Arch packaging standards

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Packaging Standards

The submitted PKGBUILDs must not build applications already in any of the official binary repositories under any circumstances. Exception to this strict rule may only be packages having extra features enabled and/or patches in comparison to the official ones. In such an occasion, the pkgname array should be different.

When building packages for Arch Linux, adhere to the package guidelines below, especially if the intention is to contribute a new package to Arch Linux. You should also see the PKGBUILD and makepkg manpages.

PKGBUILD Prototype

# Maintainer: Your Name <youremail@domain.com>
pkgname=NAME
pkgver=VERSION
pkgrel=1
pkgdesc=""
arch=()
url=""
license=('GPL')
groups=()
depends=()
makedepends=()
optdepends=()
provides=()
conflicts=()
replaces=()
backup=()
options=()
install=
changelog=
source=($pkgname-$pkgver.tar.gz)
noextract=()
md5sums=() #generate with 'makepkg -g'

build() {
  cd "$srcdir/$pkgname-$pkgver"

  ./configure --prefix=/usr
  make
}

package() {
  cd "$srcdir/$pkgname-$pkgver"

  make DESTDIR="$pkgdir/" install
}

Other prototypes are found in /usr/share/pacman from the pacman and abs packages.

Package Etiquette

  • Packages should never be installed to /usr/local
  • Do not introduce new variables into PKGBUILD build scripts, unless the package cannot be built without doing so, as these could possibly conflict with variables used in makepkg itself. If a new variable is absolutely required, prefix the variable name with an underscore (_), e.g.
    _customvariable=

    The AUR cannot detect the use of custom variables and so cannot use them in substitutions. This can most often be seen in the source array e.g.

    http://downloads.sourceforge.net/directxwine/$patchname.$patchver.diff.bz2

    Such a situation defeats the effective functionality of the AUR.

  • Avoid using /usr/libexec/ for anything. Use /usr/lib/${pkgname}/ instead.
  • The packager field from the package meta file can be customized by the package builder by modifying the appropriate option in the /etc/makepkg.conf file, or alternatively override it by creating ~/.makepkg.conf
  • All important messages should be echoed during install using an .install file. For example, if a package needs extra setup to work, directions should be included.
  • Any optional dependencies that aren't needed to run the package or have it generally function shouldn't be included; instead the information should be added to the optdepends array:
    optdepends=('cups: printing support'
                'sane: scanners support'
                'libgphoto2: digital cameras support'
                'alsa-lib: sound support'
                'giflib: GIF images support'
                'libjpeg: JPEG images support'
                'libpng: PNG images support')
    

    The above example is taken from the wine package in extra. The optdepends information is automatically printed out on installation/upgrade so one should not keep this kind of information in .install files.

  • When creating a package description for a package, do not include the package name in a self-referencing way. For example, "Nedit is a text editor for X11" could be simplified to "A text editor for X11". Also try to keep the descriptions to ~80 characters or less.
  • Try to keep the line length in the PKGBUILD below ~100 characters.
  • Where possible, remove empty lines from the PKGBUILD (provides, replaces, etc.)
  • It is common practice to preserve the order of the PKGBUILD fields as shown above. However, this is not mandatory, as the only requirement in this context is correct bash syntax.

Package Naming

  • Package names should consist of alphanumeric characters only; all letters should be lowercase.
  • Package versions should be the same as the version released by the author. Versions can include letters if need be (eg, nmap's version is 2.54BETA32). Version tags may not include hyphens! Letters, numbers, and periods only.
  • Package releases are specific to Arch Linux packages. These allow users to differentiate between newer and older package builds. When a new package version is first released, the release count starts at 1. Then as fixes and optimizations are made, the package will be re-released to the Arch Linux public and the release number will increment. When a new version comes out, the release count resets to 1. Package release tags follow the same naming restrictions as version tags.

Directories

  • Configuration files should be placed in the /etc directory. If there's more than one configuration file, it's customary to use a subdirectory in order to keep the /etc area as clean as possible. Use /etc/{pkgname}/ where {pkgname} is the name of the package (or a suitable alternative, eg, apache uses /etc/httpd/).
  • Package files should follow these general directory guidelines:
  • /etc

    System-essential configuration files

    /usr/bin Application binaries
    /usr/sbin System binaries
    /usr/lib Libraries
    /usr/include Header files
    /usr/lib/{pkg} Modules, plugins, etc.
    /usr/share/doc/{pkg} Application documentation
    /usr/share/info GNU Info system files
    /usr/share/man Manpages
    /usr/share/{pkg} Application data
    /var/lib/{pkg} Persistent application storage
    /etc/{pkg} Configuration files for {pkg}
    /opt/{pkg}

    Large self-contained packages such as Java, etc.

  • Package should not contain following directories:
    • /dev
    • /home
    • /srv
    • /media
    • /mnt
    • /proc
    • /root
    • /selinux
    • /sys
    • /tmp
    • /var/tmp

Makepkg Duties

When makepkg is used to build a package, it does the following automatically:

  1. Checks if package dependencies and makedepends are installed
  2. Downloads source files from servers
  3. Checks the integrity of source files
  4. Unpacks source files
  5. Does any necessary patching
  6. Builds the software and installs it in a fake root
  7. Strips symbols from binaries
  8. Strips debugging symbols from libraries
  9. Compresses manual and, or info pages
  10. Generates the package meta file which is included with each package
  11. Compresses the fake root into the package file
  12. Stores the package file in the configured destination directory (cwd by default)

Architectures

The arch array should contain 'i686' and/or 'x86_64' depending on which architectures it can be built on. You can also use 'any' for architecture independent packages.

Licenses

The license array is being implemented in the official repos, and it should be used in your packages as well. Use it as follows:

  • A licenses package has been created in [core] that stores common licenses in /usr/share/licenses/common ie. /usr/share/licenses/common/GPL. If a package is licensed under one of these licenses, the licenses variable will be set to the directory name e.g. license=('GPL')
  • If the appropriate license is not included in the official licenses package, several things must be done:
    1. The license file(s) should be included in /usr/share/licenses/$pkgname/ e.g. /usr/share/licenses/dibfoo/LICENSE. One good way to do this is by using:
      install -D -m644 LICENSE "${pkgdir}/usr/share/licenses/${pkgname}/LICENSE"
    2. If the source tarball does NOT contain the license details and the license is only displayed on a website for example, then copy the license to a file and include it. Remember to call it something appropriate too.
    3. Add 'custom' to the licenses array. Optionally, you can replace 'custom' with 'custom:"name of license"'.
  • Once a licenses is used in two or more packages in an official repo, including [community], it becomes common
  • The MIT, BSD, zlib/libpng and Python licenses are special cases and cannot be included in the 'common' licenses pkg. For the sake of the license variable, it's treated like a common license (license=('BSD'), license=('MIT'), license=('ZLIB') or license=('Python')) but for the sake of the filesystem, it's a custom license, because each one has its own copyright line. Each MIT, BSD, zlib/libpng or Python licensed package should have its unique license stored in /usr/share/licenses/$pkgname/.
  • Some packages may not be covered by a single license. In these cases multiple entries may be made in the license array e.g. license=("GPL" "custom:some commercial license"). For the majority of packages these licenses apply in different cases, as opposed to applying at the same time. When pacman gets the ability to filter on licenses (so you can say, "I only want GPL and BSD licensed software") dual (or more) licenses will be treated by pacman using OR, rather than AND logic, thus pacman will consider the above example as GPL licensed software, regardless of the other licenses listed.
  • The (L)GPL has many versions and permutations of those versions. For (L)GPL software, the convention is:
    • (L)GPL - (L)GPLv2 or any later version
    • (L)GPL2 - (L)GPL2 only
    • (L)GPL3 - (L)GPL3 or any later version

Submitting Packages to the AUR

Note the following before submitting any packages to the AUR:

  1. The submitted PKGBUILDs MUST NOT build applications already in any of the official binary repositories under any circumstances. Exception to this strict rule may only be packages having extra features enabled and/or patches in compare to the official ones. In such an occasion the pkgname array should be different to express that difference. eg. A GNU screen PKGBUILD submitted containing the sidebar patch, could be named screen-sidebar etc. Additionally the provides=('screen') PKGBUILD array should be used in order to avoid conflicts with the official package.
  2. To ensure the security of pkgs submitted to the AUR please ensure that you have correctly filled the md5sum field. The md5sum's can be generated using the makepkg -g command.
  3. Please add a comment line to the top of the PKGBUILD file that follows this format. Remember to disguise your email to protect against spam:
    # Maintainer: Your Name <address at domain dot com>

    If you are assuming the role of maintainer for an existing PKGBUILD, add your name to the top as described above and change the title of the previous Maintainer(s) to Contributor:

    # Maintainer: Your Name <address at domain dot com>
    # Contributor: Previous Name <address at domain dot com>
  4. Verify the package dependencies (eg, run ldd on dynamic executables, check tools required by scripts, etc). The TU team strongly recommend the use of the namcap utility, written by Jason Chu (jason@archlinux.org), to analyze the sanity of packages. namcap will warn you about bad permissions, missing dependencies, un-needed dependencies, and other common mistakes. You can install the namcap package with pacman. Remember namcap can be used to check both pkg.tar.gz files and PKGBUILDs
  5. Dependencies are the most common packaging error. Namcap can help detect them, but it is not always correct. Verify dependencies by looking at source documentation and the program website.
  6. Don't use replaces in a PKGBUILD unless the package is to be renamed, for example when Ethereal became Wireshark. If the package is an alternate version of an already existing package, use conflicts (and provides if that package is required by others). The main difference is: after syncing (-Sy) pacman immediately wants to replace an installed, 'offending' package upon encountering a package with the matching replaces anywhere in its repositories; conflicts on the other hand is only evaluated when actually installing the package, which is usually the desired behavior because it is less invasive.
  7. All files uploaded to the AUR should be contained in a compressed tar file containing a directory with the PKGBUILD and additional build files (patches, install, ...) in it.
    foo/PKGBUILD
    foo/foo.install
    foo/foo_bar.diff
    foo/foo.rc.conf

    The archive name should contain the name of the package e.g. foo.tar.gz.

    One can easily build a tarball containing all the required files by using makepkg --source. This makes a tarball named $pkgname-$pkgver-$pkgrel.src.tar.gz, which can then be uploaded to the AUR.

    The tarball should not contain the binary tarball created by makepkg, nor should it contain the filelist

Additional Guidelines

Be sure to read the above guidelines first - important points are listed on this page that will not be repeated in the following guideline pages. These specific guidelines are intended as an addition to the standards listed on this page.

CVS/SVN Packages

Please see the Arch CVS & SVN PKGBUILD guidelines

Eclipse Plugin Packages

Please see the Eclipse plugin package guidelines

Gnome Packages

Please see the Gnome package guidelines

Haskell Packages

Please see the Haskell package guidelines

Java Packages

Please see the Java Package Guidelines

Kernel Module Packages

Please see the Kernel Module Package Guidelines

Lisp Packages

Please see the Lisp Package Guidelines

OCaml Packages

Please see the OCaml_Package_Guidelines

Perl Packages

Please see the Perl Package Guidelines

Python Packages

Please see the Python Package Guidelines

Ruby Gem Packages

Please see the Ruby Gem Package Guidelines

Wine Packages

Please see the Arch wine PKGBUILD guidelines