Difference between revisions of "Arch Handbook"

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[[Category:Desktop user's guide (English)]]
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
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{{out of date}}
{{stub}}
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== Notice ==
 
== Notice ==
 
This handbook has only just been started. It's currently a rather bare outline. Please edit it and make it better! Look at the [http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ FreeBSD Handbook] as a style guide.
 
This handbook has only just been started. It's currently a rather bare outline. Please edit it and make it better! Look at the [http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ FreeBSD Handbook] as a style guide.
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Arch linux is a lightweight and flexible linux distribution that tries to Keep It Simple.
 
Arch linux is a lightweight and flexible linux distribution that tries to Keep It Simple.
 
There are official packages optimized for the i686 and x86-64 architectures. There is also a community-operated package repository.
 
There are official packages optimized for the i686 and x86-64 architectures. There is also a community-operated package repository.
See the pages in [[:Category: About Arch (English)|this category]]
+
See the pages in [[:Category:About Arch|this category]]
  
 
=== Installing Arch Linux ===
 
=== Installing Arch Linux ===
There are two types of install CD. The CORE CD holds the packages required to get a basic system running. The FTP CD pulls the latest packages from the repositories during the install. Both CDs have NCURSES installers. There are the following steps:
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The full install guide is [[Installation Guide|here]] and the install CDs are available [https://www.archlinux.org/download/ here]. If you would like a more detailed installation guide, please see the [[Beginners' Guide]].
#Loading a non-US Keymap
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#Running Setup
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#Configure Network (FTP Install only)
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#Prepare Hard Drive
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##Auto-Prepare
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##Partition Hard Drives
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##Set Filesystem Mountpoints
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#Select Packages
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#Install Packages
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#Configure System
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#Install Kernel
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#Install Bootloader
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#Exit Install
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The full install guide is [[Official Arch Linux Install Guide|here]] and the install CDs are available [http://www.archlinux.org/download/ here].
+
  
 
=== Linux Basics ===
 
=== Linux Basics ===
 
A few basics on the file system and command line, for people starting Unix/Linux with Arch.
 
A few basics on the file system and command line, for people starting Unix/Linux with Arch.
  
=== Installing Software: Pacman ===
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'''How to change directory:'''
Some basics on Pacman options, how repositories work, etc.
+
 
 +
cd /name/of/directory
 +
 
 +
e.g.
 +
 
 +
cd /etc/pacman.d
 +
 
 +
'''How to make a directory:'''
 +
 
 +
mkdir /path/to/new/directory
 +
 
 +
e.g.
 +
 
 +
mkdir /home/archuser/newfolder
 +
 
 +
'''How to remove an (empty) directory:'''
 +
 
 +
rmdir /path/to/empty/directory
 +
 
 +
'''How to remove a non-empty directory:'''
 +
 
 +
rmdir --ignore-fail-on-non-empty /path/to/non_empty/directory
 +
 
 +
'''How to list files in a directory:'''
 +
 
 +
All files: (except hidden files)
 +
 
 +
ls
 +
 
 +
All files: (including hidden files)
 +
 
 +
ls -a
 +
 
 +
All files, hidden files and their properties:
 +
 
 +
ls -la
 +
 
 +
Files with the .avi file extension only:
 +
 
 +
ls *.avi
 +
 
 +
'''How to move a file:'''
 +
 
 +
mv /path/to/old/file.ext /path/to/new/file.ext
 +
 
 +
e.g.
 +
 
 +
mv /home/archuser/compressed.zip /home/archuser/myfiles/compressed2.zip
 +
 
 +
'''How to copy a file:'''
 +
 
 +
cp /path/to/file.txt /path/to/copied/file.txt
 +
 
 +
'''How to remove a file:'''
 +
 
 +
rm /path/to/file.txt
 +
 
 +
e.g.
 +
 
 +
rm /home/archuser/file.txt
 +
 
 +
'''How to show the contents of a file:'''
 +
 
 +
cat /path/to/file.txt
 +
 
 +
'''How to make a file executable:'''
 +
 
 +
chmod +x /path/to/script.sh
 +
 
 +
'''How to (search the entire filesystem for) a file called euwfh.avi'''
 +
 
 +
cd /
 +
 
 +
find -name euwfh.avi
 +
 
 +
'''How to mount a partition:'''
 +
 
 +
mount /dev/sdX1 /media/mountpoint
 +
 
 +
e.g.
 +
 
 +
mount /dev/sda1 /media/folder
  
Pacman is the Archlinux package management tool. It is a command line tool which provides an easy way to install and manage applications, libraries and other software. It is extremely easy to use and powerful, and will be one of the main administrative tools you will use while running Archlinux.
 
The main operations are
 
pacman -S app # install package named app
 
pacman -Syu # update package database and upgrade any packages
 
pacman -R app # remove package name app
 
  
To get a full list of operations pacman can perform, open a terminal and type:
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'''How to show how much space is left/used on (all mounted) partitions:'''
  
  pacman --help
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  df -h
  
To get more detail on an operation, combine it with --help:  
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'''How to show all running processes:'''
  
  pacman --help -S
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  ps -A
  
Or, for a more in-depth guide, consult the man page:
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'''How to stop an annoying process called "EvilTrojan":'''
  
  man pacman
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  killall EvilTrojan
  
See the wiki entry for [[pacman]] for a user-friendly guide.
+
'''How to show an unintelligible manual for a program "ultracompressor"'''
  
=== X11 and Graphical Desktop Environments ===
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man ultracompressor
Basics of X11 concepts, installation and configuration of Gnome, KDE, etc.
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====Xorg====
+
  
[[Xorg]] is the public, open-source implementation of the X11 X Window System. Basically, if you want a GUI atop Arch, you will want xorg. It is installed by:
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=== Installing, removing, updating and managing software: pacman ===
pacman -S xorg
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See [[pacman]].
Drivers for your video card are alo needed. They are listed by this command:
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pacman -Ss xf86-video
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You also need a <code>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</code> file. This can be automatically generated by hwd:
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pacman -S hwd
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hwd -xa
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You may want to edit this slightly before proceeding. Then test Xorg by executing
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startx
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This should give the basic WM.
+
  
====Window Managers and Desktop Environments====
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=== Graphical Desktop Environments ===
 +
{{Graphical user interface overview}}
  
 
== Common Tasks ==
 
== Common Tasks ==
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Creating and managing users with command-line utilities.
 
Creating and managing users with command-line utilities.
  
Users are created with <code>adduser</code>. Users must also be added to [[groups]] to make them useful.
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Users are created with <code>adduser</code>. See [[Users and Groups]] for more information.
  
 
== Networking ==
 
== Networking ==
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=== Firewalls ===
 
=== Firewalls ===
Basic firewall concepts, how to use iptables.
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See [[Firewalls]], [[iptables]], [[Simple Stateful Firewall]].

Revision as of 18:19, 11 December 2012

Tango-view-refresh-red.pngThis article or section is out of date.Tango-view-refresh-red.png

Reason: please use the first argument of the template to provide a brief explanation. (Discuss in Talk:Arch Handbook#)

Notice

This handbook has only just been started. It's currently a rather bare outline. Please edit it and make it better! Look at the FreeBSD Handbook as a style guide.

Most sections should be a summary, with a link to the main article on the subject.

Getting Started

Introduction

Arch linux is a lightweight and flexible linux distribution that tries to Keep It Simple. There are official packages optimized for the i686 and x86-64 architectures. There is also a community-operated package repository. See the pages in this category

Installing Arch Linux

The full install guide is here and the install CDs are available here. If you would like a more detailed installation guide, please see the Beginners' Guide.

Linux Basics

A few basics on the file system and command line, for people starting Unix/Linux with Arch.

How to change directory:

cd /name/of/directory

e.g.

cd /etc/pacman.d

How to make a directory:

mkdir /path/to/new/directory

e.g.

mkdir /home/archuser/newfolder

How to remove an (empty) directory:

rmdir /path/to/empty/directory

How to remove a non-empty directory:

rmdir --ignore-fail-on-non-empty /path/to/non_empty/directory

How to list files in a directory:

All files: (except hidden files)

ls

All files: (including hidden files)

ls -a

All files, hidden files and their properties:

ls -la

Files with the .avi file extension only:

ls *.avi

How to move a file:

mv /path/to/old/file.ext /path/to/new/file.ext

e.g.

mv /home/archuser/compressed.zip /home/archuser/myfiles/compressed2.zip

How to copy a file:

cp /path/to/file.txt /path/to/copied/file.txt

How to remove a file:

rm /path/to/file.txt

e.g.

rm /home/archuser/file.txt

How to show the contents of a file:

cat /path/to/file.txt

How to make a file executable:

chmod +x /path/to/script.sh

How to (search the entire filesystem for) a file called euwfh.avi

cd /
find -name euwfh.avi

How to mount a partition:

mount /dev/sdX1 /media/mountpoint

e.g.

mount /dev/sda1 /media/folder


How to show how much space is left/used on (all mounted) partitions:

df -h

How to show all running processes:

ps -A

How to stop an annoying process called "EvilTrojan":

killall EvilTrojan

How to show an unintelligible manual for a program "ultracompressor"

man ultracompressor

Installing, removing, updating and managing software: pacman

See pacman.

Graphical Desktop Environments

Template:Graphical user interface overview

Common Tasks

Desktop Applications

Web browsers, office suites, etc.

Multimedia

Video players, music jukeboxes, photo management, how to get codecs.

Printing

CUPS installation and configuration, finding drivers.

System Administration

Configuration and Tuning

A lot of the configuration of Arch is done in /etc/rc.conf. This may sound daunting , but it is well commented and allows you to set modules for auto-loading and blacklisting, along with daemons and some network configuration. Details on some common configuration (init, cron).

Users and Basic Account Management

Creating and managing users with command-line utilities.

Users are created with adduser. See Users and Groups for more information.

Networking

Network Configuration

How networks are set up in Arch.

Servers

Mail, web, SSH server installation and configuration.

Firewalls

See Firewalls, iptables, Simple Stateful Firewall.