Arch User Repository
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The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions (PKGBUILDs) that allow you to compile a package from source with makepkg and then install it via pacman. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the [community] repository. This document explains how users can access and utilize the AUR.
A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR. In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds (PKGBUILD and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for or against packages in the AUR. If a package becomes popular enough -- provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique -- it may be entered into the [community] repository (directly accessible by pacman or abs).
- Read the remainder of this article for more info and a short tutorial on installing AUR packages.
- Visit the AUR Web Interface to inform yourself on updates and happenings. There you will also find statistics and an up-to-date list of newest available packages available in AUR.
- Glance over the #FAQ for answers to the most common questions.
- You may wish to adjust Template:Filename to better optimize for your processor prior to building packages from the AUR. A significant improvement in compile times can be realized on systems with multi-core processors by adjusting the MAKEFLAGS variable. Users can also enable hardware-specific optimizations in GCC via the CFLAGS variable. See makepkg.conf for more information.
- Install "base-devel" (Template:Codeline), because members of this group are not explicitly required by AUR packages which may not build without them (more info in this thread).
The following items are listed for historical purposes only. They have since been superseded by the AUR and are no longer available.
At the beginning, there was ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming, and people contributed by simply uploading the PKGBUILD, the needed supplementary files, and the built package itself to the server. The package and associated files remained there until a Package Maintainer saw the program and adopted it.
Then the Trusted User Repositories were born. Certain individuals in the community were allowed to host their own repositories for anyone to use. The AUR expanded on this basis, with the aim of making it both more flexible and more usable. In fact, the AUR maintainers are still referred to as TUs (Trusted Users).
Queries search package names and descriptions via a MySQL LIKE comparison. This allows for more flexible search criteria (e.g. try searching for 'tool%like%grep' instead of 'tool like grep'). If you need to search for a description that contains '%', escape it with '\%'.
Installing packages from the AUR (aka the [unsupported] repository) is a relatively simple process. Essentially:
- Acquire the tarball which contains the PKGBUILD and possibly other required files
- Extract the tarball (preferably in a folder set aside just for builds from the AUR)
- Run makepkg in the directory where the files are saved ("makepkg -s" will auto-resolve dependencies with pacman)
- Install the resulting package with pacman
# pacman -U /path/to/pkg.tar.xz
AUR Helpers add seamless access to the AUR. They vary in their features, but can ease in searching, fetching, building, and installing from PKGBUILDs found in the AUR. All of these scripts can be found in UNSUPPORTED.
What follows is a detailed example of installation of a package called "foo".
First ensure that the necessary tools are installed. The package group "base-devel" should be sufficient; it includes make and other tools needed for compiling from source.
# pacman -S base-devel
Next choose an appropriate build directory. A build directory is simply a directory where the package will be made or "built" and can be any directory. Examples of commonly used directories are:
or if using ABS (the Arch Build System):
Acquire build files
Locate the package in the AUR. This is done using the search feature (text field at the top of the AUR home page). Clicking the application's name in the search list brings up an information page on the package. Read through the description to confirm that this is the desired package, note when the package was last updated, and read any comments.
Download the necessary build files. From the package's information page download the build files by clicking the "Tarball" link on the left-hand side near the end of the package details. This file should be saved to the build directory or otherwise copied to the directory after downloading. In this example, the file is called "foo.tar.gz" (standard format is <pkgname>.tar.gz, if it has been properly submitted).
Build the package
Extract the tarball. Change directories to the build directory if not already there and extract the build files.
$ cd ~/builds $ tar -xvzf foo.tar.gz
This should create a new directory called "foo" in the build directory.
$ cd foo $ nano PKGBUILD $ nano foo.install
Make the package. After manually confirming the integrity of the files, run makepkg as a normal user in the build directory.
$ makepkg -s
The Template:Codeline switch will use sudo to install any needed dependencies. If the use of sudo is undesirable, manually install required dependencies beforehand and exclude the Template:Codeline in the above command.
Install the package
Install the package using pacman. A tarball should have been created named:
<application name>-<application version number>-<package revision number>-<architecture>.pkg.tar.xz
This package can be installed using pacman's "upgrade" command:
# pacman -U foo-0.1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
The user plays an essential role in the AUR, which cannot fulfill its potential without the support, involvement, and contribution of the wider user community. The life-cycle of an AUR package starts and ends with the user and requires the user to contribute in several ways.
Users can share PKGBUILDs using the UNSUPPORTED area in the AUR. UNSUPPORTED does not contain any binary packages but allows users to upload PKGBUILDs that can be downloaded by others. These PKGBUILDs are completely unofficial and have not been thoroughly vetted, so they should be used at your own risk.
A comments facility allows users to provide suggestions and feedback on improvements to the PKGBUILD contributor. Avoid pasting patches or PKGBUILDs into the comments section. They quickly become obsolete and just end up needlessly taking up lots of space. Instead email those files to the maintainer, or even use a pastebin like http://aur.pastebin.com.
One of the easiest activities for all Arch users is to browse the AUR and vote for their favorite packages using the online interface. All packages are eligible for adoption by a TU for inclusion in [community], and the vote count is one of the considerations in that process; it is in everyone's interest to vote!
After logging in to the AUR web interface, a user can submit a gzipped tarball (Template:Filename) of a directory containing build files for a package. The directory inside the tarball should contain a Template:Filename, any Template:Filename files, patches, etc. (ABSOLUTELY no binaries). Examples of what such a directory should look like can be seen inside Template:Filename if ABS was installed.
The tarball can be created with the following command:
$ makepkg --source
Note that this is a gzipped tarball; assuming you are uploading a package called libfoo, when you create the file it should look similar to this:
# List contents of tarball. $ tar tf libfoo-0.1-1.src.tar.gz libfoo/ libfoo/PKGBUILD libfoo/libfoo.install
When submitting a package, observe the following rules:
- Check [core], [extra], and [community] for the package. If it is inside any of those repositories in ANY form, DO NOT submit the package (if the current package is broken or is lacking an included feature then please file a bug report in FlySpray).
- Check AUR for the package. If it is currently maintained, changes can be submitted in a comment for the maintainer's attention. If it is unmaintained, the package can be adopted and updated as required.
- Verify carefully that what you are uploading is correct. All contributors must read and adhere to the Arch Packaging Standards when writing PKGBUILDs. This is essential to the smooth running and general success of the AUR. Remember you are not going to earn any credit or respect from your peers by wasting their time with a bad PKGBUILD.
- Packages that contain binaries or that are very poorly written may be deleted without warning.
- If you are unsure about the package (or the build/submission process) in any way, submit the PKGBUILD to the AUR Mailing List or the AUR boards on the forum for public review before adding it to the AUR.
- Make sure the package is useful. Will anyone else want to use this package? Is it extremely specialized? If more than a few people would find this package useful, it is appropriate for submission.
- Gain some experience before submitting packages. Build a few packages to learn the process and then submit.
- If you submit a Template:Filename with a file named 'Template:Filename' in it you'll get an error: 'Could not change to directory Template:Filename'. To resolve this, rename the file named 'Template:Filename' to something else, for example, 'Template:Filename'. When it is installed in the Template:Filename directory you may rename it back to 'Template:Filename'.
- If you maintain a package and want to update the PKGBUILD for your package just resubmit it.
- Check for feedback and comments from other users and try to incorporate any improvements they suggest; consider it a learning process!
- Please DO NOT just submit and forget about packages! While in UNSUPPORTED, it is the user's job to maintain the package by checking for updates and improving the PKGBUILD.
- If you do not want to continue to maintain the package for some reason, disown the package using the AUR web interface and/or post a message to the AUR Mailing List.
The [community] repository, maintained by Trusted Users, contains the most popular packages from AUR. It is enabled by default in Template:Filename. If disabled/removed, it can be enabled by uncommenting/adding these two lines:
[community], unlike AUR, contains binary packages that can be installed directly with pacman and the build files can also be accessed with ABS. Some of these packages may eventually make the transition to the [core] or [extra] repositories as the developers consider them crucial to the distribution.
A Git Repo of the AUR is maintained by Thomas Dziedzic providing package history among other things. It is updated at least once a day. To clone the repository (several hundred MB):
$ git clone git://pkgbuild.com/aur.git