Arch boot process (Italiano)
Questo articolo intende descrivere l'ordine cronologico del processo di avvio di Arch, ed i file che lo interessano, fornendo link a sezioni del wiki dove necessario. Arch come BSD utilizza init, contrariamente al più diffuso SysV. Ciò implica una lieve distinzione tra i runlevel, dato che il sistema di default usa i soliti moduli ed i soliti processi in tutti gli altri runlevel. Il vantaggio è che gli utenti potranno configurare semplicemente il processo di avvio(vedere rc.conf (Italiano); lo svantaggio è che alcune configurazioni interessanti che offre SysV vanno perse. Consultare la guida su come aggiungere runlevel in modo da utilizzare alcune opzioni di SysV in Arch. Consultare Wikipedia:init per approfondire maggiormente le distinzioni tra SysV ed il metodo BSD.
After the system is powered-on and the POST is completed, the BIOS will locate the preferred boot medium and transfer control to the Master Boot Record of this device. On a GNU/Linux machine, often a bootloader such as GRUB or LILO is found and loaded from the MBR. The bootloader will present the user with a range of options for boot, e.g. Arch Linux and Windows on a dual-boot setup. Once Arch is selected, the kernel image in the Template:Filename directory (currently Template:Filename) is decompressed and loaded into memory.
The kernel is the core of an operating system. It functions on a low level (kernelspace) interacting between the hardware of the machine, and the programs which use the hardware to run. To make efficient use of the CPU, the kernel uses a scheduler to arbitrate which tasks take priority at any given moment, creating the illusion (to human perception) of many tasks being executed simultaneously.
After the kernel is loaded, it reads from the initramfs (initial RAM filesystem). The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem (see FHS for details). This means that any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if booting off a USB/FW drive) must be loaded. Once the initramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and the boot process continues. For this reason, the initrd only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem; it does not need to contain every module one would ever want to use. The majority of modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.
The kernel then looks for the program Template:Codeline which resides at Template:Filename. Template:Codeline relies on Template:Codeline, the GNU C library. Libraries are collections of frequently used program routines and are readily identifiable through their filename extension of Template:Filename. They are essential for basic system functionality. This part of the boot process is called early userspace.
init: The Arch boot scripts
The main Arch startup process is initiated by the program Template:Codeline, which spawns all other processes. The purpose of Template:Codeline is to bring the system into a usable state, using the boot scripts to do so. As previously mentioned, Arch uses BSD-style boot scripts. Template:Codeline reads the file Template:Filename; the default Template:Filename begins with the following:
The first uncommented line defines the default system runlevel (3). When the kernel calls init:
- First, the main initialization script is run, Template:Filename (a Bash script).
- If started in single user mode (runlevel 1 or S), the script Template:Filename will be run.
- If in any other runlevel (2-5), Template:Filename is run instead.
- The last script to run will be Template:Filename, which is empty by default.
Template:Filename is a huge startup script that basically takes care of all hardware configuration plus a number of general initialization tasks. It can be identified by its first task, printing the lines:
Arch Linux http://www.archlinux.org Copyright 2002-2007 Judd Vinet Copyright 2007-2009 Aaron Griffin Distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL)
A rough overview of its tasks:
- Sources the Template:Filename script
- Sources the Template:Filename script
- Displays a welcome message
- Mounts various virtual file systems
- Creates dummy device files
- Starts minilogd
- Outputs messages from dmesg
- Configures the hardware clock
- Empties the Template:Filename file
- Starts udev and checks for udev events
- Starts the loopback interface
- Loads modules from the Template:Codeline array defined in rc.conf
- Configures RAID and encrypted filesystem mappings
- Runs a forced check of partitions (fsck) if the /etc/fstab file contains instructions to do so
- Mounts local partitions and swap (networked drives are not mounted before a network profile is up)
- Activates swap areas
- Sets the hostname, locale and system clock as defined in Template:Filename
- Removes various leftover/temporary files, such as Template:Filename
- Configures the locale, console and keyboard mappings
- Sets the console font
- Writes output from dmesg to Template:Filename
Template:Filename is a script and not a place for settings. It sources (i.e. reads and inherits variables and functions) rc.conf for settings and Template:Filename for the functions that produce its graphical output (nice colors, alignments, switching 'busy' to 'done', etc.) There is no particular need to edit this file, although some may wish to do so in order to speed up the boot process.
Single-user mode will boot straight into the root user account and should only be used if one cannot boot normally. This script ensures no daemons are running except for the bare minimum: syslog-ng and udev. The single-user mode is useful for system recovery where preventing remote users from doing anything that might cause data loss or damage is necessary. In single-user mode, users can continue with the standard (multi-user) boot by entering 'exit' at the prompt.
Template:Filename is run on any multi-user runlevel (i.e. 2, 3. 4 and 5) which basically means any ordinary boot. Typically, users will not notice the transition from Template:Filename to Template:Filename as Template:Filename also uses the functions file to produce output. This script has three tasks:
- First, it runs sysctl (to modify kernel parameters at runtime) which applies the settings in Template:Filename. Arch has very few of these by default; mainly networking settings.
- Secondly, and most importantly, it starts daemons, as per the Template:Codeline array in Template:Filename.
- Finally, it will run Template:Filename.
Template:Filename is the local multi-user startup script. Empty by default, it is a good place to put any last-minute commands the system should run at the very end of the boot process. Most common system configuration tasks (like loading modules, changing the console font, or setting up devices) usually have a dedicated place where they belong. To avoid confusion, ensure that whatever one intends to add to Template:Filename is not already residing in Template:Filename, or any other existing configuration location instead.
When editing this file, keep in mind that it is run after the basic setup (modules/daemons), as the root user, and whether or not X starts. Here is an example which just un-mutes the ALSA sound settings:
Another common usage for Template:Filename is to apply various hacks when one cannot make the ordinary initialization work correctly.
By default, after the Arch boot scripts are completed, the Template:Codeline program prompts users for a login name. After a login name is received, Template:Codeline calls Template:Codeline to prompt for the login password.
Finally, with a successful login, the Template:Codeline program starts the user's default shell. The default shell and environment variables may be globally defined within Template:Filename. All variables within a users home directory shall take precedence over those globally defined under Template:Filename. For instance, if two conflicting variables are specified within Template:Filename and Template:Filename, the one dictated by Template:Filename shall prevail.
The majority of users wishing to start an X server during the boot process will want to install a display manager, and see Display Manager for details. Alternatively, Start X at Boot outlines methods that do not involve a display manager.