Arch Build System (한국어)
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이 문서는 초보자를 위한 빠른 설명과 함께 아치 빌드 시스템의 개요를 제공합니다. 이 문서의 내용은 완벽한 안내서가 아닙니다! 더 많은 정보가 필요하면, 맨 페이지를 참조 해주세요.
- 1 아치 빌드 시스템이란?
- 2 Why would I want to use ABS?
- 3 Walkthrough
아치 빌드 시스템이란?
포트와 유사한(ports-like) 시스템이란?
'포트'시스템은 BSD*에서 소스 패키지를 다운로드 압축 해제, 패치, 컴파일하여 설치하는 사용됩니다. '포트'는 사용자의 컴퓨터에 디렉토리로 존재합니다. 이 작은 디렉토리는 해당 소프트웨어의 이름이 같으며, 일반적으로 디렉토리 안에는 소스와 응용 프로그램을 설치하기 위한 지침을 몇 가지 파일이 포함되어 있습니다. 이 시스템은 보다 쉽게 소스를 컴파일하고 원하는 소프트웨어 설치를 도와줍니다.
ABS 는 같은 개념입니다.
ABS 는 Template:Filename 아래에 ABS 라는 디렉토리 구조를 만듭니다. 이 구조에는 많은 하부 디렉토리와 각각의 패키들에 의해 명명되고 분류되어 있습니다. 이 구조는 SVN 시스템에 의해 복구되는 모든 공식 아치 소프트웨어를 표현 합니다.(내용을 담고 있지는 않습니다.) 'ABS'에서 각각의 패키지 명명화된 하부 디렉토리를 참조 할것이며, '포트'에서 참조하는것 보다 많은 방법을 사용 할것입니다. 이들 ABS (또는 하부 디렉토리들)은 소프트웨어 패키지 또는 소스를 포함하지 않지만 PKGBUILD 화일(그리고 때로는 다른 화일들)을 포함합니다. PKGBUILD는 간결한 BASH 빌더 스크립터 입니다. -- 다운로드 할 수 있는 tar 묶음된 소스의 가장 적절한 URL로 구성된 컴파일 하기와 패키징 하기 정보를 담고 있는 텍스트 화일입니다. (ABS에서 가장 중요한 요소는 PKGBUILD입니다.) ABS makepkg에 의해서 야기된 소프트웨어는 인스톨되기전에 빌더 디렉토리에서 먼저 컴파일되고 패키지화 됩니다. 이제 여러분은 아치 리눅스 패키지 매니저인 pacman을 사용하여 새로운 패키지를 설치, 업데이트, 삭제 할 수 있습니다.
'ABS' may be used as an umbrella term, since it includes and relies on several other components. Therefore, though not technically accurate, 'ABS' can refer to the following structure and tools as a complete toolkit:
- The ABS tree
- The ABS directory structure; an SVN hierarchy under Template:Filename on your (local) machine. It contains many subdirectories, named for all available official Arch Linux software from repositories specified in Template:Filename, but not the packages themselves.
- A set of tools to retrieve and build official Arch Linux PKGBUILDs. Example PKGBUILDs are also included.
- Text build script files residing under the ABS directories, or that are custom made, with instructions for building packages and the URL of the sources.
- ABS shell command tool which reads the PKGBUILDs, automatically downloads and compiles the sources and creates a Template:Filename.
- pacman is completely separate, but is necessarily invoked either by makepkg or manually to install and remove the built packages and for fetching dependencies.
- The Arch User Repository is separate from ABS but AUR ([unsupported]) PKGBUILDs can be built using the ABS makepkg tool to compile and package up software. The AUR contains almost 16,000 user-contributed PKGBUILDs for software which is unavailable as an official Arch package. If you need to build a package outside the official Arch tree, chances are it is in the AUR.
Why would I want to use ABS?
The Arch Build System is used to:
- Recompile a package, for any reason
- Make and install new packages from source of software for which no packages are yet available (see Building Packages)
- Customize existing packages to fit your needs (enabling or disabling options, patching)
- Rebuild your entire system using your compiler flags, "a la FreeBSD" (e.g. with pacbuilder)
- Cleanly build and install your own custom kernel (see Custom Kernel Compilation with ABS as well as Kernel Compilation)
- Get kernel modules working with your custom kernel
- Easily compile and install a newer, older, beta, or development version of an Arch package by editing the version number in the PKGBUILD
ABS is not necessary to use Arch Linux, but it is useful for automating certain tasks of source compilation.
With the ABS tree in place, an Arch user has all available Arch software at their fingertips to compile from source, automatically package as a Template:Filename, and finally, install with pacman.
Install the ABS package with Template:Codeline. Running Template:Codeline as root creates the ABS tree by synchronizing with the Arch Linux server. If you wanted to build a package from source you would copy the build files (usually residing under Template:Filename) to a build directory, navigate to that directory, edit the PKGBUILD (if desired/necessary) and do makepkg. According to instructions in the PKGBUILD, makepkg will download the appropriate source tarball, unpack it, patch if desired, compile according to CFLAGS specified in Template:Filename, and finally compress the built files into a package with the extension Template:Filename. PKGBUILDs may be customized to suit your unique configuration needs, or for applying patches. Installing is as easy as doing Template:Codeline. Package removal is also handled by pacman.
To use abs, you first need to install abs from the [core] repository. This can be done simply by:
# pacman -S abs
This will grab the abs-sync scripts, various build scipts, and rsync (as a dependency, if you don't already have it).
Before you can actually build anything, however, you will also need to grab basic compiling tools. These are handily collected in the package group base-devel. This group can be installed with:
# pacman -S base-devel
As root, edit Template:Filename to include your desired repositories:
# vim /etc/abs.conf
# nano /etc/abs.conf
Remove the ! in front of the appropriate repos, e.g.:
REPOS=(core extra community !testing)
Download the ABS tree
As root, run:
If you are an active developer, the abs command should also be run periodically to be in sync with the official repositories. If you are a casual developer, individual ABS package files can be downloaded by:
# abs repository/package
Template:Filename specifies global environment variables and compiler flags which you may wish to edit if you are using an SMP system, or to specify other desired optimizations. The default settings are for i686 and x86_64 optimizations which will work fine for those architectures on single-CPU systems. (The defaults will work on SMP machines, but will only use one core/CPU when compiling -- see makepkg.conf.)
The ABS tree
When you run Template:Codeline for the first time, it synchronizes the ABS tree on the Arch Linux server to your computer. The ABS tree is an SVN directory hierarchy located under Template:Filename and looks like this:
| -- core/ | || -- base/ | || || -- acl/ | || || || -- PKGBUILD | || || -- attr/ | || || || -- PKGBUILD | || || -- ... | || -- devel/ | || || -- abs/ | || || || -- PKGBUILD | || || -- autoconf/ | || || || -- PKGBUILD | || || -- ... | || -- ... | -- extra/ | || -- daemons/ | || || -- acpid/ | || || || -- PKGBUILD | || || || -- ... | || || -- apache/ | || || || -- ... | || || -- ... | || -- ... | -- community/ | || -- ...
The ABS tree has exactly the same structure as the package database:
- First-level: Category directories
- Second-level: Package name directories
- Third level: PKGBUILD (contains information needed to build a package) and other related files (patches, other files needed for building the package)
The source code for the package is not present in the ABS directory. Instead, the PKGBUILD file contains a URL that will download the source code when the package is built.
Create a build directory
You must create a build directory where the actual compiling will take place. This is where you'll do everything; you should never modify the ABS tree by building within it, as data will be lost (overwritten) on each ABS update. It is good practice to use your home directory, though some Arch users prefer to create a 'local' directory under Template:Filename, owned by a normal user. Copy the ABS from the tree (Template:Filename) to the build directory, Template:Filename.
Create your build directory. e.g.:
$ mkdir -p $HOME/abs
The build function, traditional method
If you're not familiar with compiling from source, you should know that most packages (but not all) can be built from source in this traditional way:
- Download source tarball from remote server, using web browser, ftp, wget or alternate method.
- Decompress the source file:
$ tar -xzf foo-0.99.tar.gz
$ tar -xjf foo-0.99.tar.bz2
- Enter the directory:
$ cd foo-0.99
- Configure the package. Generally, there is a script called Template:Filename in the source directory that is used to configure the package (add or remove support for things, choose the install destination, etc.) and check that your computer has all the software needed by the package. It can be run by:
$ ./configure [option]
You should first try the help to better understand how it works:
$ ./configure --help
If a Template:Codeline option is not passed to the script, most scripts will use Template:Filename as the install path, but others will use Template:Filename. For the sake of consistency, it is generally advised to pass the Template:Codeline option. It is good practice to install personal programs in Template:Filename, and to have the ones being managed by the distro in Template:Filename. This ensures personal program versions can coexist with those being managed by the distro's package manager -- in Arch's case, pacman.
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
- Compile the sources:
# make install
- Removal would be accomplished by entering the source directory and running:
# make uninstall
However, you should always read the Template:Filename file to know how the package should be built and installed! Not all packages use the
configure; make; make install system!
The build function, the ABS way
ABS is an elegant tool which allows for powerful assistance and customization for the build process and creates a pacman-trackable package file for installation. The ABS method involves copying an ABS from the tree to a build directory, and doing makepkg. In our example, we will build the slim display manager package.
Copy the slim ABS from the ABS tree to a build directory:
$ cp -r /var/abs/extra/slim/ ~/abs
Navigate to the build directory:
$ cd ~/abs/slim
Modify the PKGBUILD to add or remove support for components, to patch or to change package versions, etc. (optional):
$ nano PKGBUILD
Run makepkg as normal user (with Template:Codeline switch to install with automatic dependency handling):
$ makepkg -s
Install as root:
# pacman -U slim-1.3.0-2-i686.pkg.tar.gz
That's it. You have just built slim from source and cleanly installed it to your system with pacman. Package removal is also handled by pacman -- (Template:Codeline).
Essentially, the same steps are being executed as described in the traditional method (generally including the
./configure, make, make install steps) but the software is installed into a fake root environment. (A fake root is simply a subdirectory within the build directory that functions and behaves as the system's root directory. In conjunction with the fakeroot program, makepkg creates a fake root directory, and installs the compiled binaries and associated files into it, with root as owner.) The fake root, or subdirectory tree containing the compiled software, is then compressed into an archive with the extension Template:Filename, or a package. When invoked, pacman then extracts the package (installs it) into the system's real root directory (Template:Filename). Simple.
The ABS method adds a level of convenience and automation, while still maintaining complete transparency and control of the build and installation functions by including them in the PKGBUILD.