Difference between revisions of "Arch User Repository"

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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary start}}
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{{Related|makepkg}}
{{Article summary text|The Arch User Repository is a collection of user-submitted [[PKGBUILD]]s that supplement software available from the [[official repositories]]. This article describes how to build ''unsupported'' software packages from the AUR.}}
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{{Related|pacman}}
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
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{{Related|PKGBUILD}}
{{Article summary text|{{Package management overview}}}}
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{{Related|.SRCINFO}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|Aurweb RPC interface}}
{{Article summary wiki|AUR Helpers}}
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{{Related|AUR submission guidelines}}
{{Article summary wiki|AurJson}}
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{{Related|AUR Trusted User Guidelines}}
{{Article summary wiki|AUR Trusted User Guidelines}}
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{{Related|Official repositories}}
{{Article summary heading|Resources}}
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{{Related|Arch Build System}}
{{Article summary link|AUR Web Interface|https://aur.archlinux.org}}
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{{Related|Creating packages}}
{{Article summary link|AUR Mailing List|https://www.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/aur-general}}
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{{Related|AUR helpers}}
{{Article summary end}}
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{{Related articles end}}
  
The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions ([[PKGBUILD]]s) that allow you to compile a package from source with [[makepkg]] and then install it via [[pacman]]. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the [[#.5Bcommunity.5D|[community]]] repository. This document explains how users can access and utilize the AUR.
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The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions ([[PKGBUILD]]s) that allow you to compile a package from source with [[makepkg]] and then install it via [[pacman#Additional commands|pacman]]. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the [[community repository]]. This document explains how users can access and utilize the AUR.
  
A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR.  In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds (PKGBUILD and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for or against packages in the AUR.  If a package becomes popular enough — provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique — it may be entered into the [community] repository (directly accessible by [[pacman]] or [[ABS|abs]]).
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A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR.  In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds ({{ic|PKGBUILD}} and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for packages in the AUR.  If a package becomes popular enough — provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique — it may be entered into the ''community'' repository (directly accessible by ''pacman'' or [[abs]]).
 +
 
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{{Warning|AUR packages are user produced content. Any use of the provided files is at your own risk.}}
  
 
== Getting started ==
 
== Getting started ==
  
Users can search and download PKGBUILDs from the [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface]. These PKGBUILDs can be built into installable packages using [[makepkg]], then installed using pacman.
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Users can search and download [[PKGBUILD]]s from the [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface]. These {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s can be built into installable packages using ''makepkg'', then installed using ''pacman''.
  
* Ensure the {{Grp|base-devel}} group package is installed ({{ic|pacman -S base-devel}}).
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* Ensure the {{Grp|base-devel}} package group is installed in full ({{ic|pacman -S --needed base-devel}}).
* Read the remainder of this article for more info and a short tutorial on installing AUR packages.
 
* Visit the [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface] to inform yourself on updates and happenings. There you will also find statistics and an up-to-date list of newest available packages available in AUR.
 
 
* Glance over the [[#FAQ]] for answers to the most common questions.
 
* Glance over the [[#FAQ]] for answers to the most common questions.
* You may wish to adjust {{ic|/etc/makepkg.conf}} to better optimize for your processor prior to building packages from the AUR. A significant improvement in compile times can be realized on systems with multi-core processors by adjusting the MAKEFLAGS variable. Users can also enable hardware-specific optimizations in GCC via the CFLAGS variable.  See [[makepkg.conf]] for more information.
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* You may wish to adjust {{ic|/etc/makepkg.conf}} to optimize for your processor prior to building packages from the AUR. A significant improvement in compile times can be realized on systems with multi-core processors by adjusting the {{ic|MAKEFLAGS}} variable. Users can also enable hardware-specific optimizations in [[GCC]] via the {{ic|CFLAGS}} variable.  See [[makepkg]] for more information.
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It is also possible to interact with the AUR through SSH: type {{ic|ssh aur@aur.archlinux.org help}} for a list of available commands.
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
  
The following items are listed for historical purposes only. They have since been superseded by the AUR and are no longer available.
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In the beginning, there was {{ic|<nowiki>ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming</nowiki>}}, and people contributed by simply uploading the [[PKGBUILD]], the needed supplementary files, and the built package itself to the server. The package and associated files remained there until a [[Package Maintainer]] saw the program and adopted it.
 
 
At the beginning, there was {{ic|<nowiki>ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming</nowiki>}}, and people contributed by simply uploading the PKGBUILD, the needed supplementary files, and the built package itself to the server. The package and associated files remained there until a [[Package Maintainer]] saw the program and adopted it.
 
  
 
Then the Trusted User Repositories were born. Certain individuals in the community were allowed to host their own repositories for anyone to use. The AUR expanded on this basis, with the aim of making it both more flexible and more usable. In fact, the AUR maintainers are still referred to as TUs (Trusted Users).
 
Then the Trusted User Repositories were born. Certain individuals in the community were allowed to host their own repositories for anyone to use. The AUR expanded on this basis, with the aim of making it both more flexible and more usable. In fact, the AUR maintainers are still referred to as TUs (Trusted Users).
  
== Searching ==
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Between 2015-06-08 and 2015-08-08 the AUR transitioned from version 3.5.1 to 4.0.0, introducing the use of Git repositories for publishing the {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s.
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Existing packages were dropped unless manually migrated to the new infrastructure by their maintainers.
  
The AUR web interface can be found [https://aur.archlinux.org/ here], and an interface suitable for accessing the AUR from a script (for example) can be found [https://aur.archlinux.org/rpc.php here].
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=== Git repositories for AUR3 packages ===
  
Queries search package names and descriptions via a MySQL LIKE comparison. This allows for more flexible search criteria (e.g. try searching for 'tool%like%grep' instead of 'tool like grep'). If you need to search for a description that contains '%', escape it with '\%'.
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The [https://github.com/aur-archive AUR Archive] on GitHub has a repository for every package that was in AUR 3 at the time of the migration.
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Alternatively, there is the [https://github.com/felixonmars/aur3-mirror/ aur3-mirror] repository which provides the same.
  
 
== Installing packages ==
 
== Installing packages ==
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Installing packages from the AUR is a relatively simple process. Essentially:
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# Acquire the build files, including the [[PKGBUILD]] and possibly other required files, like [[systemd]] units and patches (often not the actual code).
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# Verify that the {{ic|PKGBUILD}} and accompanying files are not malicious or untrustworthy.
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# Run {{ic|makepkg -si}} in the directory where the files are saved. This will download the code, resolve the dependencies with [[pacman]], compile it, package it, and install the package.
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{{Note|The AUR is unsupported, so any packages you install are ''your responsibility'' to update, not pacman's. If packages in the official repositories are updated, you will need to rebuild any AUR packages that depend on those libraries.}}
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=== Prerequisites ===
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First ensure that the necessary tools are installed by [[install]]ing the {{grp|base-devel}} group in full which includes {{pkg|make}} and other tools needed for compiling from source.
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{{Tip|Use the {{ic|--needed}} flag when installing the {{grp|base-devel}} group to skip packages you already have instead of reinstalling them.}}
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{{Note|Packages in the AUR assume that the {{grp|base-devel}} group is installed, i.e. they do not list the group's members as dependencies explicitly.}}
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Next choose an appropriate build directory. A build directory is simply a directory where the package will be made or "built" and can be any directory. The examples in the following sections will use {{ic|~/builds}} as the build directory.
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=== Acquire build files ===
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 +
Locate the package in the AUR. This is done using the search field at the top of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR home page]. Clicking the application's name in the search list brings up an information page on the package. Read through the description to confirm that this is the desired package, note when the package was last updated, and read any comments.
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 +
There are several methods for acquiring the build files:
  
Installing packages from the AUR is a relatively simple process. Essentially:
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* Clone the [[git]] repository that is labelled as the "Git Clone URL" in the "Package Details". This is the preferred method.
  
# Acquire the tarball which contains the [[PKGBUILD]] and possibly other required files, like systemd-units and patches (but often not the actual code).
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$ git clone <nowiki>https://aur.archlinux.org/</nowiki>''package_name''.git
# Extract the tarball (preferably in a folder set aside just for builds from the AUR) with {{ic|tar -xzf foo.tar.gz}}.
 
# Run {{ic|makepkg}} in the directory where the files are saved ({{ic|makepkg -s}} will automatically resolve dependencies with pacman). This will download the code, compile it and pack it.
 
# Look for a README file in {{ic|src/}}, as it might contain information needed later on.
 
# Install the resulting package with [[pacman]]:
 
  
: {{bc|# pacman -U /path/to/pkg.tar.xz}}
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:An advantage of this method is that you can easily get updates to the package via {{ic|git pull}}.
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* Download the build files with your web browser by clicking the "Download snapshot" link under "Package Actions" on the right hand side. This will download a compressed file, which must be extracted (preferably in a directory set aside for AUR builds)
  
[[AUR Helpers]] add seamless access to the AUR. They vary in their features but can ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from PKGBUILDs found in the AUR. All of these scripts can be found in the AUR.
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$ tar -xvf ''package_name''.tar.gz
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* Similarly, you can download a tarball from the terminal (and extract it):
  
{{Note|There is not and will never be an ''official'' mechanism for installing build material from the AUR. '''All AUR users should be familiar with the build process.'''}}
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$ curl -L -O <nowiki>https://aur.archlinux.org/cgit/aur.git/snapshot/</nowiki>''package_name''.tar.gz
  
What follows is a detailed example of installation of a package called "foo".
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=== Build and install the package ===
  
=== Prerequisites ===
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Change directories to the directory containing the package's [[PKGBUILD]].
  
First ensure that the necessary tools are installed. The package group {{grp|base-devel}} should be sufficient; it includes {{pkg|make}} and other tools needed for compiling from source.
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$ cd ''package_name''
  
{{Warning|Packages in the AUR assume the {{grp|base-devel}} group is installed, and AUR packages will not list members of this group as dependencies even if the package cannot be built without them. Please ensure this group is installed before complaining about failed builds.}}
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{{Warning|Carefully check the {{ic|PKGBUILD}}, any ''.install'' files, and any other files in the package's git repository for malicious or dangerous commands. If in doubt, do not build the package, and [[General_troubleshooting#Additional_support|seek advice]] on the forums or mailing list. Malicious code has been found in packages before. [https://lists.archlinux.org/pipermail/aur-general/2018-July/034151.html]}}
  
# pacman -S base-devel
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View the contents of all provided files. For example, to use the pager ''less'' to view {{ic|PKGBUILD}} do:
  
Next choose an appropriate build directory. A build directory is simply a directory where the package will be made or "built" and can be any directory. Examples of commonly used directories are:
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$ less PKGBUILD
  
~/builds
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{{Tip|If you are updating a package, you may want to look at the changes since the last commit.
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* To view changes since the last git commit you can use {{ic|git show}}.
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* To view changes since the last commit using ''vimdiff'', do {{ic|git difftool @~..@ vimdiff}}. The advantage of ''vimdiff'' is that you view the entire contents of each file along with indicators on what has changed.}}
  
or if using ABS (the [[Arch Build System]]):
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Make the package. After manually confirming the contents of the files, run [[makepkg]] as a normal user:
  
  /var/abs/local
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  $ makepkg -si
  
For more information on ABS read the [[Arch Build System]] article. The example will use {{ic|~/builds}} as the build directory.
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* {{ic|-s}}/{{ic|--syncdeps}} automatically resolves and installs any dependencies with [[pacman]] before building. If the package depends on other AUR packages, you will need to manually install them first.
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* {{ic|-i}}/{{ic|--install}} installs the package if it is built successfully. Alternatively the built package can be installed with {{ic|pacman -U ''package_name''.pkg.tar.xz}}.
  
=== Acquire build files ===
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Other useful flags are
  
Locate the package in the AUR. This is done using the search feature (text field at the top of the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR home page]). Clicking the application's name in the search list brings up an information page on the package. Read through the description to confirm that this is the desired package, note when the package was last updated, and read any comments.
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* {{ic|-r}}/{{ic|--rmdeps}} removes build-time dependencies after the build, as they are no longer needed. However these dependencies may need to be reinstalled the next time the package is updated.
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* {{ic|-c}}/{{ic|--clean}} cleans up temporary build files after the build, as they are no longer needed. These files are usually needed only when debugging the build process.
  
Download the necessary build files by clicking on the "Download tarball" link under "Package actions" on the right hand side. This file should be saved to the build directory or otherwise copied to the directory after downloading. In this example, the file is called "foo.tar.gz" (standard format is ''pkgname''.tar.gz, if it has been properly submitted).
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{{Note|The above example is only a brief summary of the build process. It is '''highly''' recommended to read the [[makepkg]] and [[ABS]] articles for more details.}}
  
=== Build the package ===
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== Feedback ==
  
Extract the tarball. Change directories to the build directory if not already there and extract the build files.
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The [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface] has a comments facility that allows users to provide suggestions and feedback on improvements to the [[PKGBUILD]] contributor. Avoid pasting patches or {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s into the comments section: they quickly become obsolete and just end up needlessly taking up lots of space. Instead email those files to the maintainer, or even use a [[pastebin]].
  
$ cd ~/builds
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One of the easiest activities for '''all''' Arch users is to browse the AUR and '''vote''' for their favourite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in the [[community repository]], and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process; it is in everyone's interest to vote!
$ tar -xvzf foo.tar.gz
 
  
This should create a new directory called "foo" in the build directory.
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== Submitting packages ==
  
{{Warning|'''Carefully check all files.''' {{ic|cd}} to the newly created directory and carefully check the {{ic|PKGBUILD}} and any {{ic|.install}} file for malicious commands. {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s are bash scripts containing functions to be executed by {{ic|makepkg}}: these functions can contain ''any'' valid commands or Bash syntax, so it is totally possible for a {{ic|PKGBUILD}} to contain dangerous commands through malice or ignorance on the part of the author. Since {{ic|makepkg}} uses fakeroot (and should never be run as root), there is some level of protection but you should never count on it. If in doubt, do not build the package and seek advice on the forums or mailing list.}}
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Users can share [[PKGBUILD]]s using the Arch User Repository. It does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s that can be downloaded by others. These {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s are completely unofficial and have not been thoroughly vetted, so they should be used at your own risk. See [[AUR submission guidelines]] for details.
  
$ cd foo
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== Web interface translation ==
$ nano PKGBUILD
 
$ nano foo.install
 
  
Make the package. After manually confirming the integrity of the files, run [[makepkg]] as a normal user in the build directory.
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See [https://projects.archlinux.org/aurweb.git/tree/doc/i18n.txt i18n.txt] in the AUR source tree for information about creating and maintaining translation of the [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface].
  
$ makepkg -s
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== Comment syntax ==
  
The {{ic|-s}} switch will use [[sudo]] to install any needed dependencies. If the use of sudo is undesirable, manually install required dependencies beforehand and exclude the {{ic|-s}} in the above command.
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The [https://python-markdown.github.io/ Python-Markdown] syntax is supported in comments.
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It provides basic [[Wikipedia:Markdown|Markdown]] syntax to format comments. Note this implementation has some occasional [https://python-markdown.github.io/#differences differences] with the official [https://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax syntax rules]. Commit hashes to the [[Git]] repository of the package and references to [[Flyspray]] tickets are converted to links automatically. Long comments are collapsed and can be expanded on demand.
  
=== Install the package ===
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== FAQ ==
  
Install the package using pacman.  A tarball should have been created named:
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=== What is the AUR? ===
  
<''application name''>-<''application version number''>-<''package revision number''>-<''architecture''>.pkg.tar.xz
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The AUR (Arch User Repository) is a place where the Arch Linux community can upload [[PKGBUILD]]s of applications, libraries, etc., and share them with the entire community. Fellow users can then vote for their favorites to be moved into the [[community repository]] to be shared with Arch Linux users in binary form.
  
This package can be installed using pacman's "upgrade" command:
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=== What kind of packages are permitted on the AUR? ===
  
# pacman -U foo-0.1-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz 
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The packages on the AUR are merely "build scripts", i.e. recipes to build binaries for [[pacman]]. For most cases, everything is permitted, subject to [[AUR submission guidelines#Rules of submission|usefulness and scope guidelines]], as long as you are in compliance with the licensing terms of the content. For other cases, where it is mentioned that "you may not link" to downloads, i.e. contents that are not redistributable, you may only use the file name itself as the source. This means and requires that users already have the restricted source in the build directory prior to building the package. When in doubt, ask.
  
These manually installed packages are called foreign packages &mdash; packages which have not originated from any repository known to pacman. To list all foreign packages:
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=== How can I vote for packages in the AUR? ===
$ pacman -Qm
 
  
{{Note|The above example is only a brief summary of the package building process. A visit to the [[makepkg]] and [[Arch Build System|ABS]] pages will provide more detail and is highly recommended, especially for first-time users.}}
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Sign up on the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR website] to get a "Vote for this package" option while browsing packages. After signing up it is also possible to vote from the commandline with {{AUR|aurvote}}, {{AUR|aurvote-git}} or {{AUR|aur-auto-vote-git}}.
  
== Feedback ==
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Alternatively, if you have set up [[AUR submission guidelines#Authentication|ssh authentication]], you can directly vote from the command line using your ssh key. This means that you will not need to save or type in your AUR password.
  
The [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface] has a comments facility that allows users to provide suggestions and feedback on improvements to the PKGBUILD contributor. Avoid pasting patches or PKGBUILDs into the comments section: they quickly become obsolete and just end up needlessly taking up lots of space. Instead email those files to the maintainer, or even use a [[pastebin Clients|pastebin]].
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$ ssh aur@aur.archlinux.org vote ''package_name''
  
One of the easiest activities for '''all''' Arch users is to browse the AUR and '''vote''' for their favourite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in [community], and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process; it is in everyone's interest to vote!
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=== What is a Trusted User / TU? ===
  
== Sharing and maintaining packages ==
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A [[AUR Trusted User Guidelines|Trusted User]], in short TU, is a person who is chosen to oversee AUR and the [[community repository]]. They are the ones who maintain popular [[PKGBUILD]]s in ''community'', and overall keep the AUR running.
  
The user plays an essential role in the AUR, which cannot fulfill its potential without the support, involvement, and contribution of the wider user community.  The life-cycle of an AUR package starts and ends with the user and requires the user to contribute in several ways.
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=== What is the difference between the Arch User Repository and the community repository? ===
  
Users can '''share''' PKGBUILDs using the Arch User Repository.  It does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload PKGBUILDs that can be downloaded by others. These PKGBUILDs are completely unofficial and have not been thoroughly vetted, so they should be used at your own risk.
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The Arch User Repository is where all [[PKGBUILD]]s that users submit are stored, and must be built manually with [[makepkg]]. When {{ic|PKGBUILD}}s receive enough community interest and the support of a TU, they are moved into the [[community repository]] (maintained by the TUs), where the binary packages can be installed with [[pacman]].
  
=== Submitting packages ===
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=== Foo in the AUR is outdated; what should I do? ===
  
After logging in to the AUR web interface, a user can [https://aur.archlinux.org/pkgsubmit.php submit] a gzipped tarball ({{ic|.tar.gz}}) of a directory containing build files for a package. The directory inside the tarball should contain a [[PKGBUILD]], any {{ic|.install}} files, patches, etc. ('''absolutely''' no binaries). Examples of what such a directory should look like can be seen inside {{ic|/var/abs}} if the [[Arch Build System]] was installed.
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First, you should flag the package ''out-of-date'' indicating details on why the package is outdated, preferably including links to the release announcement or the new release [[Archiving_and_compression#Archiving_only|tarball]].
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You should also try to reach out to the maintainer directly by email. If there is no response from the maintainer after ''two weeks'', you can file an ''orphan'' request. This means you ask a [[Trusted User]] to disown the package base. This is to be done only if the package requires maintainer action, that he/she is not responding and you already tried to contact him/her previously.
  
The tarball can be created with the following command:
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In the meantime, you can try updating the package yourself by editing the [[PKGBUILD]] locally. Sometimes, updates do not require changes to the build or package process, in which case simply updating the {{ic|pkgver}} or {{ic|source}} array is sufficient.
  
$ makepkg --source
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{{Note|[[VCS package guidelines|VCS packages]] are not considered out of date when the pkgver changes, do not flag them as the maintainer will merely unflag the package and ignore you. AUR maintainers should not commit mere pkgver bumps.}}
  
Note that this is a gzipped tarball; assuming you are uploading a package called ''libfoo'', when you create the file it should look similar to this:
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=== Foo in the AUR does not compile when I run makepkg; what should I do? ===
 
{{hc|$ tar tf libfoo-0.1-1.src.tar.gz|
 
libfoo/
 
libfoo/PKGBUILD
 
libfoo/libfoo.install}}
 
  
When submitting a package, observe the following rules:
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You are probably missing something trivial.
  
* Check the [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/ official package database] for the package. If '''any version''' of it exists, '''do not''' submit the package. If the official package is out of date, flag it. If the official package is broken or is lacking a feature then please file a [https://bugs.archlinux.org/ bug report].
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# [[Pacman#Upgrading_packages|Upgrade the system]] before compiling anything with [[makepkg]] as the problem may be that your system is not up-to-date.
* Check the AUR for the package. If it is currently maintained, changes can be submitted in a comment for the maintainer's attention. If it is unmaintained, the package can be adopted and updated as required. Do not create duplicate packages.
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# Ensure you have both {{Grp|base}} and {{Grp|base-devel}} groups installed.
* Verify carefully that what you are uploading is correct. All contributors must read and adhere to the [[Arch Packaging Standards]] when writing PKGBUILDs.  This is essential to the smooth running and general success of the AUR. Remember that you are not going to earn any credit or respect from your peers by wasting their time with a bad PKGBUILD.
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# Try using the {{ic|-s}} option with {{ic|makepkg}} to check and install all the dependencies needed before starting the build process.
* Packages that contain binaries or that are very poorly written may be deleted without warning.
 
* If you are unsure about the package (or the build/submission process) in any way, submit the PKGBUILD to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/ AUR Mailing List] or the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewforum.php?id=4 AUR boards] on the forum for public review before adding it to the AUR.
 
* Make sure the package is useful. Will anyone else want to use this package? Is it extremely specialized? If more than a few people would find this package useful, it is appropriate for submission.
 
* The AUR and official repositories are intended for packages which install generally software and software-related content, including one or more of the following: executable(s); config file(s); online or offline documentation for specific software or the Arch Linux distribution as a whole; media intended to be used directly by software.
 
* Gain some experience before submitting packages. Build a few packages to learn the process and then submit.
 
* If you submit a {{ic|package.tar.gz}} with a file named '{{ic|package}}' in it you will get an error: 'Could not change to directory {{ic|/home/aur/unsupported/package/package}}'. To resolve this, rename the file named '{{ic|package}}' to something else, for example, '{{ic|package.rc}}'.  When it is installed in the {{ic|pkg}} directory you may rename it back to '{{ic|package}}'. Make sure to also read [[Arch Packaging Standards#Submitting packages to the AUR]].
 
  
=== Maintaining packages ===
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Be sure to first read the [[PKGBUILD]] and the comments on the AUR page of the package in question.
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The reason might not be trivial after all. Custom {{ic|CFLAGS}}, {{ic|LDFLAGS}} and {{ic|MAKEFLAGS}} can cause failures. It is also possible that the {{ic|PKGBUILD}} is broken for everyone. If you cannot figure it out on your own, just report it to the maintainer e.g. by posting the errors you are getting in the comments on the AUR page.
  
* If you maintain a package and want to update the PKGBUILD for your package just resubmit it.
+
To check if the {{ic|PKGBUILD}} is broken, or your system is misconfigured, consider building in a clean chroot. It will build your package in a clean Arch Linux environment, with only (build) dependencies installed, and without user customization. To do this [[install]] {{pkg|devtools}} and run ''extra-x86_64-build'' instead of ''makepkg''. For [[multilib]] packages, run ''multilib-build'' See [[DeveloperWiki:Building in a clean chroot]] for more information. If the build process still fails in a clean chroot, the issue is probably with the {{ic|PKGBUILD}}.
* Check for feedback and comments from other users and try to incorporate any improvements they suggest; consider it a learning process!
 
* Please do not just submit and forget about packages! It is the maintainer's job to maintain the package by checking for updates and improving the PKGBUILD.
 
* If you do not want to continue to maintain the package for some reason, {{ic|disown}} the package using the AUR web interface and/or post a message to the AUR Mailing List.
 
  
=== Other requests ===
+
=== ERROR: One or more PGP signatures could not be verified!; what should I do? ===
  
* Disownment requests and removal requests go to the aur-general mailing list for TUs and other users to decide upon.
+
Most likely you do not have the required public key(s) in your personal keyring to verify downloaded files. See [[Makepkg#Signature checking]] for details.
* '''Include package name and URL to AUR page''', preferably with a footnote [1].
 
* Disownment requests will be granted two weeks after the current maintainer has been contacted by email and did not react.
 
* '''Package merging has been implemented''', users still have to resubmit a package under a new name and may request merging of the old version's comments and votes on the mailing list.
 
* Removal requests require the following information:
 
** Package name and URL to AUR page
 
** Reason for deletion, at least a short note <br> '''Notice:''' A package's comments does not sufficiently point out the reasons why a package is up for deletion. Because as soon as a TU takes action, the only place where such information can be obtained is the aur-general mailing list.
 
** Include supporting details, like when a package is provided by another package, if you are the maintainer yourself, it's renamed and the original owner agreed, etc.
 
  
Removal requests can be disapproved, in which case you'll likely be advised to disown the package for a future packager's reference.
+
=== How do I create a PKGBUILD? ===
  
== [community] ==
+
The best resource is the wiki page about [[creating packages]]. Remember to look in AUR before creating the [[PKGBUILD]] as to not duplicate efforts.
  
The [community] repository, maintained by [[Trusted Users]], contains the most popular packages from the AUR. It is enabled by default in {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}. If [community] has been disabled or removed, it can be enabled by uncommenting or adding these two lines:
+
=== I have a PKGBUILD I would like to submit; can someone check it to see if there are any errors? ===
  
{{hc|/etc/pacman.conf|2=
+
If you would like to have your [[PKGBUILD]] reviewed, post it on the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/aur-general aur-general mailing list] to get feedback from the TUs and fellow AUR members. You could also get help from the [[IRC channel]], #archlinux-aur on irc.freenode.net. You can also use [[namcap]] to check your {{ic|PKGBUILD}} and the resulting package for errors.
...
 
[community]
 
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 
...}}
 
  
This repository, unlike the AUR, contains binary packages that can be installed directly with [[pacman]] and the build files can also be accessed with the [[Arch Build System|ABS]]. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the [core] or [extra] repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
+
=== How to get a PKGBUILD into the community repository? ===
  
Users can also access the [community] build files by editing {{ic|/etc/abs.conf}} and enabling the [community] repository in the {{ic|REPOS}} array.
+
Usually, at least 10 votes are required for something to move into [[community repository|community]]. However, if a [[TU]] wants to support a package, it will often be found in the repository.
  
== Git Repo ==
+
Reaching the required minimum of votes is not the only requirement, there has to be a TU willing to maintain the package. TUs are not required to move a package into the ''community'' repository even if it has thousands of votes.
  
A  Git Repo of the AUR is maintained by Thomas Dziedzic providing package history among other things.  It is updated at least once a day.  To clone the repository (several hundred MB):
+
Usually when a very popular package stays in the AUR it is because:
  
$ git clone <nowiki>git://pkgbuild.com/aur-mirror.git</nowiki>
+
* Arch Linux already has another version of a package in the repositories
 +
* Its license prohibits redistribution
 +
* It helps retrieve user-submitted [[PKGBUILD]]s. [[AUR helpers]] are [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=828310#p828310 unsupported] by definition.
  
More informations: [http://pkgbuild.com/git/aur-mirror.git/ Web interface], [http://pkgbuild.com/~td123/readme readme], [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=113099 forum thread].
+
See also [[AUR Trusted User Guidelines#Rules for Packages Entering the .5Bcommunity.5D Repo|Rules for Packages Entering the community Repo]].
  
== FAQ ==
+
=== How can I speed up repeated build processes? ===
  
{{FAQ
+
See [[Makepkg#Improving compile times]].
|question=What is the AUR?
 
|answer=The AUR (Arch User Repository) is a place where the Arch Linux community can upload [[PKGBUILD]]s of applications, libraries, etc., and share them with the entire community. Fellow users can then vote for their favorites to be moved into the [community] repository to be shared with Arch Linux users in binary form.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
=== What is the difference between foo and foo-git packages? ===
|question=What kind of packages are permitted on the AUR?
 
|answer=The packages on the AUR are merely "build scripts", i.e. recipes to build binaries for pacman. For most cases, everything is permitted, subject to the abovementioned usefulness and scope guidelines, as long as you are in compliance with the licensing terms of the content. For other cases, where it is mentioned that "you may not link" to downloads, i.e. contents that are not redistributable, you may only use the file name itself as the source. This means and requires that users already have the restricted source in the build directory prior to building the package. When in doubt, ask.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
Many AUR packages come in "stable" release and "unstable" development versions. Development packages usually have a [[VCS package guidelines#Guidelines|suffix]] denoting their [[Version Control System]] and are not intended for regular use, but may offer new features or bugfixes. Because these packages only download the latest available source when you execute {{ic|makepkg}}, their {{ic|pkgver()}} in the AUR does not reflect upstream changes. Likewise, these packages cannot perform an authenticity checksum on any [[VCS_package_guidelines#VCS_sources|VCS source]].
|question=What is a TU?
 
|answer=A [[AUR Trusted User Guidelines|TU (Trusted User)]] is a person who is chosen to oversee AUR and the [community] repository. They're the ones who maintain popular PKGBUILDs in [community], and overall keep the AUR running.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
See also [[System maintenance#Use proven software packages]].
|question=What's the difference between the Arch User Repository and [community]?
 
|answer=The Arch User Repository is where all PKGBUILDs that users submit are stored, and must be built manually with [[makepkg]]. When PKGBUILDs receive enough community interest and the support of a TU, they are moved into the [community] repository (maintained by the TUs), where the binary packages can be installed with [[pacman]].}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
=== Why has foo disappeared from the AUR? ===
|question=How many votes does it take to get a PKGBUILD into [community]?
 
|answer=Usually, at least 10 votes are required for something to move into [community]. However, if a TU wants to support a package, it will often be found in the repository.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
It is possible the package has been adopted by a [[TU]] and is now in the [[community repository]].
|question=How do I make a PKGBUILD?
 
|answer=The best resource is [[Creating Packages]]. Remember to look in AUR before creating the PKGBUILD as to not duplicate efforts.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
Packages may be deleted if they did not fulfill the [[AUR submission guidelines#Rules of submission|rules of submission]]. See the [https://lists.archlinux.org/pipermail/aur-requests/ aur-requests archives] for the reason for deletion.
|question=I'm trying to run "pacman -S foo"; it isn't working but I know it's in [community]
 
|answer=You probably haven't enabled [community] in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}. Just uncomment the relevant lines.
 
If [community] is enabled in your {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} try running {{ic|pacman -S -y}} first to synchronize the pkgcache before trying your package again.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
{{Note|The git repository for a deleted package typically remain available. See [[AUR_submission_guidelines#Requests]] for details.}}
|question=Foo in AUR is outdated; what do I do?
 
|answer=For starters, you can flag packages out-of-date. If it stays out-of-date for an extended period of time, the best thing to do is email the maintainer. If there is no response from the maintainer after two weeks, you could send mail to the aur-general mailing list to have a TU orphan the PKGBUILD if you're willing to maintain it yourself. When we are talking about a package which is flagged out of date for more than 3 months and is in general not updated for a long time, please add this in your orphan request.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
If the package used to exist in AUR3, it might not have been [https://lists.archlinux.org/pipermail/aur-general/2015-August/031322.html migrated to AUR4]. See the [[#Git repositories for AUR3 packages]] where these are preserved.
|question=I have a PKGBUILD I would like to submit; can someone check it to see if there are any errors?
 
|answer=If you would like to have your PKGBUILD critiqued, post it on the aur-general mailing list to get feedback from the TUs and fellow AUR members. You could also get help from the [[ArchChannel|IRC channel]], #archlinux on irc.freenode.net. You can also
 
use [[namcap]] to check your PKGBUILD and the resulting package for errors.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
=== How do I find out if any of my installed packages disappeared from AUR? ===
|question=Foo in AUR doesn't compile when I run makepkg; what should I do?
 
|answer=You are probably missing something trivial.
 
  
# Run {{ic|pacman -Syyu}} before compiling anything with {{ic|makepkg}} as the problem may be that your system is not up-to-date.
+
The simplest way is to check the HTTP status of the package's AUR page:
# Ensure you have both "base" and "base-devel" groups installed.
 
# Try using the "{{ic|-s}}" option with {{ic|makepkg}} to check and install all the dependencies needed before starting the build process.
 
  
Be sure to first read the PKGBUILD and the comments on the AUR page of the package in question.
+
$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqm | sort) <(curl https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.gz | gzip -cd | sort)
The reason might not be trivial after all. Custom CFLAGS, LDFLAGS and MAKEFLAGS can cause failures. It's also possible that the PKGBUILD is broken for everyone. If you cannot figure it out on your own, just report it to the maintainer e.g. by posting the errors you are getting in the comments on the AUR page.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
=== How can I obtain a list of all AUR packages? ===
|question=How can I speed up repeated build processes?
 
|answer=If you frequently compile code that uses gcc - say, a git or SVN package - you may find [[ccache]], short for "compiler cache", useful.}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
* https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.gz
|question=How do I access unsupported packages?
+
* Use {{ic|aurpkglist}} from {{aur|python3-aur}}
|answer=See [[#Installing packages]]}}
 
  
{{FAQ
+
== See also ==
|question=How can I upload to AUR without using the web interface?
+
* [https://aur.archlinux.org AUR Web Interface]
|answer=You can use {{pkg|burp}}, {{AUR|aurploader}} or {{AUR|aurup}} &mdash; these are command-line programs.}}
+
* [https://lists.archlinux.org/listinfo/aur-general AUR Mailing List]
 +
* [[DeveloperWiki:AUR Cleanup Day]]

Latest revision as of 14:30, 16 September 2019

The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions (PKGBUILDs) that allow you to compile a package from source with makepkg and then install it via pacman. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the community repository. This document explains how users can access and utilize the AUR.

A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR. In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds (PKGBUILD and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for packages in the AUR. If a package becomes popular enough — provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique — it may be entered into the community repository (directly accessible by pacman or abs).

Warning: AUR packages are user produced content. Any use of the provided files is at your own risk.

Getting started

Users can search and download PKGBUILDs from the AUR Web Interface. These PKGBUILDs can be built into installable packages using makepkg, then installed using pacman.

  • Ensure the base-devel package group is installed in full (pacman -S --needed base-devel).
  • Glance over the #FAQ for answers to the most common questions.
  • You may wish to adjust /etc/makepkg.conf to optimize for your processor prior to building packages from the AUR. A significant improvement in compile times can be realized on systems with multi-core processors by adjusting the MAKEFLAGS variable. Users can also enable hardware-specific optimizations in GCC via the CFLAGS variable. See makepkg for more information.

It is also possible to interact with the AUR through SSH: type ssh aur@aur.archlinux.org help for a list of available commands.

History

In the beginning, there was ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming, and people contributed by simply uploading the PKGBUILD, the needed supplementary files, and the built package itself to the server. The package and associated files remained there until a Package Maintainer saw the program and adopted it.

Then the Trusted User Repositories were born. Certain individuals in the community were allowed to host their own repositories for anyone to use. The AUR expanded on this basis, with the aim of making it both more flexible and more usable. In fact, the AUR maintainers are still referred to as TUs (Trusted Users).

Between 2015-06-08 and 2015-08-08 the AUR transitioned from version 3.5.1 to 4.0.0, introducing the use of Git repositories for publishing the PKGBUILDs. Existing packages were dropped unless manually migrated to the new infrastructure by their maintainers.

Git repositories for AUR3 packages

The AUR Archive on GitHub has a repository for every package that was in AUR 3 at the time of the migration. Alternatively, there is the aur3-mirror repository which provides the same.

Installing packages

Installing packages from the AUR is a relatively simple process. Essentially:

  1. Acquire the build files, including the PKGBUILD and possibly other required files, like systemd units and patches (often not the actual code).
  2. Verify that the PKGBUILD and accompanying files are not malicious or untrustworthy.
  3. Run makepkg -si in the directory where the files are saved. This will download the code, resolve the dependencies with pacman, compile it, package it, and install the package.
Note: The AUR is unsupported, so any packages you install are your responsibility to update, not pacman's. If packages in the official repositories are updated, you will need to rebuild any AUR packages that depend on those libraries.

Prerequisites

First ensure that the necessary tools are installed by installing the base-devel group in full which includes make and other tools needed for compiling from source.

Tip: Use the --needed flag when installing the base-devel group to skip packages you already have instead of reinstalling them.
Note: Packages in the AUR assume that the base-devel group is installed, i.e. they do not list the group's members as dependencies explicitly.

Next choose an appropriate build directory. A build directory is simply a directory where the package will be made or "built" and can be any directory. The examples in the following sections will use ~/builds as the build directory.

Acquire build files

Locate the package in the AUR. This is done using the search field at the top of the AUR home page. Clicking the application's name in the search list brings up an information page on the package. Read through the description to confirm that this is the desired package, note when the package was last updated, and read any comments.

There are several methods for acquiring the build files:

  • Clone the git repository that is labelled as the "Git Clone URL" in the "Package Details". This is the preferred method.
$ git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/package_name.git
An advantage of this method is that you can easily get updates to the package via git pull.
  • Download the build files with your web browser by clicking the "Download snapshot" link under "Package Actions" on the right hand side. This will download a compressed file, which must be extracted (preferably in a directory set aside for AUR builds)
$ tar -xvf package_name.tar.gz
  • Similarly, you can download a tarball from the terminal (and extract it):
$ curl -L -O https://aur.archlinux.org/cgit/aur.git/snapshot/package_name.tar.gz

Build and install the package

Change directories to the directory containing the package's PKGBUILD.

$ cd package_name
Warning: Carefully check the PKGBUILD, any .install files, and any other files in the package's git repository for malicious or dangerous commands. If in doubt, do not build the package, and seek advice on the forums or mailing list. Malicious code has been found in packages before. [1]

View the contents of all provided files. For example, to use the pager less to view PKGBUILD do:

$ less PKGBUILD
Tip: If you are updating a package, you may want to look at the changes since the last commit.
  • To view changes since the last git commit you can use git show.
  • To view changes since the last commit using vimdiff, do git difftool @~..@ vimdiff. The advantage of vimdiff is that you view the entire contents of each file along with indicators on what has changed.

Make the package. After manually confirming the contents of the files, run makepkg as a normal user:

$ makepkg -si
  • -s/--syncdeps automatically resolves and installs any dependencies with pacman before building. If the package depends on other AUR packages, you will need to manually install them first.
  • -i/--install installs the package if it is built successfully. Alternatively the built package can be installed with pacman -U package_name.pkg.tar.xz.

Other useful flags are

  • -r/--rmdeps removes build-time dependencies after the build, as they are no longer needed. However these dependencies may need to be reinstalled the next time the package is updated.
  • -c/--clean cleans up temporary build files after the build, as they are no longer needed. These files are usually needed only when debugging the build process.
Note: The above example is only a brief summary of the build process. It is highly recommended to read the makepkg and ABS articles for more details.

Feedback

The AUR Web Interface has a comments facility that allows users to provide suggestions and feedback on improvements to the PKGBUILD contributor. Avoid pasting patches or PKGBUILDs into the comments section: they quickly become obsolete and just end up needlessly taking up lots of space. Instead email those files to the maintainer, or even use a pastebin.

One of the easiest activities for all Arch users is to browse the AUR and vote for their favourite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in the community repository, and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process; it is in everyone's interest to vote!

Submitting packages

Users can share PKGBUILDs using the Arch User Repository. It does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload PKGBUILDs that can be downloaded by others. These PKGBUILDs are completely unofficial and have not been thoroughly vetted, so they should be used at your own risk. See AUR submission guidelines for details.

Web interface translation

See i18n.txt in the AUR source tree for information about creating and maintaining translation of the AUR Web Interface.

Comment syntax

The Python-Markdown syntax is supported in comments. It provides basic Markdown syntax to format comments. Note this implementation has some occasional differences with the official syntax rules. Commit hashes to the Git repository of the package and references to Flyspray tickets are converted to links automatically. Long comments are collapsed and can be expanded on demand.

FAQ

What is the AUR?

The AUR (Arch User Repository) is a place where the Arch Linux community can upload PKGBUILDs of applications, libraries, etc., and share them with the entire community. Fellow users can then vote for their favorites to be moved into the community repository to be shared with Arch Linux users in binary form.

What kind of packages are permitted on the AUR?

The packages on the AUR are merely "build scripts", i.e. recipes to build binaries for pacman. For most cases, everything is permitted, subject to usefulness and scope guidelines, as long as you are in compliance with the licensing terms of the content. For other cases, where it is mentioned that "you may not link" to downloads, i.e. contents that are not redistributable, you may only use the file name itself as the source. This means and requires that users already have the restricted source in the build directory prior to building the package. When in doubt, ask.

How can I vote for packages in the AUR?

Sign up on the AUR website to get a "Vote for this package" option while browsing packages. After signing up it is also possible to vote from the commandline with aurvoteAUR, aurvote-gitAUR or aur-auto-vote-gitAUR.

Alternatively, if you have set up ssh authentication, you can directly vote from the command line using your ssh key. This means that you will not need to save or type in your AUR password.

$ ssh aur@aur.archlinux.org vote package_name

What is a Trusted User / TU?

A Trusted User, in short TU, is a person who is chosen to oversee AUR and the community repository. They are the ones who maintain popular PKGBUILDs in community, and overall keep the AUR running.

What is the difference between the Arch User Repository and the community repository?

The Arch User Repository is where all PKGBUILDs that users submit are stored, and must be built manually with makepkg. When PKGBUILDs receive enough community interest and the support of a TU, they are moved into the community repository (maintained by the TUs), where the binary packages can be installed with pacman.

Foo in the AUR is outdated; what should I do?

First, you should flag the package out-of-date indicating details on why the package is outdated, preferably including links to the release announcement or the new release tarball. You should also try to reach out to the maintainer directly by email. If there is no response from the maintainer after two weeks, you can file an orphan request. This means you ask a Trusted User to disown the package base. This is to be done only if the package requires maintainer action, that he/she is not responding and you already tried to contact him/her previously.

In the meantime, you can try updating the package yourself by editing the PKGBUILD locally. Sometimes, updates do not require changes to the build or package process, in which case simply updating the pkgver or source array is sufficient.

Note: VCS packages are not considered out of date when the pkgver changes, do not flag them as the maintainer will merely unflag the package and ignore you. AUR maintainers should not commit mere pkgver bumps.

Foo in the AUR does not compile when I run makepkg; what should I do?

You are probably missing something trivial.

  1. Upgrade the system before compiling anything with makepkg as the problem may be that your system is not up-to-date.
  2. Ensure you have both base and base-devel groups installed.
  3. Try using the -s option with makepkg to check and install all the dependencies needed before starting the build process.

Be sure to first read the PKGBUILD and the comments on the AUR page of the package in question. The reason might not be trivial after all. Custom CFLAGS, LDFLAGS and MAKEFLAGS can cause failures. It is also possible that the PKGBUILD is broken for everyone. If you cannot figure it out on your own, just report it to the maintainer e.g. by posting the errors you are getting in the comments on the AUR page.

To check if the PKGBUILD is broken, or your system is misconfigured, consider building in a clean chroot. It will build your package in a clean Arch Linux environment, with only (build) dependencies installed, and without user customization. To do this install devtools and run extra-x86_64-build instead of makepkg. For multilib packages, run multilib-build See DeveloperWiki:Building in a clean chroot for more information. If the build process still fails in a clean chroot, the issue is probably with the PKGBUILD.

ERROR: One or more PGP signatures could not be verified!; what should I do?

Most likely you do not have the required public key(s) in your personal keyring to verify downloaded files. See Makepkg#Signature checking for details.

How do I create a PKGBUILD?

The best resource is the wiki page about creating packages. Remember to look in AUR before creating the PKGBUILD as to not duplicate efforts.

I have a PKGBUILD I would like to submit; can someone check it to see if there are any errors?

If you would like to have your PKGBUILD reviewed, post it on the aur-general mailing list to get feedback from the TUs and fellow AUR members. You could also get help from the IRC channel, #archlinux-aur on irc.freenode.net. You can also use namcap to check your PKGBUILD and the resulting package for errors.

How to get a PKGBUILD into the community repository?

Usually, at least 10 votes are required for something to move into community. However, if a TU wants to support a package, it will often be found in the repository.

Reaching the required minimum of votes is not the only requirement, there has to be a TU willing to maintain the package. TUs are not required to move a package into the community repository even if it has thousands of votes.

Usually when a very popular package stays in the AUR it is because:

  • Arch Linux already has another version of a package in the repositories
  • Its license prohibits redistribution
  • It helps retrieve user-submitted PKGBUILDs. AUR helpers are unsupported by definition.

See also Rules for Packages Entering the community Repo.

How can I speed up repeated build processes?

See Makepkg#Improving compile times.

What is the difference between foo and foo-git packages?

Many AUR packages come in "stable" release and "unstable" development versions. Development packages usually have a suffix denoting their Version Control System and are not intended for regular use, but may offer new features or bugfixes. Because these packages only download the latest available source when you execute makepkg, their pkgver() in the AUR does not reflect upstream changes. Likewise, these packages cannot perform an authenticity checksum on any VCS source.

See also System maintenance#Use proven software packages.

Why has foo disappeared from the AUR?

It is possible the package has been adopted by a TU and is now in the community repository.

Packages may be deleted if they did not fulfill the rules of submission. See the aur-requests archives for the reason for deletion.

Note: The git repository for a deleted package typically remain available. See AUR_submission_guidelines#Requests for details.

If the package used to exist in AUR3, it might not have been migrated to AUR4. See the #Git repositories for AUR3 packages where these are preserved.

How do I find out if any of my installed packages disappeared from AUR?

The simplest way is to check the HTTP status of the package's AUR page:

$ comm -23 <(pacman -Qqm | sort) <(curl https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.gz | gzip -cd | sort)

How can I obtain a list of all AUR packages?

See also