Xorg (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Xorg翻译,最后翻译时间:2017-10-13,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

摘自 http://www.x.org/wiki/:

X.Org 项目提供了 X 窗口系统的开源实现。开发工作实在 freedesktop.org 社区的通力合作下完成。X.Org 组织是非盈利教育机构。

Xorg 在 Linux 用户中非常流行,已经成为图形用户程序的必备条件,所以大部分发行版都提供了它。详情参见 Xorg 维基文章或访问Xorg 网站

安装

安装 软件包 xorg-server

此外,xorg-apps 组提供了一些程序以完成某些特定的配置工作。

软件包组 xorg 包含了 Xorg server,xorg-apps 中的软件包以及字体.

提示: 用户通常需要选择安装某个 窗口管理器桌面环境以配合使用 X。

驱动安装

Linux 内核包含了开源的视频驱动,支持硬件加速。OpenGL 和 X11 的 2D 加速需要用户空间工具。

执行如下命令查询显卡类型:

$ lspci | grep -e VGA -e 3D

安装对应的驱动,输入下面命令,查看所有开源驱动:

$ pacman -Ss xf86-video

Xorg 会自动搜索安装的驱动:

  • 如果无法找到设备在下表中列出的驱动,会首先查看是否安装了 fbdev (xf86-video-fbdev).
  • 如果依然没有找到,会搜索 vesa (xf86-video-vesa), 这是一个支持大部分显卡的通用驱动,不提供任何 2D 和 3D 加速功能。
  • 如果没有找到 vesa,Xorg 会使用 kernel mode setting, 这个驱动提供了 GLAMOR 加速 (参考 modesetting(4)).

要充分发挥显卡性能,请按下表安装驱动程序。推荐先使用开源驱动,这些驱动出问题的可能性较小。

厂商 类型 驱动 OpenGL OpenGL (Multilib) 文档
AMD/
ATI
开源 xf86-video-amdgpu mesa lib32-mesa AMDGPU
xf86-video-ati ATI
非开源 catalystAUR catalyst-libglAUR lib32-catalyst-libglAUR AMD Catalyst
Intel 开源 xf86-video-intel mesa lib32-mesa Intel graphics
Nvidia 开源 xf86-video-nouveau mesa lib32-mesa Nouveau
非开源 nvidia nvidia-utils lib32-nvidia-utils NVIDIA
nvidia-340xx nvidia-340xx-utils lib32-nvidia-340xx-utils
nvidia-304xx nvidia-304xx-utils lib32-nvidia-304xx-utils

对于同时使用集成显卡和独立显卡的 NVIDIA Optimus 笔记本,请参考 NVIDIA OptimusBumblebee.

其它驱动也都位于 xorg-drivers 软件包组中.

AMD

GPU 架构 Radeon 显卡 开源驱动 非开源驱动
GCN 4
and newer
various AMDGPU AMDGPU PRO
GCN 3 AMDGPU Catalyst /
AMDGPU PRO
GCN 2* AMDGPU / ATI Catalyst
GCN 1* AMDGPU / ATI Catalyst
TeraScale 2&3 HD 5000 - HD 6000 ATI Catalyst
TeraScale 1 HD 2000 - HD 4000 Catalyst legacy
Older X1000 and older 不支持
*: AMDGPU 实验支持

运行

显示管理器

最简单的方法是使用 显示管理器,这样就不需要额外的安装和配置。

手动

如果不用登陆管理器启动 X,请参考 xinit (简体中文)

配置

Note: Arch 提供了位于 /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d 的默认配置文件。通常情况下,用户无需进行额外的配置与修改即可正常使用。

Xorg 可以通过 /etc/X11/xorg.conf/etc/xorg.conf 和位于 /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ 的配置文件配置。。完整的说明可用通过这里 或执行 xorg.conf(5) 获得.

此外,显卡驱动可能提供了自动配置工具,例如 NVIDIA 提供了 nvidia-xconfig,ATI 提供了 aticonfig

使用 .conf 文件

/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/ 目录保存主机特有设置,用户可以创建自己的配置文件,需要以 XX- 开头(XX 是数字)并以.conf 结尾(例如 10 在 20 之前读取).X 服务器启动是会解析这些文件,将其视为 xorg.conf 的一部分进行处理。如果配置之间有冲突,将会使用最后被处理的文件。所以通用的设置应该放到前面。最后会解析 xorg.conf 文件。

设置请参考 fedora wiki.

使用 xorg.conf

可用通过 /etc/X11/xorg.conf/etc/xorg.conf 配置 Xorg,用下面命令可用生成 xorg.conf 模板:

# Xorg :0 -configure

执行后会在 /root/ 生成 xorg.conf.new 文件。

Tip: 如果以及运行了 X 服务器,请使用不同的 display,例如 Xorg :2 -configure.

显卡的专有驱动可能也提供了自动配置 Xorg 的工具,详情请参考 NVIDIAAMD Catalyst

Note: 配置文件关键字是大小写敏感的,"_" 字符会被忽略。配置,包括选项名也是大小写敏感的,会自动忽略空白和 "_"。

输入设备

X 服务器默认使用 libinput 驱动(xf86-input-libinput) 处理输入设备,xf86-input-evdev 和相关驱动是后备方案[1]

udevevdev 可以用作绝大部分设备的即插即用驱动。Udev 由 systemd 通过 xorg-server提供,所以不需要显式安装。

Udev 是 systemd 的依赖,会自动检测硬件,使用 evdev 或 libinput 处理设备的输入。配置文件是 /usr/share/X11/xorg.conf.d/ 中的 10-evdev.conf40-libinput.conf

启动 X Server 时,日志文件会记录所使用的输入驱动:

$ grep -e "Using input driver " Xorg.0.log

如果两个驱动都不支持您的设备, 请从xorg-drivers 组安装需要的驱动程序.

更详细的信息,请参考 libinputFedora wiki

显示器设置

开始

注意: 新的 Xorg 版本会自动配置显示器,无需额外配置。

首先,创建一个新的配置文件,例如/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-monitor.conf

将下列代码加入到上述配置文件中:

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier    "Monitor0"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier    "Device0"
    Driver        "vesa" #Choose the driver used for this monitor
EndSection

Section "Screen"
    Identifier    "Screen0"  #Collapse Monitor and Device section to Screen section
    Device        "Device0"
    Monitor       "Monitor0"
    DefaultDepth  16 #Choose the depth (16||24)
    SubSection "Display"
        Depth     16
        Modes     "1024x768_75.00" #Choose the resolution
    EndSubSection
EndSection
Note: By default, Xorg needs to be able to detect a monitor and will not start otherwise. A workaround is to create a configuration file such as the example above and thus avoid auto-configuring. A common case where this is necessary is a headless system, which boots without a monitor and starts Xorg automatically, either from a virtual console at login, or from a display manager.

多个显示器

See main article Multihead for general information.

参见GPU的具体说明:

多于一个显卡

你必须指定正确的驱动以使用你的显卡。

Section "Device"
    Identifier      "Screen0"
    Driver          "nouveau"
    BusID           "PCI:0:12:0"
EndSection

Section "Device"
    Identifier      "Screen1"
    Driver          "radeon"
    BusID           "PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection

为了获取 BusID:

$ lspci | grep VGA
01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: nVidia Corporation G96 [GeForce 9600M GT] (rev a1)

这个示例的BusID是 1:0:0.

显示大小和 DPI

Tango-inaccurate.pngThe factual accuracy of this article or section is disputed.Tango-inaccurate.png

Reason: Xorg always sets dpi to 96. See this, this and finally this. (Discuss in Talk:Xorg (简体中文)#)

The DPI of the X server is determined in the following manner:

  1. dpi命令行选项具有最高优先级。
  2. If this is not used, the DisplaySize setting in the X config file is used to derive the DPI, given the screen resolution.
  3. If no DisplaySize is given, the monitor size values from DDC are used to derive the DPI, given the screen resolution.
  4. 如果DDC不指定大小, 75 DPI默认使用。

In order to get correct dots per inch (DPI) set, the display size must be recognized or set. Having the correct DPI is especially necessary where fine detail is required (like font rendering). Previously, manufacturers tried to create a standard for 96 DPI (a 10.3" diagonal monitor would be 800x600, a 13.2" monitor 1024x768). These days, screen DPIs vary and may not be equal horizontally and vertically. For example, a 19" widescreen LCD at 1440x900 may have a DPI of 89x87. To be able to set the DPI, the Xorg server attempts to auto-detect your monitor's physical screen size through the graphic card with DDC. When the Xorg server knows the physical screen size, it will be able to set the correct DPI depending on resolution size.

To see if your display size and DPI are detected/calculated correctly:

$ xdpyinfo | grep -B2 resolution

Check that the dimensions match your display size. If the Xorg server is not able to correctly calculate the screen size, it will default to 75x75 DPI and you will have to calculate it yourself.

If you have specifications on the physical size of the screen, they can be entered in the Xorg configuration file so that the proper DPI is calculated:

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier             "Monitor0"
    DisplaySize             286 179    # In millimeters
EndSection

If you only want to enter the specification of your monitor without creating a full xorg.conf create a new config file. For example (/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/90-monitor.conf):

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier             "<default monitor>"
    DisplaySize            286 179    # In millimeters
EndSection

If you do not have specifications for physical screen width and height (most specifications these days only list by diagonal size), you can use the monitor's native resolution (or aspect ratio) and diagonal length to calculate the horizontal and vertical physical dimensions. Using the Pythagorean theorem on a 13.3" diagonal length screen with a 1280x800 native resolution (or 16:10 aspect ratio):

$ echo 'scale=5;sqrt(1280^2+800^2)' | bc  # 1509.43698

This will give the pixel diagonal length and with this value you can discover the physical horizontal and vertical lengths (and convert them to millimeters):

$ echo 'scale=5;(13.3/1509)*1280*25.4' | bc  # 286.43072
$ echo 'scale=5;(13.3/1509)*800*25.4'  | bc  # 179.01920
Note: This calculation works for monitors with square pixels; however, there is the seldom monitor that may compress aspect ratio (e.g 16:10 aspect resolution to a 16:9 monitor). If this is the case, you should measure your screen size manually.

手动设置DPI

Note: While you can set any dpi you like and applications using Qt and GTK will scale accordingly, it's recommended to set it to 96, 120 (25% higher), 144 (50% higher), 168 (75% higher), 192 (100% higher) etc., to reduce scaling artifacts to GUI that use bitmaps. Reducing it below 96 dpi may not reduce size of graphical elements of GUI as typically the lowest dpi the icons are made for is 96.

For RandR compliant drivers (for example the open source ATI driver), you can set it by:

$ xrandr --dpi 144
Note: Applications that comply with the setting will not change immediately. You have to start them anew.

See Execute commands after X start to make it permanent.

专有的NVIDIA驱动程序

DPI can be set manually if you only plan to use one resolution (DPI calculator):

Section "Monitor"
    Identifier             "Monitor0"
    Option                 "DPI" "96 x 96"
EndSection

You can manually set the DPI adding the options below on /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-nvidia.conf (inside Device section):

Option              "UseEdidDpi" "False"
Option              "DPI" "96 x 96"

DPMS

DPMS (显示器电源管理信号) 是一种技术,可以在计算机不使用时,可以使用显示器的省电行为. 这将允许您的显示器在预定时间段后自动进入待机。 见: DPMS

Composite

The Composite extension for X causes an entire sub-tree of the window hierarchy to be rendered to an off-screen buffer. Applications can then take the contents of that buffer and do whatever they like. The off-screen buffer can be automatically merged into the parent window or merged by external programs, called compositing managers. See the following article for more information: compositing window manager

Some window managers (e.g. Compiz, Enlightenment, KWin, Marco, Metacity, Muffin, Mutter, Xfwm) do compositing on their own. For other window managers, a standalone composite manager can be used.

List of composite managers

http://cairo-compmgr.tuxfamily.org/ || cairo-compmgr-gitAUR
  • Compton — Compositor (a fork of xcompmgr-dana)
https://github.com/chjj/compton || compton
  • Xcompmgr — Composite window-effects manager
http://cgit.freedesktop.org/xorg/app/xcompmgr/ || xcompmgr
  • Unagi — Modular compositing manager which aims written in C and based on XCB
http://projects.mini-dweeb.org/projects/unagi || unagiAUR

技巧和技巧

调整 X 启动参数(/usr/bin/startx)

参看X的选项:

$ man Xserver

以下的选项可以附加在/usr/bin/startx文件的"defaultserverargs"变量中.

  • 为16位字体使能延缓字形加载:
-deferglyphs 16

Nested X session

To run a nested session of another desktop environment:

$ /usr/bin/Xnest :1 -geometry 1024x768+0+0 -ac -name Windowmaker & wmaker -display :1

This will launch a Window Maker session in a 1024 by 768 window within your current X session.

This needs the package xorg-server-xnest to be installed.

Starting GUI programs remotely

See main article: SSH#X11 forwarding.

On-demand disabling and enabling of input sources

With the help of xinput you can temporarily disable or enable input sources. This might be useful, for example, on systems that have more than one mouse, such as the ThinkPads and you would rather use just one to avoid unwanted mouse clicks.

Install the xorg-xinput package from the official repositories.

Find the ID of the device you want to disable:

$ xinput

For example in a Lenovo ThinkPad T500, the output looks like this:

$ xinput
⎡ Virtual core pointer                          id=2    [master pointer  (3)]
⎜   ↳ Virtual core XTEST pointer                id=4    [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎜   ↳ TPPS/2 IBM TrackPoint                     id=11   [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎜   ↳ SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad                id=10   [slave  pointer  (2)]
⎣ Virtual core keyboard                         id=3    [master keyboard (2)]
    ↳ Virtual core XTEST keyboard               id=5    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Power Button                              id=6    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Video Bus                                 id=7    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ Sleep Button                              id=8    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ AT Translated Set 2 keyboard              id=9    [slave  keyboard (3)]
    ↳ ThinkPad Extra Buttons                    id=12   [slave  keyboard (3)]

Disable the device with xinput --disable device_id, where device_id is the device ID you want to disable. In this example we will disable the Synaptics Touchpad, with the ID 10:

$ xinput --disable 10

To re-enable the device, just issue the opposite command:

$ xinput --enable 10

Killing application with hotkey

Run script on hotkey:

#!/bin/bash
windowFocus=$(xdotool getwindowfocus);
pid=$(xprop -id $windowFocus | grep PID);
kill -9 $pid

Deps: xorg-xprop, xdotool

Block TTY access

To block tty access when in an X add the following to xorg.conf:

Section "ServerFlags"
    Option "DontVTSwitch" "True"
EndSection

Prevent a user from killing X

To prevent a user from killing when it is running add the following to xorg.conf:

Section "ServerFlags"
    Option "DontZap"      "True"
EndSection

故障和修复

通用问题

如果你在使用Xorg中遇到问题,无法启动或者黑屏,鼠标键盘不能正常工作,那么先进行以下步骤:

  • 查看log日志文件:cat /var/log/Xorg.0.log, 可以从 X 启动终端之外的虚拟控制台查看错误。注意所有以 (EE) 开头的行,EE 代表有错误。同时注意 (WW) 警告,可能预示着其他问题。
  • 需要安装输入驱动:(鼠标、键盘、触摸板等)
  • 最后,在ATI, IntelNVIDIA等文章中搜索常见问题。

如果还有问题,请到 Arch 论坛提问,请安装和使用wgetpaste:

#pacman -S wgetpaste

在论坛提问的帖子中,用 wgetpaste 提供如下文件的链接:

  • ~/.xinitrc
  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • /var/log/Xorg.0.log
  • /var/log/Xorg.0.log.old

wgetpaste 用法:

$wgetpaste </path/to/file>
注意: 解决 X 相关问题时,请提供上面所说的内容的详细信息。

Black screen, No protocol specified.., Resource temporarily unavailable for all or some users

X creates configuration and temporary files in current user's home directory. Make sure there is free disk space available on the partition your home directory resides in. Unfortunately, X server does not provide any more obvious information about lack of disk space in this case.

CTRL 右键无法与和oss keymap一起工作

编辑 /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/fr,将:

include "level5(rctrl_switch)"

改成

// include "level5(rctrl_switch)"

然后重启 X 或者系统。

Ctrl-Alt-Backspace无法退出X

System-wide

Within /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf, simply add the following:

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier          "Keyboard Defaults"
    MatchIsKeyboard	"yes"
    Option              "XkbOptions" "terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
EndSection
注意: 在KDE中,这种全局设置没有任何效果。恢复的方法是,通过Kickoff启动器 > 计算机 > 系统设置打开系统设置窗口。点击“输入设备”,在新窗口中选择“键盘”,然后点击“高级”标签页。点选“配置键盘选项”选框。展开“杀死X服务器的键盘序列”菜单,确定选中 Ctrl+Alt+Backspace ,点击“应用”按钮然后关闭系统设置窗口。Ctrl+Alt+Backspace 又回来啦。

User-specific

另外一种方法是加入以下内容到~/.xinitrc

setxkbmap -option terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp
Note: This setting has no effect on Gnome 3.

无法用"su"以root身份启动X客户端

如果你遇到"Client is not authorized to connect to server",尝试将以下内容

 session        optional        pam_xauth.so

加入到/etc/pam.d/su文件中。pam_xauth 就可以正常设置环境变量以及处理 xauth 密钥了。

无法加载'(null)'字体

  • 一些程序无法运行,提示无法加载`(null)'字体.

这些软件包可能需要一些额外的字体。某些程序只能使用位图字体。 目前有两种主要的位图字体包:xorg-fonts-75dpixorg-fonts-100dpi。选择其中一个就可以了。通过下面这个命令查看显示设置:

$ xdpyinfo | grep resolution

根据显示信息选择合适dpi的字体即可(用75 或 100 代替XX):

# pacman -S xorg-fonts-XXdpi

无法运行在frambuffer模式下

如果X启动失败,日志中有以下信息:

 (WW) Falling back to old probe method for fbdev
 (II) Loading sub module "fbdevhw"
 (II) LoadModule: "fbdevhw"
 (II) Loading /usr/lib/xorg/modules/linux//libfbdevhw.so
 (II) Module fbdevhw: vendor="X.Org Foundation"
        compiled for 1.6.1, module version = 0.0.2
        ABI class: X.Org Video Driver, version 5.0
 (II) FBDEV(1): using default device
  
 Fatal server error:
 Cannot run in framebuffer mode. Please specify busIDs        for all framebuffer devices

只需要卸载xf86-video-fbdev就可以了。

Matrox显卡的DRI功能失效

如果你使用的是Matrox显卡,在升级到Xorg7后它的DRI功能失效,试着在xorg.conf的显卡设备设置段Device section中加入下面一行:

Option "OldDmaInit" "On"

修复:在出现GUI登录界面之前,不启动Xorg

如果Xorg设置为自动启动并且出于某些原因你不想让它出现在 登录/显示 管理器之前,有两种办法:

  • 将启动目标修改为 rescue.target. 参阅 systemd#Change default target to boot into.
  • 如果 X 无法启动,而且 GRUB 超时时间设置成了 0,无法进 Grub 禁止 Xorg boot. 可以使用 Arch CD 启动,然后挂载配置文件所在分区,
可以以root用户使用命令
# fdisk -l
来查看你的全部分区。通常你所要的那个是形如 /dev/sda1 这样的东东。然后,使用命令
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

挂载该分区至 /mnt。 这样你的文件系统就挂载在了 /mnt 下。例如,可以删除 gdm 来阻止Xorg正常启动,或者做其他一些必需的改动。

X failed to start : Keyboard initialization failed

If your hard disk is full, startx will fail. /var/log/Xorg.0.log will end with:

(EE) Error compiling keymap (server-0)
(EE) XKB: Couldn't compile keymap
(EE) XKB: Failed to load keymap. Loading default keymap instead.
(EE) Error compiling keymap (server-0)
(EE) XKB: Couldn't compile keymap
XKB: Failed to compile keymap
Keyboard initialization failed. This could be a missing or incorrect setup of xkeyboard-config.
Fatal server error:
Failed to activate core devices.
Please consult the The X.Org Foundation support  at http://wiki.x.org
for help.
Please also check the log file at "/var/log/Xorg.0.log" for additional information.
 (II) AIGLX: Suspending AIGLX clients for VT switch

Make some free space on your root partition and X will start.

不使用 root 权限的 Xorg (v1.16)

在 1.16 版及以后 [2], Xorg 可能在 logind 的帮助下以用户特权运行。如此运行对系统的要求如下所示:

  • systemd: 版本 >=216 以支持多实例;
  • 经由 xinit 启动 X: 显示管理器(登陆管理器)不被支持;
  • Kernel mode setting: implementations in proprietary display drivers fail auto-detection and require manually setting needs_root_rights = no in /etc/X11/Xwrapper.config.

If you do not fit these requirements, re-enable root rights in /etc/X11/Xwrapper.config:

needs_root_rights = yes

同时请参见 Xorg.wrap(1)Systemd/User#Xorg as a systemd user service