Difference between revisions of "Amateur radio (简体中文)"

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(Partially translated Amatuer radio into Chinese (simplified))
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{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
  
Amateur radio enthusiasts (sometimes called ham radio operators or "hams") have been at the forefront of experimentation and development since the earliest days of radio.  A wide variety of communication modes are used on a vast range of frequencies that span the electromagnetic spectrum. 
+
业余无线电爱好者(又称“火腿”)自从无线电存在的早期就活跃在相关实验与开发的前沿。在各个无线电频段上,有多种常用的通信模式。
This page lists software related to amateur radio that can be found in the [[AUR]].  Some of it is stand-alone while the various digital communication applications require interfacing to radio hardware and possibly the computer soundcard. Interface hardware can be purchased from vendors or home-built. 
+
本页面列举了[[AUR]]中与业余无线电有关的软件,其中有些可以独立运行,但多数处理数字通信的程序则需要配合无线电硬件或者声卡使用。相关硬件可以购买,也可以自制。
  
{{Warning|International treaties require that users of amateur radio frequencies have a government-issued license. This only affects you if you have a transmitter and an antenna, receiving amateur radio or just downloading amateur radio software isn't illegal.}}
+
{{Warning|按国际条约要求,你必须持有政府发放的执照才能使用业余无线电频率。但这些条约只是约束信号的发射;只接收业余无线电信号或下载相关软件是不违法的。}}
  
== General information ==
+
== 通用信息 ==
Many of the following programs will need to access a serial port to key the transmitter (eg. /dev/ttyS0).  This requires that the user belong to the uucp group.  To add the user to the uucp group issue the following command as root:
+
下面的很多程序都需要使用串口(如/dev/ttyS0)与发射器通信。首先,你的用户需要在uucp用户组中。要将一个用户添加到uucp组中,以root身份运行下面的命令:
  
  # gpasswd -a ''username'' uucp
+
  # gpasswd -a ''用户名'' uucp
  
then logoff and logon.
+
之后注销再重新登录。
  
== Software list ==
+
== 软件列表 ==
* {{App|Hamlib|provides an interface between hardware and radio control programs. It is a software layer to facilitate the control of radios and other hardware (eg. for logging, digital modes) and is not a stand-alone application.
+
* {{App|Hamlib|为无线电硬件和控制程序之间提供了一个通信界面。它只是用于帮助控制电台等硬件,并不是一个能独立使用的程序。|https://sourceforge.net/projects/hamlib/|{{Pkg|hamlib}}}}
|https://sourceforge.net/projects/hamlib/|{{Pkg|hamlib}}}}
 
  
* {{App|Soundmodem|was written by Tom Sailer (HB9JNX/AE4WA) to allow a standard PC soundcard to act as a packet radio modem for use with the various AX.25 communication modes. The data rate can be as high as 9600 baud depending on the hardware and application. Soundmodem can be used as a KISS modem on the serial port or as an AX.25 network device.  To use soundmodem as an MKISS network device, the kernel must be re-built with MKISS modules. More information is in the [http://www.xastir.org/wiki/index.php/HowTo:SoundModem Xastir wiki]
+
* {{App|Soundmodem|由Tom Sailer(HB9JNX/AE4WA)编写,它能将声卡作为一个分组无线电的调制解调器,从而能使用多种AX.25通信模式。波特率最高能达到9600bps, 但也取决于硬件配置和具体用途。Soundmodem可以在串口上作为一个KISS调制解调器或者AX.25网络设备。To use soundmodem as an MKISS network device, the kernel must be re-built with MKISS modules. 该链接中有更多信息:[http://www.xastir.org/wiki/index.php/HowTo:SoundModem Xastir wiki]
:Run soundmodem as root:
+
:以root身份运行soundmodem:
 
:{{bc|# soundmodem}}
 
:{{bc|# soundmodem}}
 
:If you have configured soundmodem as a KISS modem, you will need to change permissions to make it user-readable:
 
:If you have configured soundmodem as a KISS modem, you will need to change permissions to make it user-readable:
Line 30: Line 29:
 
|http://www.baycom.org/~tom/ham/soundmodem/|{{AUR|soundmodem}}}}
 
|http://www.baycom.org/~tom/ham/soundmodem/|{{AUR|soundmodem}}}}
  
* {{App|Grig|simple control program based on Hamlib|http://groundstation.sourceforge.net/grig/|{{AUR|grig}}}}
+
* {{App|Grig|基于Hamlib的简单的控制程序|http://groundstation.sourceforge.net/grig/|{{AUR|grig}}}}
* {{App|gMFSK|is a user interface that supports a multitude of digital modes.  It uses hamlib and xlog for logging|http://gmfsk.connect.fi|{{AUR|gmfsk}}}}
+
* {{App|gMFSK|支持多种数字模式,使用hamlib和xlog记录日志|http://gmfsk.connect.fi|{{AUR|gmfsk}}}}
* {{App|lysdr|highly customizable radio interface|https://github.com/gordonjcp/lysdr}}
+
* {{App|lysdr|高度可自定义的无线电界面程序|https://github.com/gordonjcp/lysdr}}
* {{App|linrad|Software defined radio by SM5BSZ|http://www.sm5bsz.com/linuxdsp/linrad.htm|{{AUR|linrad}}}}  
+
* {{App|linrad|SM5BSZ编写的软件定义无线电|http://www.sm5bsz.com/linuxdsp/linrad.htm|{{AUR|linrad}}}}  
* {{App|quisk|Software defined radio by N2ADR|http://james.ahlstrom.name/quisk/|{{AUR|quisk}}}}
+
* {{App|quisk|N2ADR编写的软件定义无线电|http://james.ahlstrom.name/quisk/|{{AUR|quisk}}}}
 
* {{App|owx|Command-line utility for programming Wouxun radios using CSV spreadsheets.|http://owx.chmurka.net|{{AUR|owx}}}}
 
* {{App|owx|Command-line utility for programming Wouxun radios using CSV spreadsheets.|http://owx.chmurka.net|{{AUR|owx}}}}
* {{App|fldigi|popular GUI developed by W1HKJ for a variety of digital communication modes|http://w1hkj.com/Fldigi.html|{{AUR|fldigi}}}}
+
* {{App|fldigi|W1HKJ开发的GUI程序,支持多种数字通信模式|http://w1hkj.com/Fldigi.html|{{AUR|fldigi}}}}
* {{App|libfap|APRS packet parser|http://pakettiradio.net/libfap/|{{AUR|libfap}}}}
+
* {{App|libfap|APRS包解析程序|http://pakettiradio.net/libfap/|{{AUR|libfap}}}}
 
* {{App|aprx|lightweight APRS digipeater and i-Gate interface|http://thelifeofkenneth.com/aprx/|{{AUR|aprx}}}}
 
* {{App|aprx|lightweight APRS digipeater and i-Gate interface|http://thelifeofkenneth.com/aprx/|{{AUR|aprx}}}}
* {{App|xdx|network client|http://www.qsl.net/pg4i/linux/xdx.html|{{AUR|xdx}}}}
+
* {{App|xdx|网络客户端|http://www.qsl.net/pg4i/linux/xdx.html|{{AUR|xdx}}}}
* {{App|qsstv|Slow-scan television||{{AUR|qsstv}}}}
+
* {{App|qsstv|慢扫描电视||{{AUR|qsstv}}}}
 
* {{App|linpsk|PSK31||{{AUR|linpsk}}}}
 
* {{App|linpsk|PSK31||{{AUR|linpsk}}}}
* {{App|xpsk31|PSK31 using a GUI rendered by GTK+|http://www.qsl.net/5b4az/pkg/psk31/xpsk31/xpsk31.html|{{AUR|xpsk31}}}}
+
* {{App|xpsk31|PSK31,GUI使用GTK+|http://www.qsl.net/5b4az/pkg/psk31/xpsk31/xpsk31.html|{{AUR|xpsk31}}}}
  
 
=== AX.25 ===
 
=== AX.25 ===
{{App|[[Wikipedia:AX.25|AX.25]]|data link layer protocol that is used extensively in packet radio networks.  It supports connected operation (eg. keyboard-to-keyboard contacts, access to local bulletin board systems, and DX clusters) as well as connectionless operation (eg. [[Wikipedia:APRS|APRS]]). The Linux kernel includes native support for AX.25 networking. Please refer to this [http://tldp.org/HOWTO/AX25-HOWTO/ guide] for more information.  The following software is available in the AUR:
+
{{App|[[Wikipedia:AX.25|AX.25]]|一个广泛应用于分组无线电的数据链路层协议。它既支持有线连接(如keyboard-to-keyboard contacts, access to local bulletin board systems, and DX clusters),也支持无线连接(如[[Wikipedia:APRS|APRS]])。Linux内核中有对AX.25的原生支持。这里有更多信息:[http://tldp.org/HOWTO/AX25-HOWTO/ guide][[AUR]]中有以下软件可用:
 
* {{AUR|ax25-apps}}
 
* {{AUR|ax25-apps}}
 
* {{AUR|ax25-tools}}
 
* {{AUR|ax25-tools}}
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=== WSJT ===
 
=== WSJT ===
{{App|[[Wikipedia:WSJT_(Amateur_radio_software)|WSJT]] (Weak Signal Communication by K1JT)|offers offers a rich variety of features, including specific digital protocols optimized for meteor scatter, ionospheric scatter, and EME (moonbounce) at VHF/UHF, as well as HF skywave propagation. WSJT was developed by Nobel Prize winning physicist Joe Taylor, who has the amateur radio callsign K1JT. The program can decode fraction-of-a-second signals reflected from ionized meteor trails and steady signals 10 dB below the audible threshold.<br>
+
{{App|[[Wikipedia:WSJT_(Amateur_radio_software)|WSJT]] (Weak Signal Communication by K1JT)|offers a rich variety of features, including specific digital protocols optimized for meteor scatter, ionospheric scatter, and EME (moonbounce) at VHF/UHF, as well as HF skywave propagation. WSJT的开发者是诺贝尔物理学奖得主Joe Taylor,无线电呼号为KIJT。The program can decode fraction-of-a-second signals reflected from ionized meteor trails and steady signals 10 dB below the audible threshold.<br>
 
WSJT is in ongoing, active development by a team of programmers led by K1JT. WSJT (and the related program WSPR) has the option of being configured with  
 
WSJT is in ongoing, active development by a team of programmers led by K1JT. WSJT (and the related program WSPR) has the option of being configured with  
 
{{bc|$ ./configure --enable-g95}}
 
{{bc|$ ./configure --enable-g95}}
Line 73: Line 72:
  
  
=== Digital Voice ===
+
=== 数字语音 ===
 
{{App|FreeDV|is a Digital Voice mode for HF radio. It uses the free and open Codec2 voice codec to enable efficient narrow bandwith, low bitrate voice communication ideally suited for shortwave radio contacts. A SSB radio connected to a computer running the FreeDV GUI application are all that is needed to start using the FreeDV mode. FreeDV as well as Codec2 are available to Arch Linux via the AUR system. Both are needed for FreeDV to work!
 
{{App|FreeDV|is a Digital Voice mode for HF radio. It uses the free and open Codec2 voice codec to enable efficient narrow bandwith, low bitrate voice communication ideally suited for shortwave radio contacts. A SSB radio connected to a computer running the FreeDV GUI application are all that is needed to start using the FreeDV mode. FreeDV as well as Codec2 are available to Arch Linux via the AUR system. Both are needed for FreeDV to work!
 
* http://www.rowetel.com/codec2.html {{Pkg|codec2}}
 
* http://www.rowetel.com/codec2.html {{Pkg|codec2}}
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=== Analysis tools ===
+
=== 分析工具 ===
* {{AUR|gpredict}} &ndash; Real-time satellite tracking and orbit prediction application
+
* {{AUR|gpredict}} &ndash; 实时卫星追踪、卫星轨道预测
* {{AUR|hamsolar}} &ndash; Small desktop display of the current solar indices
+
* {{AUR|hamsolar}} &ndash; 在桌面上显示当前太阳活动指数
 
* {{AUR|splat}} &ndash; rf signal propagation, loss, and terrain analysis
 
* {{AUR|splat}} &ndash; rf signal propagation, loss, and terrain analysis
 
* {{AUR|sunclock}} &ndash; Useful for predicting grayline propagation paths
 
* {{AUR|sunclock}} &ndash; Useful for predicting grayline propagation paths
 
* {{AUR|xnec2c}} &ndash; Electromagnetic antenna modeler
 
* {{AUR|xnec2c}} &ndash; Electromagnetic antenna modeler
  
=== Logging ===
+
=== 日志 ===
* {{AUR|cqrlog-bin}} &ndash; a popular Linux logging program
+
* {{AUR|cqrlog-bin}} &ndash; 常见的Linux日志程序
 
* {{AUR|fdlog}} &ndash; a Field Day Logger with networked nodes
 
* {{AUR|fdlog}} &ndash; a Field Day Logger with networked nodes
* {{AUR|klog}} &ndash; a Ham radio logging program for Linux / KDE.
+
* {{AUR|klog}} &ndash; 运行在KDE上的业余无线电日志程序
 
* {{AUR|qle}} &ndash; QSO  Logger and log  Editor for amateur radio operators written in Perl
 
* {{AUR|qle}} &ndash; QSO  Logger and log  Editor for amateur radio operators written in Perl
 
* {{AUR|tlf}} &ndash; a console mode networked logging and contest program
 
* {{AUR|tlf}} &ndash; a console mode networked logging and contest program
 
* {{AUR|trustedqsl}} &ndash; QSL application for ARRL's Logbook of the World
 
* {{AUR|trustedqsl}} &ndash; QSL application for ARRL's Logbook of the World
 
* {{AUR|xlog}} &ndash; a logging program for amateur radio operators.
 
* {{AUR|xlog}} &ndash; a logging program for amateur radio operators.
* {{AUR|yfklog}} &ndash; a general purpose ham radio logbook for *nix operating systems.
+
* {{AUR|yfklog}} &ndash; 通用的*nix业余无线电日志程序
 
* {{AUR|yfktest}} &ndash; a logbook program for ham radio contests.
 
* {{AUR|yfktest}} &ndash; a logbook program for ham radio contests.
  
=== Tools ===
+
=== 工具 ===
* {{AUR|cty}} &ndash; package contains databases of entities (countries), prefixes and callsigns that are used by amateur radio logging software.
+
* {{AUR|cty}} &ndash; 实体(国家)、前缀、呼号等信息,供业余无线电日志程序使用
 
* {{AUR|dxcc}} &ndash; a small program for determining ARRL DXCC entity of a ham radio callsign
 
* {{AUR|dxcc}} &ndash; a small program for determining ARRL DXCC entity of a ham radio callsign
  
=== Morse code training ===
+
=== 莫尔斯码练习 ===
 
* {{AUR|aldo}}
 
* {{AUR|aldo}}
 
* {{AUR|cutecw}}
 
* {{AUR|cutecw}}
Line 110: Line 109:
 
* {{AUR|unixcw}}
 
* {{AUR|unixcw}}
  
=== Other ===
+
=== 其他 ===
* {{AUR|cwirc}} &ndash; Send and receive Morse code messages via IRC
+
* {{AUR|cwirc}} &ndash; 在IRC上收发莫尔斯码

Revision as of 11:08, 10 July 2019

业余无线电爱好者(又称“火腿”)自从无线电存在的早期就活跃在相关实验与开发的前沿。在各个无线电频段上,有多种常用的通信模式。 本页面列举了AUR中与业余无线电有关的软件,其中有些可以独立运行,但多数处理数字通信的程序则需要配合无线电硬件或者声卡使用。相关硬件可以购买,也可以自制。

Warning: 按国际条约要求,你必须持有政府发放的执照才能使用业余无线电频率。但这些条约只是约束信号的发射;只接收业余无线电信号或下载相关软件是不违法的。

通用信息

下面的很多程序都需要使用串口(如/dev/ttyS0)与发射器通信。首先,你的用户需要在uucp用户组中。要将一个用户添加到uucp组中,以root身份运行下面的命令:

# gpasswd -a 用户名 uucp

之后注销再重新登录。

软件列表

  • Hamlib — 为无线电硬件和控制程序之间提供了一个通信界面。它只是用于帮助控制电台等硬件,并不是一个能独立使用的程序。
https://sourceforge.net/projects/hamlib/ || hamlib
  • Soundmodem — 由Tom Sailer(HB9JNX/AE4WA)编写,它能将声卡作为一个分组无线电的调制解调器,从而能使用多种AX.25通信模式。波特率最高能达到9600bps, 但也取决于硬件配置和具体用途。Soundmodem可以在串口上作为一个KISS调制解调器或者AX.25网络设备。To use soundmodem as an MKISS network device, the kernel must be re-built with MKISS modules. 该链接中有更多信息:Xastir wiki
以root身份运行soundmodem:
# soundmodem
If you have configured soundmodem as a KISS modem, you will need to change permissions to make it user-readable:
# chmod 666 /dev/soundmodem0
http://www.baycom.org/~tom/ham/soundmodem/ || soundmodemAUR
  • Grig — 基于Hamlib的简单的控制程序
http://groundstation.sourceforge.net/grig/ || grigAUR
  • gMFSK — 支持多种数字模式,使用hamlib和xlog记录日志
http://gmfsk.connect.fi || gmfskAUR
  • lysdr — 高度可自定义的无线电界面程序
https://github.com/gordonjcp/lysdr || not packaged? search in AUR
  • linrad — SM5BSZ编写的软件定义无线电
http://www.sm5bsz.com/linuxdsp/linrad.htm || linradAUR
  • quisk — N2ADR编写的软件定义无线电
http://james.ahlstrom.name/quisk/ || quiskAUR
  • owx — Command-line utility for programming Wouxun radios using CSV spreadsheets.
http://owx.chmurka.net || owxAUR
  • fldigi — W1HKJ开发的GUI程序,支持多种数字通信模式
http://w1hkj.com/Fldigi.html || fldigiAUR
  • libfap — APRS包解析程序
http://pakettiradio.net/libfap/ || libfapAUR
  • aprx — lightweight APRS digipeater and i-Gate interface
http://thelifeofkenneth.com/aprx/ || aprxAUR
  • xdx — 网络客户端
http://www.qsl.net/pg4i/linux/xdx.html || xdxAUR
  • qsstv — 慢扫描电视
|| qsstvAUR
  • linpsk — PSK31
|| linpskAUR
  • xpsk31 — PSK31,GUI使用GTK+
http://www.qsl.net/5b4az/pkg/psk31/xpsk31/xpsk31.html || xpsk31AUR

AX.25

AX.25 — 一个广泛应用于分组无线电的数据链路层协议。它既支持有线连接(如keyboard-to-keyboard contacts, access to local bulletin board systems, and DX clusters),也支持无线连接(如APRS)。Linux内核中有对AX.25的原生支持。这里有更多信息:guideAUR中有以下软件可用:

http://www.ax25.net/ || present in stock kernel

WSJT

WSJT (Weak Signal Communication by K1JT) — offers a rich variety of features, including specific digital protocols optimized for meteor scatter, ionospheric scatter, and EME (moonbounce) at VHF/UHF, as well as HF skywave propagation. WSJT的开发者是诺贝尔物理学奖得主Joe Taylor,无线电呼号为KIJT。The program can decode fraction-of-a-second signals reflected from ionized meteor trails and steady signals 10 dB below the audible threshold.
WSJT is in ongoing, active development by a team of programmers led by K1JT. WSJT (and the related program WSPR) has the option of being configured with

$ ./configure --enable-g95

or

$ ./configure --enable-gfortran

If you build with one and experience problems, edit PKGBUILD to try the other.
WSJT requires access to the serial port; see the note in the Interfacing section above about the uucp group.

http://www.physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/K1JT/ || wsjt-svnAUR

WSPR

WSPR (Weak Signal Propagation Reporter, pronounced whisper) — enables the probing of propagation paths on the amateur radio bands using low power transmissions. It was introduced in 2008 by K1JT following the success and widespread adoption of WSJT by the amateur radio community. Stations with Internet access can automatically upload their reception reports to a central database called WSPRnet, which includes a mapping facility

http://physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/K1JT/wspr.html || wspr-svnAUR

Xastir

Xastir — stands for X Amateur Station and Information Reporting. It works with APRS, an amateur radio-based system for real time tactical digital communications. Xastir is an open-source program that provides full-featured, client-side access to APRS. It is currently in a state of active development.
Xastir is highly flexible and there are a wide variety of ways it can be configured. For example, it can be evaluated without radio hardware if an Internet connection is available. The wiki at xastir.org is very thorough and gives excellent information on its range of capabilities and setup.
An optional speech feature can be enabled with the festival package; you will also need a speaker package such as festival-en or festival-english. If you want this option, festival must be installed on your system before building xastir. Launch festival before the xastir program is started for speech to function properly:

$ festival --server

or you can write a simple script to automate the sequential starting process. There may be problems if other programs such as a media player are accessing sound simultaneously.
The PKGBUILD automatically downloads an 850 kB bundle of .wav files and places them here: /usr/share/xastir/sounds/.
These are audio alarm recordings of a North American English speaker that do not require the presence of festival to render. The audio play command `play' in the configure menu may not work; try `aplay' instead.

http://www.xastir.org || xastirAUR


数字语音

FreeDV — is a Digital Voice mode for HF radio. It uses the free and open Codec2 voice codec to enable efficient narrow bandwith, low bitrate voice communication ideally suited for shortwave radio contacts. A SSB radio connected to a computer running the FreeDV GUI application are all that is needed to start using the FreeDV mode. FreeDV as well as Codec2 are available to Arch Linux via the AUR system. Both are needed for FreeDV to work!

http://freedv.org || freedvAUR


分析工具

  • gpredictAUR – 实时卫星追踪、卫星轨道预测
  • hamsolarAUR – 在桌面上显示当前太阳活动指数
  • splatAUR – rf signal propagation, loss, and terrain analysis
  • sunclockAUR – Useful for predicting grayline propagation paths
  • xnec2cAUR – Electromagnetic antenna modeler

日志

  • cqrlog-binAUR – 常见的Linux日志程序
  • fdlogAUR – a Field Day Logger with networked nodes
  • klogAUR – 运行在KDE上的业余无线电日志程序
  • qleAUR – QSO Logger and log Editor for amateur radio operators written in Perl
  • tlfAUR – a console mode networked logging and contest program
  • trustedqslAUR – QSL application for ARRL's Logbook of the World
  • xlogAUR – a logging program for amateur radio operators.
  • yfklogAUR – 通用的*nix业余无线电日志程序
  • yfktestAUR – a logbook program for ham radio contests.

工具

  • ctyAUR – 实体(国家)、前缀、呼号等信息,供业余无线电日志程序使用
  • dxccAUR – a small program for determining ARRL DXCC entity of a ham radio callsign

莫尔斯码练习

其他

  • cwircAUR – 在IRC上收发莫尔斯码