Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (Português)
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Este documento mostra como configurar o alsa tanto com a série 2.4 do kernel, quanto com a 2.6. Veja, também, como permitir que os programas toquem som ao mesmo tempo
- 1 Instalação
- 2 Configuration
- 3 Still Getting No Sound?
- 4 KDE settings
Se você usa um kernel da série 2.4, você terá que instalar os drivers do alsa. Se o seu kernel foi instalado com o pacote pré-compilado kernel24 ou kernel24-scsi, você pode usar o pacote alsa-driver:
# pacman -Sy alsa-driver # depmod -a
Se você compilou o seu próprio kernel, você deve compilar um novo pacote do 'alsa-driver' com o ABS e instalá-lo.
Alsa has been included in the 2.6 kernels and is included in all arch kernel26* packages. If you build a custom kernel, do not forget to enable the correct alsa driver.
NOTE ON UDEV AUTODETECTION: Old arch installations or new installations from the 0.7.1 CD (recent FTP installations are not affected) will have an old default setting in /etc/modprobe.conf that WILL BREAK SOUND AUTODETECTION. If your sound modules are not loaded automatically after installation or udev update, please REMOVE THESE LINES FROM /etc/modprobe.conf:
# OSS Compatibility install snd-pcm modprobe -i snd-pcm ; modprobe snd-pcm-oss ; true install snd-seq modprobe -i snd-seq ; modprobe snd-seq-oss ; true
After REMOVING these, sound should be autodetected properly on (re)boot. Also NEVER use alsaconf if you have a PCI or ISAPNP sound card, the entries alsaconf adds to the modprobe.conf file might have a similar effect on udev's autodetection.
- Required for native alsa programs and administration
# pacman -Sy alsa-lib alsa-utils
- Recommended if you want to use applications with OSS sound support in combination with dmix:
# pacman -S alsa-oss
All alsa programs will most likely have alsa-lib as a dependency.
Making sure the sound modules are loaded
You can assume that udev (or hotplug for 2.4 kernels) will autodetect your sound properly, including the OSS compatibility modules. You can check this with the command
$ lsmod|grep ^snd snd_usb_audio 69696 0 snd_usb_lib 13504 1 snd_usb_audio snd_rawmidi 20064 1 snd_usb_lib snd_hwdep 7044 1 snd_usb_audio snd_seq_oss 29412 0 snd_seq_midi_event 6080 1 snd_seq_oss snd_seq 46220 4 snd_seq_oss,snd_seq_midi_event snd_seq_device 6796 3 snd_rawmidi,snd_seq_oss,snd_seq snd_pcm_oss 45216 0 snd_mixer_oss 15232 1 snd_pcm_oss snd_intel8x0 27932 0 snd_ac97_codec 87648 1 snd_intel8x0 snd_ac97_bus 1792 1 snd_ac97_codec snd_pcm 76296 4 snd_usb_audio,snd_pcm_oss,snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec snd_timer 19780 2 snd_seq,snd_pcm snd 43776 12 snd_usb_audio,snd_rawmidi,snd_hwdep,snd_seq_oss,snd_seq,snd_seq_device,snd_pcm_oss,snd_mixer_oss,snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec,snd_pcm,snd_timer snd_page_alloc 7944 2 snd_intel8x0,snd_pcm
If the output looks similar, your sound drivers have been successfully autodetected (note that in this case, snd_intel8x0 and snd_usb_audio are the drivers for the hardware devices). You might also want to check the directory /dev/snd for the right device files (kernel 2.6 and udev only):
$ ls -l /dev/snd/ total 0 crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 0 Apr 8 14:17 controlC0 crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 32 Apr 8 14:17 controlC1 crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 24 Apr 8 14:17 pcmC0D0c crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 16 Apr 8 14:17 pcmC0D0p crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 25 Apr 8 14:17 pcmC0D1c crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 56 Apr 8 14:17 pcmC1D0c crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 48 Apr 8 14:17 pcmC1D0p crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 1 Apr 8 14:17 seq crw-rw---- 1 root audio 116, 33 Apr 8 14:17 timer
If you have at least the devices controlC0 and pcmC0D0p or similar, then your sound modules have been detected and loaded properly.
If this is not the case, you will have to load the modules manually:
- Locate the module for your soundcard: http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/ The module will be prefixed with 'snd-' (for example: 'snd-via82xx').
- Load modules:
# modprobe snd-NAME-OF-MODULE # modprobe snd-pcm-oss
- Check for the device files in /dev/snd (see above) and/or try if alsamixer or amixer have resonable output.
- Add snd-pcm-oss and snd-NAME-OF-MODULE to the list of MODULES in /etc/rc.conf to ensure they are loaded next time.
Unmuting the channels and testing the sound card
- Unmute Soundcard
# amixer set Master 75 unmute # amixer set PCM 75 unmute
You can alsa do this graphically using 'alsamixer'
NOTE: When using alsamixer, be sure to unmute (push M) as well as bring volumes up.
- Try to play a wave file
# aplay mywav.wav
To be able to use the sound card as a user, follow these steps:
- Add your user to the audio group:
# gpasswd -a USERNAME audio
- Log your user out and back in to ensure the audio group is loaded.
Restore Alsa Mixer settings at Startup
- Run 'alsactl' once to create '/etc/asound.state'
- Edit '/etc/rc.conf' and add 'alsa' to the list of daemons to start on bootup. This will store the mixer settings on every shutdown and restore them when you boot.
Getting SPDIF output
(from gralves from the gentoo forums)
- In Gnome Volume Control, under the Options tab, change the IEC958 to PCM. This option can be enabled in the preferences.
- If you don't have Gnome Volume Control installed,
- Edit /etc/asound.state. This file is where alsasound store your mixer settings.
- Find a line that says : 'IEC958 Playback Switch'. Near it you will find a line saying value:false. Change it to value:true
- Now find this line: 'IEC958 Playback AC97-SPSA' and change value to 0.
- Restart alsa.
Alternative way to enable SPDIF output automatically on login (tested on SoundBlaster Audigy):
- add following lines to /etc/rc.local:
# Use COAX-digital output amixer set 'IEC958 Optical' 100 unmute amixer set 'Audigy Analog/Digital Output Jack' on
You can see the name of your cards digital output name with:
Still Getting No Sound?
Even though your drivers are installed correctly, and your volume is right, and nothing is muted, you might not hear anything! Adding the following line to
/etc/modprobe.conf fixes this problem (with the
via82xx driver, at least).
options snd-NAME-OF-MODULE ac97_quirk=0
- Start up KDE:
- Setup the volumes as you want them for this user (each user has their own settings):
- KDE 3.3 Go to the K Menu > Multimedia > KMix
- Choose Settings > Configure KMix...
- Un-check the option "Restore volumes on logon"
- Press OK, and you should be all set. Now your volumes will be the same from the command line or within KDE.