Difference between revisions of "Arch User Repository"
m (fixed link avoid redirect)
(→Acquire build files: -L is needed to follow 301s)
|Line 104:||Line 104:|
$ cd ~/builds
$ cd ~/builds
$ curl -O <nowiki>https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/fo/foo/foo.tar.gz</nowiki>
$ curl -O <nowiki>https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/fo/foo/foo.tar.gz</nowiki>
=== Build the package ===
=== Build the package ===
Revision as of 21:49, 15 May 2014
The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions (PKGBUILDs) that allow you to compile a package from source with makepkg and then install it via pacman. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the #Community repository. This document explains how users can access and utilize the AUR.
A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR. In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds (PKGBUILD and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for or against packages in the AUR. If a package becomes popular enough — provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique — it may be entered into the community repository (directly accessible by pacman or abs).
- 1 Getting started
- 2 History
- 3 Searching
- 4 Installing packages
- 5 Feedback
- 6 Sharing and maintaining packages
- 7 Community repository
- 8 Git repository
- 9 FAQ
- 9.1 What is the AUR?
- 9.2 What kind of packages are permitted on the AUR?
- 9.3 How can I vote for packages in AUR?
- 9.4 What is a Trusted User / TU?
- 9.5 What is the difference between the Arch User Repository and community?
- 9.6 How many votes does it take to get a PKGBUILD into community?
- 9.7 How do I make a PKGBUILD?
- 9.8 I'm trying to run "pacman -S foo"; it is not working but I know it is in community
- 9.9 Foo in AUR is outdated; what do I do?
- 9.10 I have a PKGBUILD I would like to submit; can someone check it to see if there are any errors?
- 9.11 Foo in AUR does not compile when I run makepkg; what should I do?
- 9.12 How can I speed up repeated build processes?
- 9.13 How do I access unsupported packages?
- 9.14 How can I upload to AUR without using the web interface?
- 10 See also
- Ensure the
pacman -S --needed base-devel).
group package is installed (
- Read the remainder of this article for more info and a short tutorial on installing AUR packages.
- Visit the AUR Web Interface to inform yourself on updates and happenings. There you will also find statistics and an up-to-date list of newest available packages available in AUR.
- Glance over the #FAQ for answers to the most common questions.
- You may wish to adjust
/etc/makepkg.confto better optimize for your processor prior to building packages from the AUR. A significant improvement in compile times can be realized on systems with multi-core processors by adjusting the MAKEFLAGS variable. Users can also enable hardware-specific optimizations in GCC via the CFLAGS variable. See makepkg for more information.
The following items are listed for historical purposes only. They have since been superseded by the AUR and are no longer available.
At the beginning, there was
ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming, and people contributed by simply uploading the PKGBUILD, the needed supplementary files, and the built package itself to the server. The package and associated files remained there until a Package Maintainer saw the program and adopted it.
Then the Trusted User Repositories were born. Certain individuals in the community were allowed to host their own repositories for anyone to use. The AUR expanded on this basis, with the aim of making it both more flexible and more usable. In fact, the AUR maintainers are still referred to as TUs (Trusted Users).
Queries search package names and descriptions via a MySQL LIKE comparison. This allows for more flexible search criteria (e.g. try searching for
tool%like%grep instead of
tool like grep). If you need to search for a description that contains
%, escape it with
Installing packages from the AUR is a relatively simple process. Essentially:
- Acquire the tarball which contains the PKGBUILD and possibly other required files, like systemd-units and patches (but often not the actual code).
- Extract the tarball (preferably in a folder set aside just for builds from the AUR) with
tar -xzf foo.tar.gz.
makepkgin the directory where the files are saved (
makepkg -swill automatically resolve dependencies with pacman). This will download the code, compile it and pack it.
- Look for a README file in
src/, as it might contain information needed later on.
- Install the resulting package with pacman:
# pacman -U /path/to/pkg.tar.xz
AUR Helpers add seamless access to the AUR. They vary in their features but can ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from PKGBUILDs found in the AUR. All of these scripts can be found in the AUR.
First ensure that the necessary tools are installed. The package groupshould be sufficient; it includes and other tools needed for compiling from source.
# pacman -S --needed base-devel
Next choose an appropriate build directory. A build directory is simply a directory where the package will be made or "built" and can be any directory. Examples of commonly used directories are:
or if using ABS (the Arch Build System):
For more information on ABS read the Arch Build System article. The example will use
~/builds as the build directory.
Acquire build files
Locate the package in the AUR. This is done using the search feature (text field at the top of the AUR home page). Clicking the application's name in the search list brings up an information page on the package. Read through the description to confirm that this is the desired package, note when the package was last updated, and read any comments.
Download the necessary build files by clicking on the "Download tarball" link under "Package actions" on the right hand side. This file should be saved to the build directory or otherwise copied to the directory after downloading. In this example, the file is called "foo.tar.gz" (standard format is pkgname.tar.gz, if it has been properly submitted).
Alternatively you can download the tarball from the terminal, changing directories to the build directory first:
$ cd ~/builds $ curl -L -O https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/fo/foo/foo.tar.gz
Build the package
Change directories to the build directory if not already there, then extract the previously downloaded package:
$ cd ~/builds $ tar -xvzf foo.tar.gz
This should create a new directory called "foo" in the build directory.
$ cd foo $ nano PKGBUILD $ nano foo.install
Make the package. After manually confirming the integrity of the files, run makepkg as a normal user:
$ makepkg -s
-s switch will use sudo to install any needed dependencies. If the use of sudo is undesirable, manually install required dependencies beforehand and exclude the
-s in the above command.
Install the package
Install the package using pacman. A tarball should have been created named:
<application name>-<application version number>-<package revision number>-<architecture>.pkg.tar.xz
This package can be installed using pacman's "upgrade" command:
# pacman -U foo-0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
These manually installed packages are called foreign packages — packages which have not originated from any repository known to pacman. To list all foreign packages:
$ pacman -Qm
The AUR Web Interface has a comments facility that allows users to provide suggestions and feedback on improvements to the PKGBUILD contributor. Avoid pasting patches or PKGBUILDs into the comments section: they quickly become obsolete and just end up needlessly taking up lots of space. Instead email those files to the maintainer, or even use a pastebin.
One of the easiest activities for all Arch users is to browse the AUR and vote for their favourite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in #Community repository, and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process; it is in everyone's interest to vote!
Sharing and maintaining packages
Users can share PKGBUILDs using the Arch User Repository. It does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload PKGBUILDs that can be downloaded by others. These PKGBUILDs are completely unofficial and have not been thoroughly vetted, so they should be used at your own risk.
After logging in to the AUR web interface, a user can submit a gzipped tarball (
.tar.gz) of a directory containing build files for a package. The directory inside the tarball should contain a PKGBUILD, .AURINFO, any
.install files, patches, etc. (absolutely no binaries). Examples of what such a directory should look like can be seen inside
/var/abs if the Arch Build System was installed.
The tarball can be created with the following command:
$ makepkg --source
Note that this is a gzipped tarball; assuming you are uploading a package called libfoo, when you create the file it should look similar to this:
$ tar tf libfoo-0.1-1.src.tar.gz
libfoo/ libfoo/PKGBUILD libfoo/libfoo.install
When submitting a package, observe the following rules:
- Check the official package database for the package. If any version of it exists, do not submit the package. If the official package is out-of-date, flag it as such. If the official package is broken or is lacking a feature, then please file a bug report.
- Check the AUR for the package. If it is currently maintained, changes can be submitted in a comment for the maintainer's attention. If it is unmaintained, the package can be adopted and updated as required. Do not create duplicate packages.
- Verify carefully that what you are uploading is correct. All contributors must read and adhere to the Arch packaging standards when writing PKGBUILDs. This is essential to the smooth running and general success of the AUR. Remember that you are not going to earn any credit or respect from your peers by wasting their time with a bad PKGBUILD.
- Packages that contain binaries or that are very poorly written may be deleted without warning.
- If you are unsure about the package (or the build/submission process) in any way, submit the PKGBUILD to the AUR mailing list or the AUR forum on the Arch forums for public review before adding it to the AUR.
- Make sure the package is useful. Will anyone else want to use this package? Is it extremely specialized? If more than a few people would find this package useful, it is appropriate for submission.
- The AUR and official repositories are intended for packages which install generally software and software-related content, including one or more of the following: executable(s); config file(s); online or offline documentation for specific software or the Arch Linux distribution as a whole; media intended to be used directly by software.
- Gain some experience before submitting packages. Build a few packages to learn the process and then submit.
- If you submit a
package.tar.gzwith a file named
packagein it you will get an error: "Could not change to directory
/home/aur/unsupported/package/package". To resolve this, rename the file named
packageto something else; for example,
package.rc. When it is installed in the
pkgdirectory, you may rename it back to
- If you maintain a package and want to update the PKGBUILD for your package just resubmit it.
- Check for feedback and comments from other users and try to incorporate any improvements they suggest; consider it a learning process!
- Please do not leave a comment containing the version number every time you update the package. This keeps the comment section usable for valuable content mentioned above. AUR Helpers are suited better to check for updates.
- Please do not just submit and forget about packages! It is the maintainer's job to maintain the package by checking for updates and improving the PKGBUILD.
- If you do not want to continue to maintain the package for some reason,
disownthe package using the AUR web interface and/or post a message to the AUR Mailing List.
- Disownment requests and removal requests go to the aur-general mailing list for Trusted Users and other users to decide upon.
- Include package name and URL to AUR page, preferably with a footnote .
- Disownment requests will be granted two weeks after the current maintainer has been contacted by email and did not react.
- Package merging has been implemented, users still have to resubmit a package under a new name and may request merging of the old version's comments and votes on the mailing list.
- Removal requests require the following information:
- Package name and URL to AUR page
- Reason for deletion, at least a short note
Notice: A package's comments does not sufficiently point out the reasons why a package is up for deletion. Because as soon as a TU takes action, the only place where such information can be obtained is the aur-general mailing list.
- Supporting details, like when a package is provided by another package, if you are the maintainer yourself, it is renamed and the original owner agreed, etc.
Removal requests can be disapproved, in which case you will likely be advised to disown the package for a future packager's reference.
The community repository, maintained by Trusted Users, contains the most popular packages from the AUR. It is enabled by default in
/etc/pacman.conf. If community has been disabled or removed, it can be enabled by uncommenting or adding these two lines:
... [community] Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist ...
This repository, unlike the AUR, contains binary packages that can be installed directly with pacman and the build files can also be accessed with the ABS. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the core or extra repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
Users can also access the community build files by editing
/etc/abs.conf and enabling the community repository in the
A Git repository of the AUR is maintained by Thomas Dziedzic, which provides package history among other things. It is updated at least once per day. To clone the repository (several hundred MB):
$ git clone git://pkgbuild.com/aur-mirror.git
What is the AUR?
The AUR (Arch User Repository) is a place where the Arch Linux community can upload PKGBUILDs of applications, libraries, etc., and share them with the entire community. Fellow users can then vote for their favorites to be moved into the community repository to be shared with Arch Linux users in binary form.
What kind of packages are permitted on the AUR?
The packages on the AUR are merely "build scripts", i.e. recipes to build binaries for pacman. For most cases, everything is permitted, subject to the abovementioned usefulness and scope guidelines, as long as you are in compliance with the licensing terms of the content. For other cases, where it is mentioned that "you may not link" to downloads, i.e. contents that are not redistributable, you may only use the file name itself as the source. This means and requires that users already have the restricted source in the build directory prior to building the package. When in doubt, ask.
How can I vote for packages in AUR?
Sign up on the AUR website to get a "Vote for this package" option while browsing packages. After signing up it is also possible to vote from the commandline with AUR.
What is a Trusted User / TU?
A Trusted User, in short TU, is a person who is chosen to oversee AUR and the community repository. They are the ones who maintain popular PKGBUILDs in community, and overall keep the AUR running.
What is the difference between the Arch User Repository and community?
The Arch User Repository is where all PKGBUILDs that users submit are stored, and must be built manually with makepkg. When PKGBUILDs receive enough community interest and the support of a TU, they are moved into the community repository (maintained by the TUs), where the binary packages can be installed with pacman.
How many votes does it take to get a PKGBUILD into community?
Usually, at least 10 votes are required for something to move into community. However, if a TU wants to support a package, it will often be found in the repository.
How do I make a PKGBUILD?
The best resource is the wiki page about creating packages. Remember to look in AUR before creating the PKGBUILD as to not duplicate efforts.
I'm trying to run "pacman -S foo"; it is not working but I know it is in community
You probably have not enabled community in your
/etc/pacman.conf. Just uncomment the relevant lines.
If community is enabled in your
/etc/pacman.conf try running
pacman -Syu first to synchronize the pkgcache and update your system before trying to install foo again.
Foo in AUR is outdated; what do I do?
For starters, you can flag packages out-of-date. If it stays out-of-date for an extended period of time, the best thing to do is email the maintainer. If there is no response from the maintainer after two weeks, you could send mail to the aur-general mailing list to have a TU orphan the PKGBUILD if you are willing to maintain it yourself. When we are talking about a package which is flagged out of date for more than 3 months and is in general not updated for a long time, please add this in your orphan request.
I have a PKGBUILD I would like to submit; can someone check it to see if there are any errors?
If you would like to have your PKGBUILD critiqued, post it on the aur-general mailing list to get feedback from the TUs and fellow AUR members. You could also get help from the IRC Channel, #archlinux on irc.freenode.net. You can also use namcap to check your PKGBUILD and the resulting package for errors.
Foo in AUR does not compile when I run makepkg; what should I do?
You are probably missing something trivial.
pacman -Syyubefore compiling anything with
makepkgas the problem may be that your system is not up-to-date.
- Ensure you have both "base" and "base-devel" groups installed.
- Try using the "
-s" option with
makepkgto check and install all the dependencies needed before starting the build process.
Be sure to first read the PKGBUILD and the comments on the AUR page of the package in question. The reason might not be trivial after all. Custom CFLAGS, LDFLAGS and MAKEFLAGS can cause failures. It is also possible that the PKGBUILD is broken for everyone. If you cannot figure it out on your own, just report it to the maintainer e.g. by posting the errors you are getting in the comments on the AUR page.
How can I speed up repeated build processes?
If you frequently compile code that uses gcc - say, a git or SVN package - you may find ccache, short for "compiler cache", useful.
How do I access unsupported packages?
How can I upload to AUR without using the web interface?
You can use an AUR helper like or AUR, both are commandline programs.