zh-cn:Arch Linux System Maintenance Regular system maintenance is necessary for the proper function of Arch over a period of time. Timely-maintenance is a practice many users get accustomed to.
Periodically look into
/var/log/ and look at:
- The tail end of
Xorg.0.logand look for (EE) and (WW)
- Check to see that all units are loaded by systemd with
Having the correct, up-to-date, and configured-properly packages are a key system maintenance.
System stability regardings
Package tasks that are grouped with system stability are covered in Enhancing_Arch_Linux_stability#Maintaining_Arch.
Packages that were once dependent on another package but no longer are... can be removed with:
pacman -Rcs $(pacman -Qtdq)
To keep a lighter system and easier to maintain, rid the system of old, unused packages. You can look at explicitly installed packages (i.e. non-dependencies) for official packages by doing:
pacman -Qqe | grep -v "$(pacman -Qqm)" | less
and for packages not installed from official repositories by doing:
Package cache clean
Pacman stores it's downloaded packages in
/var/cache/pacman/pkg/ and every now and then it's a good idea to trim it down. You can do this with pacman with
pacman -Sc which will remove all downloaded packages except the currently installed version. To automate this task it can be put in one's chronological table (see Optimize pacman database below).
If desiring to have more than the currently installed package available consider usingAUR which can leave multiple versions behind.
Optimize pacman database
pacman-optimize a tool to optimize pacman's database which is stored in a set of small files.
pacman-optimize will attempt to put the files on one location of the hard disk to improve access speed.
# mm hh DD MM W /path/program [--option]... ( W = weekday: 0-6 [Sun=0] ) @monthly /usr/bin/pacman -Sc @monthly /usr/bin/pacman-optimize
General duties to keep things tidy.
Root directory (
/) files are generally placed by the package manager and should be generally kept that way for ease of maintenance. If needed to have something installed to the root directory (i.e. not
/home) consider creating a package for it. To tell if any extraneous files exist:
Create a filelist of package-known files by:
for p in $(pacman -Qq); do pacman -Qql $p; done > pkgs-filelist.txt sed -i 's#/$##g' pkgs-filelist.txt # removes trailing slashes sort -u pkgs-filelist.txt -o
And create filelist of the root directory files (omit temporary file systems [
/home; other mounts
/mnt; root user directory
/root; and temporary directories
/tmp and some in
find / -not -path "/dev/*" -not -path "/proc/*" -not -path "/run/*" -not -path "/sys/*" -not -path "/home/*" -not -path "/media*" -not -path "/mnt/*" -not -path "/root/*" -not -path "/tmp/*" -not -path "/var/cache/cups*" -not -path "/var/cache/fontconfig*" -not -path "/var/cache/pacman/pkg/*" > root-filelist.txt sort -u root-filelist.txt -o root-filelist.txt
These can get quite large so a good diff editor is needed,
vimdiff will do:
vimdiff pkgs-filelist.txt root-filelist.txt
Old configurations will be left at times, get rid of those and any other cruft and trash. Also look at
/var and make sure there isn't some accumulation there.
/var is the location where logs are kept and other constantly changing data. Go through and see if anything is getting large:
du -sh /var/*
Home clutter trim
Go through the files in the
/home/$USER's directory... all of them. If a file hasn't been used in quite some time and probably will never be needed, consider getting rid of it. Down the road it may be good not to have to go through 100 directories looking for the one file you need in
~/.config/ for example. Also look for configurations that also support
~/.config/ now and move them there as to help reduce clutter.
Numerous programs exist in the repositories to back up the system with. Regular backups often are not necessary; however, one day it seems that everyone runs into the "OMG, no" moment.is probably the most used program and it's invocation is basic:
rsync -a src_dir dst_dir
Backups of the system should be done from a live medium (like an install cd) unless one knows what one is doing.