Difference between revisions of "AUR User Guidelines"
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- 1 Purpose
- 2 The User and the AUR
- 3 How to use the AUR
- 4 AUR-DMS (downloading and management scripts)
- 5 See also
The ArchLinux User-community Repository (AUR) is a community driven repository for Arch users. This document shows the normal user how to access AUR and work with it.
The User and the AUR
The normal user plays an essential role in the AUR and without the support, involvement and contribution of the wider user community the AUR cannot fulfil its potential. The lifecycle of an AUR package starts and ends with the user and requires the user to contribute in several ways.
Sharing PKGBUILDs in UNSUPPORTED
Users can share PKGBUILDs using the UNSUPPORTED area in the AUR. UNSUPPORTED does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload PKGBUILDs that can be downloaded by others. A comments facility is provided that allows users to feedback improvements and suggestions to the PKGBUILD contributor. A new flagging system has been introduced that allows TUs to mark pkgs as checked for malicious code. However, these PKGBUILDs are completely unofficial and unvetted so should be used with caution and at your own risk.
There is as yet no official mechanism for downloading build material from UNSUPPORTED but a few scripts can be found on the wiki.
The [community] repo is a supplement to the [extra] and [current] repositories where the most popular packages from UNSUPPORTED are maintained by the Trusted Users group on behalf of the users. [community], unlike UNSUPPORTED, contains binary packages that can be installed directly with pacman and the build files can also be accessed with ABS. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the [current] or [extra] repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
Users can access the AUR [community] repo by adding/uncommenting this line in their pacman.conf file:
Include = /etc/pacman.d/community
/etc/pacman.d/community does not exist then it should be created and contain the following:
[community] Server = ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/community/os/i686/
Users can also access the [community] build files by editing
/etc/abs/abs.conf as follows:
SUPFILES=(arch extra !unstable community)
One of the easiest activities for all Arch users is to browse the AUR and vote for their favourite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in [community], and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process - so it is in everyones interest to vote!
How to use the AUR
Using Packages from UNSUPPORTED
To install a pkg from UNSUPPORTED you should follow these steps:
- locate the application in the AUR using the search feature (we'll use foo as an example pkg name here) and click the package name in the list of results. This will bring up the information page for that pkg. On the left side you can see two links side by side:
Tarball :: Files
Tarballto download the necessary build files to your hard drive. This should be called
foo.tar.gz, for example, if it has been properly submitted.
- Copy the
foo.tar.gztarball to a build directory e.g.
/var/abs/localand extract it. This should create a new directory,
/var/abs/local/foothat contains all the files necessary to build the pkg.
- IMPORTANT: cd to the newly created directory and carefully check the PKGBUILD and any .install file for malicious commands - if in any doubt DO NOT build the pkg and seek advice on the forums or mailing list.
- It is suggested you use
fakerootto build pkgs (see below), so having manually confirmed the integrity of the files simply run
makepkgas a normal user in the build dir. The source files will be downloaded, verified and built as normal.
- makepkg should create an tarball named foo.pkg.tar.gz that can be installed with pacman. e.g.
pacman -U foo.pkg.tar.gz
fakeroot simply allows a normal user the necessary root permissions to create pkgs in the build environment without being able to alter the wider system. If the build process attempts to alter files outside of the build environment then errors are produced and the build fails - this is very useful for checking the quality/safety/integrity of PKGBUILDs for distribution. By default
export USE_FAKEROOT="y" is included in
/etc/makepkg.conf, so unless you have switched it off it is already enabled.
Submitting Packages to UNSUPPORTED
After logging in to the AUR web interface, a user can submit a tarball (tar.gz) of a directory containing build files for a package. The directory inside the tarball should contain a PKGBUILD, any .install files, patches, etc (ABSOLUTELY no binaries). Examples of what such a directory should look like can be seen inside /var/abs.
When submitting a package, observe the following rules:
- Check [extra], [current], [unstable], UNSUPPORTED, and [community] for the package. If it is inside any of those repositories in ANY form, DO NOT submit the package (if the current package is broken or is lacking an included feature then please file a bug report in FlySpray).
- Verify carefully that what you are uploading is correct. All contributors must read and adhere to the Arch Packaging Standards when writing PKGBUILDs. This is essential to the smooth running and general success of the AUR. Remember you are not going to earn any credit or respect from your peers by wasting their time with a bad PKGBUILD.
- Packages that contain binaries or that are very poorly written may be deleted without warning.
- If you are unsure about the package (or the build/submission process) in any way, submit the PKGBUILD to the AUR Mailing List or the AUR boards on the forum for public review before adding it to the AUR.
- Make sure the package is useful. Will anyone else want to use this package? Is it extremely specialized? If more than a few people would find this package useful, it is appropriate for submission.
- Gain some experience before submitting packages. Build a few packages to learn the process and then submit.
Maintaining Packages in UNSUPPORTED
- Check for feedback and comments from other users and try to incorporate any improvements they suggest; consider it a learning process!
- Please DO NOT just submit and forget about packages! While in UNSUPPORTED, it is the user's job to maintain the package by checking for updates and improving the PKGBUILD.
- If you do not want to continue to maintain the package for some reason,
disownthe pkg using the AUR web interface and/or post a message to the AUR Mailing List.
AUR-DMS (downloading and management scripts)
List of AUR-DMS
- aur-sync (Perl) - for downloading all AUR tartballs
- aur-install (bash)
- aurup (bash) - for uploading packages to AUR
- aurscripts (bash):
- aurcreate - create clean packages prepared for upload to AUR
- aurdownload - download and extract packages from AUR
- aurupdate - update package versions (if specified) and md5sums
- autoaur (bash, depends on aurscripts, will automatically update all of your packages installed from AUR)
- yaourt (bash, a wrapper for srcpac with aur support and more)
- aurbuild (Python, most voted)
- qpkg (Python, works with non-AUR-apps too, second voted, but most advanced?)
All of these scripts can be found in UNSUPPORTED.