Difference between revisions of "Arch terminology"
|(2 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)|
|Line 22:||Line 22:|
== Arch Linux ==
== Arch Linux ==
Arch should be referred to as:
Arch should be referred to as:
Latest revision as of 21:03, 8 July 2019
This page is intended to be a page to demystify common terms used among the Arch Linux community. Feel free to add or modify any terms, but please use that particular section's edit option. If you decide to add one, please put it in alphabetical order.
- 1 ABS
- 2 Arch Linux
- 3 Arch Linux Archive
- 4 AUR
- 5 bbs
- 6 community/[community]
- 7 core/[core]
- 8 custom/user repository
- 9 Developer
- 10 extra/[extra]
- 11 initramfs
- 12 initrd
- 13 KISS
- 14 makepkg
- 15 namcap
- 16 package
- 17 Package maintainer
- 18 pacman
- 19 PKGBUILD
- 20 repository/repo
- 21 RTFM
- 22 testing/[testing]
- 23 The Arch Way
- 24 TU, Trusted User
- 25 udev
- 26 wiki
ABS stands for Arch Build System and can be used for:
- Making new packages for software that has no packages available yet
- Customizing/modifying existing packages to fit your needs:
- Enabling/disabling build-time options
- Applying source changes via patches
- Re-building your entire system using your compiler flags, "a la Gentoo"
- Getting kernel modules working with your custom kernel
ABS is not necessary to use Arch Linux, but it is useful.
Arch should be referred to as:
- Arch Linux
- Arch (Linux implied)
- archlinux (UNIX name)
Archlinux, ArchLinux, archLinux, aRcHlInUx, etc. are all weird, and weirder mutations.
Officially, the 'Arch' in "Arch Linux" is pronounced /ˈɑrtʃ/ as in an "archer"/bowman, or "arch-nemesis", and not as in "ark" or "archangel".
Arch Linux Archive
The Arch Linux Archive (a.k.a ALA), formerly known as Arch Linux Rollback Machine (a.k.a ARM), stores official repositories snapshots, ISO images and bootstrap tarballs across time.
The Arch User Repository (AUR) is a community-driven repository for Arch users. It contains package descriptions (PKGBUILDs) that allow you to compile a package from source with makepkg and then install it via pacman. The AUR was created to organize and share new packages from the community and to help expedite popular packages' inclusion into the community repository.
A good number of new packages that enter the official repositories start in the AUR. In the AUR, users are able to contribute their own package builds (PKGBUILD and related files). The AUR community has the ability to vote for or against packages in the AUR. If a package becomes popular enough — provided it has a compatible license and good packaging technique — it may be entered into the community repository (directly accessible by pacman or abs).
You can access the Arch Linux User Community Repository here.
Bulletin board system, but in Arch's case, it is just the support forum located here.
The core repository contains the bare packages needed for an Arch Linux system. core has everything needed to get a working command-line system.
Anyone can create a repository and put it online for other users. To create a repository, you need a set of packages and a pacman-compatible database file for your packages. Host your files online and everyone will be able to use your repository by adding it as a regular repository.
Half-gods working to improve Arch for no financial gain. Developers are outranked only by our gods, Judd Vinet and Aaron Griffin, who in turn are outranked by tacos.
Arch's official package set is fairly streamlined, but we supplement this with a larger, more complete extra repository that contains a lot of the stuff that never made it into our core package set. This repository is constantly growing with the help of packages submitted from our strong community. This is where desktop environments, window managers and common programs are found.
Obsolete. Nowadays often used as a synonym for initramfs.
Acronym of Keep It Simple, Stupid. Simplicity is a main principle Arch Linux tries to achieve.
makepkg will build packages for you. makepkg will read the metadata required from a PKGBUILD file. All it needs is a build-capable Linux platform, , and some build scripts. The advantage to a script-based build is that you only really do the work once. Once you have the build script for a package, you just need to run makepkg and it will do the rest: download and validate source files, check dependencies, configure the build time settings, build the package, install the package into a temporary root, make customizations, generate meta-info, and package the whole thing up for pacman to use.
Rules return lists of messages. Each message can be one of three types: error, warning, or information (think of them as notes or comments). Errors (designated by 'E:') are things that namcap is very sure are wrong and need to be fixed. Warnings (designated by 'W:') are things that namcap thinks should be changed but if you know what you are doing then you can leave them. Information (designated 'I:') are only shown when you use the info argument. Information messages give information that might be helpful but is not anything that needs changing.
A package is an archive containing
- all of the (compiled) files of an application
- metadata about the application, such as application name, version, dependencies, ...
- installation files and directives for pacman
- (optionally) extra files to make your life easier, such as a start/stop script
Arch's package manager pacman can install, update, and remove those packages. Using packages instead of compiling and installing programs yourself has various benefits:
- easily updatable: pacman will update existing packages as soon as updates are available
- dependency checks: pacman handles dependencies for you, you only need to specify the program and pacman installs it together with every other program it needs
- clean removal: pacman has a list of every file in a package. This way, no files are left behind when you decide to remove a package.
See Package maintainer.
The pacman package manager is one of the major distinguishing features of Arch Linux. It combines a simple binary package format with an easy-to-use build system. The goal of pacman is to make it possible to easily manage packages, whether they are from the official repositories or the user's own builds.
pacman keeps the system up to date by synchronizing package lists with the master server. This server/client model also allows the user to download/install packages with a simple command, complete with all required dependencies.
NB: Pacman was written by Judd Vinet, the creator of Arch Linux. It is used as a package management tool by other distributions as well, such as FrugalWare, Rubix, UfficioZero (in Italy, based on Ubuntu), and, of course, Arch based distributions such as Archie and AEGIS.
The repository has the pre-compiled packages of one or (usually) more PKGBUILDs. Official repositories are split into different parts for easy maintaince. Pacman uses these repositories to search for packages and install them. A repository can be local (i.e. on your own computer) or remote (i.e. the packages are downloaded before they are installed).
"Read The Fine Manual". This simple message is replied to a lot of new Linux/Arch users who ask about the functionality of a program when it is clearly defined in the program's manual.
It is often used when a user fails to make any attempt to find a solution to the problem themselves. If someone tells you this, they are not trying to offend you; they are just frustrated with your lack of effort.
The best thing to do if you are told to do this is to read the manual page.
- To read the program manual page for a particular program named as PROGRAM-NAME, type this at the command line:
If you do not find the answer to your question in the program manual, there are more ways to find the answer. You can:
This is the repository where major packages/updates to packages are kept prior to release into the main repositories, so they can be bug tested and upgrade issues can be found. It is disabled by default but can be enabled in
The Arch Way
The unofficial term traditionally used to refer to the main Arch Linux principles.
TU, Trusted User
A trusted user is someone who maintains the AUR and the [community] repository. Trusted Users may move a package into the [community] repository if it has been voted as popular. TUs are appointed by a majority vote by the existing TUs.
udev provides a dynamic device directory containing only the files for actually present devices. It creates or removes device node files in the
/dev directory, or it renames network interfaces.
Usually udev runs as udevd(8) and receives uevents directly from the kernel if a device is added/removed to/from the system.
If udev receives a device event, it matches its configured rules against the available device attributes provided in sysfs to identify the device. Rules that match may provide additional device information or specify a device node name and multiple symlink names and instruct udev to run additional programs as part of the device event handling.
This! A place to find documentation about Arch Linux. Anyone can add and modify the documentation.