for { in the file name.
  • To make it run on a new host you will need to add it first to the register by clicking on Machine -> Add... or use hotkeys Ctrl+A and then browse to .vbox file that contains configuration or use command line VBoxManage registervm filename.vbox

配置

网络

VirtualBox 客户端可以通过不同的方式连接网络;其中,有#NAT#桥接链接。#NAT是最简单的且作为一个新虚拟机的默认方式。

VirtualBox手册涵盖了主机模式和内网选项。这些都被忽略了,因为在大多数情况下与操作系统无关。

NAT

在VirtualBox中:

  • 访问虚拟机的设置菜单;
  • 点击左边的网络‘’;最后,
  • 在“连接方式”的下拉列表中选择NAT

与VirtualBox捆绑的DHCP服务使得客户端系统能够与DHCP一起配置,第一张卡的NAT IP地址是 10.0.2.0,第二张是10.0.3.0,往后以此类推。

桥接

桥接网络可能被以多种方式启动;其中,有要求以较少控制为代价进行最小启动的原生方式。对于较新版本,VirtualBox可以在没有第三方工具的帮助下,在客户端和无线主机接口间进行桥接。

在继续之前,加载必要模块:

# modprobe vboxnetflt

在VirtualBox中:

  • 访问虚拟机的设置菜单;
  • 点击左边列表中的网络
  • 链接方式的下拉列表中选择Bridged Adapter(桥接适配器);最后,
  • 界面名称下拉列表中,选择客户端操作系统被包含在内,主机用于连接网络的接口。

Start the virtual machine and configure its network as usual; e.g., DHCP or static. 打开虚拟机,像往常一样配置其网络;例如 DHCP 或 static(静态网络)。

主机端和客户端之间的键盘和鼠标

  • 为了捕获键盘和鼠标,点击虚拟机内部。
  • 想要释放,按下右 Ctrl.

想要获得在主机端和客户端之间的无缝鼠标集成功能,在客户端内安装#客户端增强包

主机端和客户端间的共享文件夹

在虚拟机的设置中,找到数据空间标签,然后加入你想要共享的文件夹。

  • 注意:为了使用这个功能你需要安装客户端增强包。
在Linux主机中,设备 → 安装增强功能
确定(被要求下载CD镜像时)
挂载(被要求注册和挂载时)

In a Linux host, create one or more folders for sharing files, then set the shared folders via the virtualbox menu (guest window). 在Linux主机端中,为共享的文件创建一个或更多的文件夹,然后通过Virtualbox菜单中设置(Windows客户端)

在Windows客户端中,从VirtualBox 1.5.0开始,共享文件夹是可浏览的,所以在Windows资源管理器中是可视的。打开Windows资源管理器,在我的网络位置(My Networking Places) → 整个网络(Entire Network) → VirtualBox Shared Folders(VirtualBox共享文件夹)

启动Windows资源管理器(运行资源管理器命令),游览 网络位置(network places) -> (+)号展开: 整个网络(entire network)&rarr; VirtualBox Shared Folders(VirtualBox共享文件夹) &rarr;\\Vboxsvr → 然后你就可以在此展开所有已配置的文件夹了,并且在客户端文件系统中为Linux文件夹创建快捷方式。你也可以使用“添加网络位置向导(Add network place wizard)”找到“VBoxsvr”。

此外,在Windows命令行提示符中,你也可以使用以下命令:

net use x: \\VBOXSVR\sharename

虽然VBOXSVR是一个固定名称,但请用你所想要用于共享的盘符替代x:,用VBoxManage指定的共享名替换sharename。

在Windows客户端中,为了以VirtualBox共享文件夹改善文件的读取与保存(如MS Office),编辑c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts如下:

127.0.0.1 localhost vboxsvr

在Linux客户端中,实用以下命令:

# mount -t vboxsf [-o OPTIONS] sharename mountpoint
  (注意:共享名是任意的,或者和VirtualBox对话框中选定的一样(在主机端文件系统中共享目录的挂载点)。
自动挂载共享文件夹可以通过Linux客户端 /etc/fstab 文件来实现。你可以指定uid=#,gid=#(# 用实际的数字uid和gid替换),以便以普通用户权限(而不是root权限)来挂载共享文件夹。(这个对于为了在Linux客户端中使用而挂载主机上~/home的一部分是很有用的。为了做到这点,依照以下格式添加一个条目到Linux客户端中的/etc/fstab:
sharename mountpoint vboxsf uid=#,gid=# 0 0

用在VBoxManage中指定的共享名替换sharename,并用你想要共享的路径替换mountpoint(如 /mnt/share)。通常的挂载申请,就是说,如果还没有的话,先创建这个文件夹。注意,如果你已经让VirtualBox“自动挂载”这个共享文件夹,这一步可能就不必了,而且你的文件夹可以在/media 下找到。

除了mount命令提供的标准选项外,以下是可选的:

iocharset=CHARSET

设置用于I/O操作的字符集(默认utf8),并且:

convertcp=CHARSET

用于指定用于共享文件夹名称的字符集(默认utf8)

Clone a virtual disk and assigning a new UUID to it

UUIDs are widely used by VirtualBox. Each virtual machines and each virtual disk of a virtual machine must have a different UUID. When you launch a virtual machine in VirtualBox, the latter will keep track of all UUID of your virtual machine instance. See the VBoxManage list to list the items registered with VirtualBox.

If you cloned a virtual disk manually by copying the virtual disk file, you will need to assign a new UUID to the cloned virtual drive if you want to use the disk in the same virtual machine or even in another (if that one has already been opened, and thus registered, with VirtualBox).

You can use this command to assign a new UUID to your virtual disk:

$ VBoxManage internalcommands sethduuid /path/to/disk.vdi
Tip: In the future, to avoid copying the virtual disk and assigning a new UUID to your file manually, use VBoxManage clonehd instead.
Note: The commands above supports all virtual disk formats supported by VirtualBox.

高级配置

虚拟机管理启动

启动虚拟机服务

此后查找将用于考虑虚拟机作为服务systemd服务的实现。

/etc/systemd/system/vboxvmservice@.service
[Unit]
Description=VBox Virtual Machine %i Service
Requires=systemd-modules-load.service
After=systemd-modules-load.service

[Service]
User=username
Group=vboxusers
ExecStart=/usr/bin/VBoxHeadless -s %i
ExecStop=/usr/bin/VBoxManage controlvm %i savestate

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
Note: Replace username with a user that is a member of the vboxusers group. Make sure the user chosen is the same user that will create/import virtual machines, otherwise the user will not see the VM appliances.
Note: If you have multiple virtual machines managed by Systemd and they are not stopping properly, try to add RemainAfterExit=true and KillMode=none at the end of [Service] section.

To enable the service that will launch the virtual machine at next boot, use:

# systemctl enable vboxvmservice@your_virtual_machine_name

To start the service that will launch directly the virtual machine, use:

# systemctl start vboxvmservice@your_virtual_machine_name

VirtualBox 4.2 introduces a new way for UNIX-like systems to have virtual machines started automatically, other than using a systemd service.

启动虚拟机键盘快捷键

It can be useful to start virtual machines directly with a keyboard shortcut instead of using the VirtualBox interface (GUI or CLI). For that, you can simply define key bindings in .xbindkeysrc. Please refer to Xbindkeys for more details.

Example, using the Fn key of a laptop with an unused battery key (F3 on the computer used in this example):

"VBoxManage startvm 'Windows 7'"
m:0x0 + c:244
XF86Battery
Note: If you have a space in the name of your virtual machine, then enclose it with single apostrophes like made in the example just above.

在虚拟机中使用特定的设备

使用 USB 摄像头 / 麦克风

Note: 在遵照下列步骤前,你需要安装 VirtualBox 扩展包。详见 VirtualBox_Extras#Extension_pack
  1. 要确保没有在运行虚拟机,以及没有使用摄像头 / 麦克风。
  2. 进入VirtualBox主界面并打开Arch系统的设置界面,到USB设备页。
  3. 要确保勾选上“启用USB控制器”选项。 还要确保选择“启用USB 2.0(EHCI)控制器”选项。
  4. 点击“从设备列表中添加筛选器”按钮 (就是那个有“+”图标的连接线).
  5. 从列表中选择你的USB摄像头 / 麦克风设备。
  6. 然后再点击OK,启动你的VM
Note: If your Microphone does not show up in the "Add filter from device" menu, try the USB 3.0 and 1.1 options instead (In Step 3).

侦测摄像头和其他USB设备

Note: This will not do much if you are running a *NIX OS inside of your VM, as most do not have autodetection features.

If the device that you are looking for does not show up on any of the menus in the section above and you have tried all three USB controller options,

boot up your VM three seperate times. Once using the USB 1.1 controller, another using the USB 2.0 controller, etc. Leave the VM running for at least 5 minutes after startup. Sometimes Windows will autodetect the device for you. Be sure you filter any devices that are not a keyboard or a mouse so they do not start up at boot. This ensures that Windows will detect the device at start-up.

访问guest 服务

To access Apache server on a Virtual Machine from the host machine only, simply execute the following lines on the host:

$ VBoxManage setextradata GuestName "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/Apache/HostPort" 8888
$ VBoxManage setextradata GuestName "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/Apache/GuestPort" 80
$ VBoxManage setextradata GuestName "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcnet/0/LUN#0/Config/Apache/Protocol" TCP

Where 8888 is the port the host should listen on and 80 is the port the VM will send Apache's signal on.

To use a port lower than 1024 on the host machine, changes need to be made to the firewall on that host machine. This can also be set up to work with SSH or any other services by changing "Apache" to the corresponding service and ports.

Note: pcnet refers to the network card of the VM. If you use an Intel card in your VM settings, change pcnet to e1000.

To communicate between the VirtualBox guest and host using ssh, the server port must be forwarded under Settings > Network. When connecting from the client/host, connect to the IP address of the client/host machine, as opposed to the connection of the other machine. This is because the connection will be made over a virtual adapter.

在Windows客户端中激活D3D加速

Recent versions of Virtualbox have support for accelerating OpenGL inside guests. This can be enabled with a simple checkbox in the machine's settings, right below where video ram is set, and installing the Virtualbox guest additions. However, most Windows games use Direct3D (part of DirectX), not OpenGL, and are thus not helped by this method. However, it is possible to gain accelerated Direct3D in your Windows guests by borrowing the d3d libraries from Wine, which translate d3d calls into OpenGL, which is then accelerated. These libraries are now part of Virtualbox guest additions software.

After enabling OpenGL acceleration as described above, reboot the guest into safe mode (press F8 before the Windows screen appears but after the Virtualbox screen disappears), and install Virtualbox guest additions, during install enable checkbox "Direct3D support". Reboot back to normal mode and you should have accelerated Direct3D.

Note: This hack may or may not work for some games depending on what hardware checks they make and what parts of D3D they use.
Note: This was tested on Windows XP, 7 and 8.1. If method does not work on your Windows version please add data here.

在USB key上使用VirtualBox

When using VirtualBox on a USB key, for example to start an installed machine with an ISO image, you will manually have to create VDMKs from the existing drives. However, once the new VMDKs are saved and you move on to another machine, you may experience problems launching an appropriate machine again. To get rid of this issue, you can use the following script to launch VirtualBox. This script will clean up and unregister old VMDK files and it will create new, proper VMDKs for you:

#!/bin/bash

# Erase old VMDK entries
rm ~/.VirtualBox/*.vmdk

# Clean up VBox-Registry
sed -i '/sd/d' ~/.VirtualBox/VirtualBox.xml

# Remove old harddisks from existing machines
find ~/.VirtualBox/Machines -name \*.xml | while read file; do
  line=`grep -e "type\=\"HardDisk\"" -n $file | cut -d ':' -f 1`
  if [ -n "$line" ]; then
    sed -i ${line}d $file
    sed -i ${line}d $file
    sed -i ${line}d $file
  fi
  sed -i "/rg/d" $file
done

# Delete prev-files created by VirtualBox
find  ~/.VirtualBox/Machines -name \*-prev -exec rm '{}' \;

# Recreate VMDKs
ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid | cut -d ' ' -f 9,11 | while read ln; do
  if [ -n "$ln" ]; then
    uuid=`echo "$ln" | cut -d ' ' -f 1`
    device=`echo "$ln" | cut -d ' ' -f 2 | cut -d '/' -f 3 | cut -b 1-3`

    # determine whether drive is mounted already
    checkstr1=`mount | grep $uuid`
    checkstr2=`mount | grep $device`
    checkstr3=`ls ~/.VirtualBox/*.vmdk | grep $device`
    if [[ -z "$checkstr1" && -z "$checkstr2" && -z "$checkstr3" ]]; then
      VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename ~/.VirtualBox/$device.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/$device -register
    fi
  fi
done

# Start VirtualBox
VirtualBox

Note that your user has to be added to the "disk" group to create VMDKs out of existing drives.

Run a native Arch Linux installation inside VirtualBox

If you have a dual boot system between Arch Linux and another operating system, it can become rapidly tedious to switch back and forth if you need to work in both. Also, by using virtual machines, you just have a tiny fragment of your computer power, which can cause issues when working on projects requiring performance.

This guide will let you reuse, in a virtual machine, your native Arch Linux installation when you are running your second operating system. This way, you keep the ability to run each operating system natively, but have the option to run your Arch Linux installation inside a virtual machine.

Make sure you have a persistent naming scheme

Depending on your hard drive setup, device files representing your hard drives may appear differently when you will run your Arch Linux installation natively or in virtual machine. This problem occurs when using FakeRAID for example. The fake RAID device will be mapped in /dev/mapper/ when you run your GNU/Linux distribution natively, while the devices are still accessible separately. However, in your virtual machine, it can appear without any mapping in /dev/sdaX for example, because the drivers controlling the fake RAID in your host operating system (e.g. Windows) are abstracting the fake RAID device.

To circumvent this problem, we will need to use an addressing scheme that is persistent to both systems. This can be achieved using UUIDs. Make sure your boot loader and fstab file is using UUIDs, otherwise fix this issue. Read fstab and Persistent block device naming.

Warning:
  • Make sure your host partition is only accessible in read only from your Arch Linux virtual machine, this will avoid risk of corruptions if you were to corrupt that host partition by writing on it due to lack of attention.
  • You should NEVER allow VirtualBox to boot from the entry of your second operating system, which, as a reminder, is used as the host for this virtual machine! Take thus a special care especially if your default boot loader/boot manager entry is your other operating system. Give a more important timeout or put it below in the order of preferences.

Make sure your mkinitcpio image is correct

Make sure your mkinitcpio configuration uses the HOOK block:

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf
[...]
HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block filesystems keyboard fsck"
[...]

If it is not present, add it and regenerate your initramfs:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Create a VM configuration to boot from the physical drive

创建一个原始只读磁盘的.vmdk映像

Now, we need to create a new virtual machine which will use a RAW disk as virtual drive, for that we will use a ~ 1Kio VMDK file which will be mapped to a physical disk. Unfortunately, VirtualBox does not have this option in the GUI, so we will have to use the console and use an internal command of VBoxManage.

Boot the host which will use the Arch Linux virtual machine. The command will need to be adapted according to the host you have.

On a GNU/Linux host

There is 3 ways to achieve this: login as root, changing the access right of the device with chmod, adding your user to the disk group. The latter way is the more elegant, let us proceed that way:

# gpasswd -a your_user disk

Apply the new group settings with:

$ newgrp

Now, you can use the command:

$ VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename /path/to/file.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/sdb -register 

Adapt the above command to your need, especially the path and filename of the VMDK location and the raw disk location to map which contain your Arch Linux installation.

On a Windows host
Open a command prompt must be run as administrator.
Tip: On Windows, open your start menu/start screen, type cmd, and type Ctrl+Shift+Enter, this is a shortcut to execute the selected program with admin rights.
On Windows, as the disk filename convention is different from UNIX, use this command to determine what drives you have in your Windows system and their location:
# wmic diskdrive get name,size,model
Model                               Name                Size
WDC WD40EZRX-00SPEB0 ATA Device     \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE1  4000783933440
KINGSTON SVP100S296G ATA Device     \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE0  96024821760
Hitachi HDT721010SLA360 ATA Device  \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE2  1000202273280
Innostor Ext. HDD USB Device        \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE3  1000202273280

In this example, as the Windows convention is \\.\PhysicalDriveX where X is a number from 0, \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE1 could be analogous to /dev/sdb from the Linux disk terminology.

To use the VBoxManage command on Windows, you can either, change the current directory to your VirtualBox installation folder first with cd C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\

# .\VBoxManage.exe internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename C:\file.vmdk -rawdisk \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE1

or use the absolute path name:

# "C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\VBoxManage.exe" internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename C:\file.vmdk -rawdisk \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE1
On another OS host

There are other limitations regarding the aforementioned command when used in other operating systems like OS X, please thus read carefully the manual page, if you are concerned.

创建虚拟机配置文件
Note:
  • To make use of the VBoxManage command on Windows, you need to change the current directory to your VirtualBox installation folder first: cd C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox\.
  • Windows makes use of backslashes instead of slashes, please replace all slashes / occurrences by backslashes \ in the commands that follow when you will use them.

After, we need to create a new machine (replace the VM_name to your convenience) and register it with VirtualBox.

$ VBoxManage createvm -name VM_name -register

Then, the newly raw disk needs to be attached to the machine. This will depend if your computer or actually the root of your native Arch Linux installation is on an IDE or a SATA controller.

If you need an IDE controller:

$ VBoxManage storagectl VM_name --name "IDE Controller" --add ide
$ VBoxManage storageattach VM_name --storagectl "IDE Controller" --port 0 --device 0 --type hdd --medium /path/to/file.vmdk

otherwise:

$ VBoxManage storagectl VM_name --name "SATA Controller" --add sata
$ VBoxManage storageattach VM_name --storagectl "SATA Controller" --port 0 --device 0 --type hdd --medium /path/to/file.vmdk

While you continue using the CLI, it is recommended to use the VirtualBox GUI, to personalise the virtual machine configuration. Indeed, you must specify its hardware configuration as close as possible as your native machine: turning on the 3D acceleration, increasing video memory, setting the network interface, etc.

Finally, you may want to seamlessly integrate your Arch Linux with your host operating system and allow copy pasting between both OSes. Please refer to #Install the Guest Additions for that, since this Arch Linux virtual machine is basically an Arch Linux guest.

Warning: For Xorg to work in natively and in the virtual machine, since obviously it will be using different drivers, it is best if there is no /etc/X11/xorg.conf, so Xorg will pick up everything it needs on the fly. However, if you really do need your own Xorg configuration, maybe is it worth to set your default systemd target to multi-user.target with systemctl isolate graphical.target as root (more details at Systemd#Targets table and Systemd#Change current target). In that way, the graphical interface is disabled (i.e. Xorg is not launched) and after you logged in, you can startx} manually with a custom xorg.conf.

安装VirtualBox的本地Arch Linux系统

In some cases it may be useful to install a native Arch Linux system while running another operating system: one way to accomplish this is to perform the installation through VirtualBox on a raw disk. If the existing operating system is Linux based, you may want to consider following Install from Existing Linux instead.

This scenario is very similar to #Run a native Arch Linux installation inside VirtualBox, but will follow those steps in a different order: start by #Create a raw disk .vmdk image, then #Create the VM configuration file.

Now, you should have a working VM configuration whose virtual VMDK disk is tied to a real disk. The installation process is exactly the same as the steps described in #Installation steps for Arch Linux guests, but #Make sure you have a persistent naming scheme and #Make sure your mkinitcpio image is correct.

Warning:
  • For BIOS systems and MBR disks, do not install a bootloader inside your virtual machine, this will not work since the MBR is not linked to the MBR of your real machine and your virtual disk is only mapped to a real partition without the MBR.
  • For UEFI systems without CSM and GPT disks, the installation will not work at all since:
  • the ESP partition is not mapped to your virtual disk and Arch Linux requires to have the Linux kernel on it to boot as an EFI application (see EFISTUB for details);
  • and the efivars, if you are installing Arch Linux using the EFI mode brought by VirtualBox, are not the one of your real system: the bootmanager entries will hence not be registered.
  • This is why, it is recommended to create your partitions in a native installation first, otherwize the partitions will not be taken into consideration in your MBR/GPT partition table.

After completing the installation, boot your computer natively with an GNU/Linux installation media (whether it be Arch Linux or not), chroot into your installed Arch Linux installation and #Install and configure a bootloader.

将本机Windows安装到虚拟机

If you want to migrate an existing native Windows installation to a virtual machine which will be used with VirtualBox on GNU/Linux, this use case is for you. This section only covers native Windows installation using the MSDOS/Intel partition scheme. Your Windows installation must reside on the first MBR partition for this operation to success. Operation for other partitions are available but have been untested (see #Known limitations for details).

Warning: If you are using an OEM version of Windows, this process is unauthorized by the end user license license. Indeed, the OEM license typically states the Windows install is tied with the hardware together. Transferring a Windows install to a virtual machine removes this link. Make thus sure you have a full Windows install or a volume license model before continuing. If you have a full Windows license but the latter is not coming in volume, nor as a special license for several PCs, this means you will have to remove the native installation after the transfer operation has been achieved.

A couple of tasks are required to be done inside your native Windows installation first, then on your GNU/Linux host.

Tasks on Windows

The first three following points comes from this outdated VirtualBox wiki page, but are updated here.

  • Remove IDE/ATA controllers checks (Windows XP only): Windows memorize the IDE/ATA drive controllers it has been installed on and will not boot if it detects these have changed. The solution proposed by Microsoft is to reuse the same controller or use one of the same serial, which is impossible to achieve since we are using a Virtual Machine. MergeIDE, a German tool, developped upon another other solution proposed by Microsoft can be used. That solution basically consists in taking all IDE/ATA controller drivers supported by Windows XP from the initial driver archive (the location is hard coded, or specify it as the first argument to the .bat script), installing them and registering them with the regedit database.
  • Use the right type of Hardware Abstraction Layer (old 32 bits Windows versions): Microsoft ships 3 default versions: Hal.dll (Standard PC), Halacpi.dll (ACPI HAL) and Halaacpi.dll (ACPI HAL with IO APIC). Your Windows install could come installed with the first or the second version. In that way, please disable the Enable IO/APIC VirtualBox extended feature.
  • Disable any AGP device driver (only outdated Windows versions): If you have the files agp440.sys or intelppm.sys inside the C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\drivers\ directory, remove it. As VirtualBox uses a PCI virtual graphic card, this can cause problems when this AGP driver is used.
  • Create a Windows recovery disk: In the following steps, if things turn bad, you will need to repair your Windows installation. Make sure you have an install media at hand, or create one with Create a recovery disk from Vista SP1, Create a system repair disc on Windows 7 or Create a recovery drive on Windows 8.x).

Using Disk2vhd to clone Windows partition

Boot into Windows, clean up the installation (with CCleaner for example), use disk2vhd tool to create a VHD image. Include a reserved system partition (if present) and the actual Windows partition (usually disk C:). The size of Disk2vhd-created image will be the sum of the actual files on the partition (used space), not the size of a whole partition. If all goes well, the image should just boot in a VM and you won't have to go through the hassle with MBR and Windows bootloader, as in the case of cloning an entire partition.

Tasks on GNU/Linux

Tip: Skip the partition-related parts if you created VHD image with Disk2vhd.
  • Reduce the native Windows partition size to the size Windows actually needs with ntfsresize available from ntfs-3g. The size you will specify will be the same size of the VDI that will be created in the next step. If this size is too low, you may break your Windows install and the latter might not boot at all.
Use the --no-action option first to run a test:
# ntfsresize --no-action --size 52Gi /dev/sda1
If only the previous test succeeded, execute this command again, but this time without the aforementioned test flag.
  • Create the Windows disk image from the beginning of the drive to the end of the first partition where is located your Windows installation. Copying from the beginning of the disk is necessary because the MBR space at the beginning of the drive needs to be on the virtual drive along with the Windows partition. In this example two following partitions sda2 and sda3will be later removed from the partition table and the MBR bootloader will be updated.
# sectnum=$(( $(cat /sys/block/''sda/sda1''/start) + $(cat /sys/block/''sda/sda1''/size) ))
Using cat /sys/block/sda/sda1/size will output the number of total sectors of the first partition of the disk sda. Adapt where necessary.
# dd if=''/dev/sda'' bs=512 count=$sectnum | VBoxManage convertfromraw stdin ''windows.vdi'' $(( $sectnum * 512 ))
We need to display the size in byte, $(( $sectnum * 512 )) will convert the sector numbers to bytes.
  • Since you created your disk image as root, set the right ownership to the virtual disk image:
    # chown your_user:your_group windows.vdi
  • Create your virtual machine configuration file and use the virtual disk created previously as the main virtual hard disk.
  • Try to boot your Windows VM, it may just work. First though remove and repair disks from the boot process as it may interfere (and likely will) booting into safe-mode.
  • Attempt to boot your Windows virtual machine in safe mode (press the F8 key before the Windows logo shows up)... if running into boot issues, read #Fix MBR and Microsoft bootloader. In safe-mode, drivers will be installed likely by the Windows plug-and-play detection mechanism view. Additionally, install the VirtualBox Guest Additions via the menu Devices > Insert Guest Additions CD image.... If a new disk dialog does not appear, navigate to the CD drive and start the installer manually.
  • You should finally have a working Windows virtual machine. Do not forget to read the #Known limitations.
  • Performance tip: according to VirtualBox manual, SATA controller has a better performance than IDE. If you can't boot Windows off virtual SATA controller right away, it is probably due to the lack of SATA drivers. Attach virtual disk to IDE controller, create an empty SATA controller and boot the VM - Windows should automatically install SATA drivers for the controller. You can then shutdown VM, detach virtual disk from IDE controller and attach it to SATA controller instead.

修复MBR和Microsoft引导

如果您的Windows虚拟机拒绝引导, 你可能需要修复你的虚拟机.

  • Boot a GNU/Live live distribution inside your virtual machine before Windows starts up.
  • Remove other partitions entries from the virtual disk MBR. Indeed, since we copied the MBR and only the Windows partition, the entries of the other partitions are still present in the MBR, but the partitions are not available anymore. Use fdisk to achieve this for example.
fdisk ''/dev/sda''
Command (m for help): a
Partition number (''1-3'', default ''3''): ''1''
  • Write the updated partition table to the disk (this will recreate the MBR) using the m command inside fdisk.
# testdisk > Disk /dev/sda...' > [Proceed] >  [Intel] Intel/PC partition > [MBR Code] Write TestDisk MBR to first sector > Write a new copy of MBR code to first sector? (Y/n) > Y > Write a new copy of MBR code, confirm? (Y/N) > A new copy of MBR code has been written. You have to reboot for the change to take effect. > [OK]
  • With the new MBR and updated partition table, your Windows virtual machine should be able to boot. If you are still encountering issues, boot your Windows recovery disk from on of the previous step, and inside your Windows RE environment, execute the commands described here.

已知的限制

  • Your virtual machine can sometimes hang and overrun your RAM, this can be caused by conflicting drivers still installed inside your Windows virtual machine. Good luck to find them!
  • Additional software expecting a given driver beneath may either not be disabled/uninstalled or needs to be uninstalled first as the drivers that are no longer available.
  • Your Windows installation must reside on the first partition for the above process to work. If this requirement is not met, the process might be achieved too, but this had not been tested. This will require either copying the MBR and editing in hexadecimal see VirtualBox: booting cloned disk or will require to fix the partition table manually or by repairing Windows with the recovery disk you created in a previous step. Let us consider our Windows installation on the second partition; we will copy the MBR, then the second partition where to the disk image. VBoxManage convertfromraw needs the total number of bytes that will be written: calculated thanks to the size of the MBR (the start of the first partition) plus the size of the second (Windows) partition. { dd if=/dev/sda bs=512 count=$(cat /sys/block/sda/sda1/start) ; dd if=/dev/sda2 bs=512 count=$(cat /sys/block/sda/sda2/size) ; } | VBoxManage convertfromraw stdin windows.vdi $(( ($(cat /sys/block/sda/sda1/start) + $(cat /sys/block/sda/sda2/size)) * 512 )).

故障排除

modprobe Exec 格式错误

确认你使用的是最新系统:

pacman -Syu

VERR_ACCESS_DENIED

To access the raw vmdk image on a windows host, run the VirtualBox GUI as administrator.

pacstrap script fails

If you used pacstrap in the #Installation steps for Arch Linux guests to also #Install the Guest Additions before performing a first boot into the new guest, you will need to umount -l /mnt/dev as root before using pacstrap again; a failure to do this will render it unusable.

键盘和鼠标都在我的虚拟机

This means your virtual machine has captured the input of your keyboard and your mouse. Simply press the right Ctrl key and your input should control your host again.

To control transparently your virtual machine with your mouse going back and forth your host, without having to press any key, and thus have a seamless integration, install the guest additions inside the guest. Read from the #Install the Guest Additions step if you guest is Arch Linux, otherwise read the official VirtualBox help.

无法发送CTRL + ALT+ Fn键到我的虚拟机

Your guest operating system is a GNU/Linux distribution and you want to open a new TTY shell by hitting Ctrl+Alt+F2 or exit your current X session with Ctrl+Alt+Backspace. If you type these keyboard shortcuts without any adaptation, the guest will not receive any input and the host (if it is a GNU/Linux distribution too) will intercept these shortcut keys. To send Ctrl+Alt+F2 to the guest for example, simply hit your Host Key (usually the right Ctrl key) and press F2 simultaneously.

解决ISO映像问题

While VirtualBox can mount ISO images without problem, there are some image formats which cannot reliably be converted to ISO. For instance, ccd2iso ignores .ccd and .sub files, which can give disk images with broken files.

In this case, you will either have to use CDEmu for Linux inside VirtualBox or any other utility used to mount disk images.

VirtualBox的GUI没有应用我的GTK主题

See Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications for information about theming Qt based applications like Virtualbox.

OpenBSD系统无法使用时,虚拟化指令不可用

While OpenBSD is reported to work fine on other hypervisors without virtualisation instructions (VT-x AMD-V) enabled, an OpenBSD virtual machine running on VirtualBox without these instructions will be unusable, manifesting with a bunch of segmentation faults. Starting VirtualBox with the -norawr0 argument may solve the problem. You can do it like this:

$ VBoxSDL -norawr0 -vm name_of_OpenBSD_VM

VBOX_E_INVALID_OBJECT_STATE (0x80BB0007)

这种情形可能会在虚拟机没有正常退出时发生,解除锁定虚拟机并不难:

$ VBoxManage controlvm virtual_machine_name poweroff

USB 子系统在宿主机和虚拟机没有作用

Your user must be in the vboxusers group, and you need to install the extension pack if you want USB 2 support. Then you will be able to enable USB 2 in the VM settings and add one or several filters for the devices you want to access from the guest OS.

Sometimes, on old Linux hosts, the USB subsystem is not auto-detected resulting in an error Could not load the Host USB Proxy service: VERR_NOT_FOUND or in a not visible USB drive on the host, even when the user is in the vboxusers group. This problem is due to the fact that VirtualBox switched from usbfs to sysfs in version 3.0.8. If the host does not understand this change, you can revert to the old behaviour by defining the following environment variable in any file that is sourced by your shell (e.g. your ~/.bashrc if you are using bash):

~/.bashrc
VBOX_USB=usbfs

Then make sure, the environment has been made aware of this change (reconnect, source the file manually, launch a new shell instance or reboot).

Also make sure that your user is a member of the storage group.

主机模式网络接口创建失败

Make sure all required kernel modules are loaded. See #Load the VirtualBox kernel modules.

To be able to create a Host-Only Network Adapter or a Bridged Network Adapter the kernel modules vboxnetadp and vboxnetflt need to be loaded, you also need to make sure the net-tools package is installed. It's possible to load these kernel modules manually with

# modprobe -a vboxnetadp vboxnetflt

若要开机自动加载,每个模块添加一行到 /etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf:

vboxdrv
vboxnetadp
vboxnetflt
Note: 以前这些都要添加到 /etc/rc.confMODULES 数组,现此方法已过时。

更多信息请看这个主题。

WinXP: 位深不能大于 16

若你运行于 16 位色深,图标可能看起来糊糊的。但是当你试图调到更高色深,系统可能会受限于较低的分辨率,甚至根本不允许更改色深。若要修正此问题,运行 regedit 并添加下列键值到虚拟 XP 注册表:

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows NT\Terminal Services]
"ColorDepth"=dword:00000004

接著在桌面属性窗口改变色深。若没有反应,可透过一些方法强制屏幕重绘 (按下 Host+F 重绘/进入全屏)。

虚拟系统使用串行端口

确认你的串行端口权限

$ /bin/ls -l /dev/ttyS*
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp 4, 64 Feb  3 09:12 /dev/ttyS0
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp 4, 65 Feb  3 09:12 /dev/ttyS1
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp 4, 66 Feb  3 09:12 /dev/ttyS2
crw-rw---- 1 root uucp 4, 67 Feb  3 09:12 /dev/ttyS3

添加你的用户到 uucp 组。

# gpasswd -a $USER uucp 

然后重新登陆。

Windows 8.x Error Code 0x000000C4

If you get this error code while booting, even if you choose OS Type Win 8, try to enable the CMPXCHG16B CPU instruction:

$ vboxmanage setextradata virtual_machine_name VBoxInternal/CPUM/CMPXCHG16B 1

Windows 8, 8.1 or 10 fails to install, boot or has error "ERR_DISK_FULL"

Update the VM's settings by going to Settings > Storage > Controller:SATA and check "Use Host I/O Cache".

Linux guests have slow/distorted audio

The AC97 audio driver within the Linux kernel occasionally guesses the wrong clock settings when running inside Virtual Box, leading to audio that is either too slow or too fast. To fix this, create a file in /etc/modprobe.d with the following line:

options snd-intel8x0 ac97_clock=48000

客户端启动后的Xorg死机

Faulty or missing drivers may cause the guest to freeze after starting Xorg, see for example [5] and [6]. Try disabling 3D acceleration in Settings > Display, and check if all Xorg drivers are installed.

"NS_ERROR_FAILURE" and missing menu items

If you encounter this message when first time starting the virtual machine:

Failed to open a session for the virtual machine debian.
Could not open the medium '/home/.../VirtualBox VMs/debian/debian.qcow'.
QCow: Reading the L1 table for image '/home/.../VirtualBox VMs/debian/debian.qcow' failed (VERR_EOF).
VD: error VERR_EOF opening image file '/home/.../VirtualBox VMs/debian/debian.qcow' (VERR_EOF).

Result Code: 
NS_ERROR_FAILURE (0x80004005)
Component: 
Medium

Exit VirtualBox, delete all files of the new machine and from virtualbox config file remove the last line in MachineRegistry menu (or the offending machine you are creating):

~/.config/VirtualBox/VirtualBox.xml
...
<MachineRegistry>
  <MachineEntry uuid="{00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}" src="/home/void/VirtualBox VMs/debian/debian.vbox"/>
  <MachineEntry uuid="{00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}" src="/home/void/VirtualBox VMs/ubuntu/ubuntu.vbox"/>
  <MachineEntry uuid="{00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000}" src="/home/void/VirtualBox VMs/lastvmcausingproblems/lastvmcausingproblems.qcow"/>
</MachineRegistry>
...

This happens sometimes when selecting QCOW/QCOW2/QED disk format when creating a new virutal disk.

USB modem

If you have a USB modem which is being used by the guest OS, killing the guest OS can cause the modem to become unusable by the host system. Killing and restarting VBoxSVC should fix this problem.

"The specified path does not exist. Check the path and then try again." error in Windows guests

This error message often appears when running an .exe file which requires administrator priviliges from a shared folder in windows guests. See the bug report for details.

There are several workarounds:

  1. Disable UAC from Control Panel -> Action Center -> "Change User Account Control settings" from left side pane -> set slider to "Never notify" -> OK and reboot
  2. Copy the file from the shared folder to the guest and run from there

Other threads on the internet suggest to add VBOXSVR to the list of trusted sites, but this doesn't work with Windows 7 or newer.

挂载失败导致的啟动问题

若你在内核升级后 systemd 设定遇到问题,你应该透过 init=/bin/bash 开啟系统 (如果应急 shell 对你没有作用)。

root=/dev/mapper/vg_main-lv_root ro vga=792 resume=/dev/mapper/vg_main-lv_swap init=/bin/bash

接著附加写入权限挂载 root-文件系统:

# mount / -o remount,rw

根据 #Arch Linux 客户机共享文件夹 更改 /etc/fstab]],然后在 Bash shell 运行 systemd:

# exec /bin/systemd

复制和粘贴在 Arch Linux 客户机没有作用

Since updating virtualbox-guest-additions to version 4.2.0-2 copy&paste from Host OS to Arch Linux Guest stopped working. It seems to be due to VBoxClient-all requiring root access. In previous versions adding VBoxClient-all & to ~/.xinitrc was sufficient to make copy&paste work. Update ~/.xinitrc to match sudo VBoxClient-all & and add the line , NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/VBoxClient-all to your username in the sudoers file and restart X. It should all work again. The line in the sudoers file should look similar to this:

 # Allow sudo for user 'you' and let him run VBoxClient-all without requiring a password
 you ALL = PASSWD: ALL, NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/VBoxClient-all
Note: 使用 visudo 编辑 sudoer 文件,这会在存储时检查语法错误。

唤醒后异常

有个已知臭虫导致唤醒后异常: https://www.virtualbox.org/ticket/11289。避开的方法很简单: 每次都按 Host+q 或菜单关闭虚拟机。

Btrfs 系统镜像

In 2010 there were reports that OS disk images would not start if they were attached via a virtual SATA device. It was reportedly fixed, and seemed to be. But as of around March 2013, that particular bug report has been repoened. This can be fixed by enabling the use of the host I/O cache, which is disabled by default with virtual SATA interfaces.

vagrant 啟动问题

在最新版的 VirtualBox(4.2.14-1),运行 vagrant up 命令伴随以下错误:

Command: ["import",
"/Users/username/.vagrant.d/boxes/precise32/virtualbox/box.ovf"]
Stderr: 0%...10%...20%...30%...40%...50%...60%...70%...80%...90%...100%
Interpreting
/Users/username/.vagrant.d/boxes/precise32/virtualbox/box.ovf...
OK.
0%...
Progress object failure: NS_ERROR_CALL_FAILED

这个修正释出前,你需要使用其它方法解决,或是将 VirtualBox 降级。

有个临时的解决方法是在 ~/.vagrant.d/boxes/BoxName/virtualbox 為每个 box 创建 manifest:

openssl sha1 *.vmdk *.ovf > box.mf

你可以降级 VirtualBox。若你的缓存有旧的软件包,可以透过下列命令降级:

sudo pacman -U /var/cache/pacman/pkg/virtualbox-4.2.12-3-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

这个错误似乎同时出现在所有平台: http://www.marshut.com/pzisi/progress-object-failure-ns-error-call-failed-when-running-vagrant-up-in-getting-started-guide.html#qhihz

It's unclean for the moment. It could be regression inside Virtualbox or a issue inside Vagrant. When you delete the cache you can downgrade via ArchLinux downgrader (I did not test it correctly, but I assume this works, else check the wiki page for downgrading: Downgrading packages

更多信息请到 GitHub issue 页面查看 Clean install on OS X 10.8.4 w/ latest VirtualBox not working

根据 Vagrant creator on Twitter,这是 VirtualBox 的臭虫。在 2013 年 06 月 25 日,他说他们在 SVN 修正此臭虫,并且正在等待释出。同时,我可以确认这是跨平台的问题,4.2.14 在我的 Win7 上面是坏的。

这个问题在 virtualbox-4.2.16-1 这份 VirtualBox 版本释出时已解决

没有64位客户端选项

When launching a VM client, and no 64-bit options are available, make sure your CPU virtualization capabilities (usually named VT-x) are enabled in the BIOS.

主机上的虚拟机启动操作系统死机

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Needs a link to a bug report; vague expressions like "currently" and "at the moment of writing" are of no help. (Discuss in Talk:VirtualBox (简体中文)#)

Possible causes/solutions :

  • SMAP

This is a known incompatiblity with SMAP enabled kernels affecting (mostly) Intel Broadwell chipsets. The matter is currently being investigated, with a wide variety of WIP vboxhost module patches out in the wild that are meant to solve the issue. At the moment of writing though, the only 100% guaranteed solution to this problem is disabling SMAP support in your kernel by appending the "nosmap" option to your kernel boot command line.

  • Hardware Virtualisation

Disabling hardware virtualisation (VT-x/AMD-V) may solve the problem.

  • Various Kernel bugs
    • Fuse mounted partitions (like ntfs) [7], [8]

Generally, such issues are observed after upgrading VirtualBox or linux kernel. Downgrading them to the previous versions of theirs might solve the problem.

The virtual machine has terminated unexpectedly during startup with exit code 1 (0x1)

When trying to launch a virtual machine, an error message like the following appears:

The virtual machine has terminated unexpectedly during startup with exit code 1 (0x1)
NS_ERROR_FAILURE 0x80004005
Component: MachineWrap
Interface: IMachine

This may occur after upgrading the virtualbox or virtualbox-host-modules package. Try reloading the vboxdrv module:

# modprobe -r vboxdrv
# modprobe vboxdrv

Analog microphone not working in guest

If the audio input from an analog microphone is working correctly on the host, but no sound seems to get through to the guest, despite the microphone device apparently being detected normally, installing a sound server such as PulseAudio on the host might fix the problem.

Fullscreen mode shows blank guest screen

On some window managers (i3), VirtualBox has issues with fullscreen mode properly due to the overlay bar. To workaround this issue, disable "Show in Full-screen/Seamless" option in "Guest Settings --> User Interface --> Mini ToolBar". See the upstream bug report for more information.

参阅