Difference between revisions of "Arch terminology (简体中文)"
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Arch [https://www.archlinux.org/developers/ ] Judd Vinet Aaron Griffin
Revision as of 07:54, 16 March 2016
本页面试图揭开 Arch Linux 社区术语的神秘面纱。您可以自由的添加或更改任何术语，但是请使用某个章节的编辑选项。如果想添加新术语请按照字母顺序。
- 1 Arch Linux
- 2 ABS
- 3 Arch Linux Archive
- 4 AUR
- 5 PKGBUILD
- 6 TU, 可信用户
- 7 bbs
- 8 community/[community]
- 9 core/[core]
- 10 custom/user repository
- 11 Developer
- 12 extra/[extra]
- 13 initramfs
- 14 initrd
- 15 makepkg
- 16 namcap
- 17 package
- 18 Package maintainer
- 19 pacman
- 20 pacman.conf
- 21 repository/repo
- 22 RTFM
- 23 taurball
- 24 testing/[testing]
- 25 udev
- 26 wiki
- Arch Linux
- Arch (Linux implied)
- archlinux (UNIX name)
'Arch' 在 "Arch Linux" 中的官方读音是 /ˈɑrtʃ/ ，就像单词 "archer"，或者 "arch-nemesis" 中的读音，但不是在单词 "ark" 或者 "archangel" 中的读音。
Arch 编译系统 (ABS) 可以:
- 用自定义的编译选项编译整个系统，"类似 Gentoo"
Arch Linux Archive
Arch Linux Archive (a.k.a ALA), 之前被称为 Arch Linux Rollback Machine (a.k.a ARM), 保存历史上的官方软件仓库快照，ISO 镜像和 boot straps 压缩包。
trusted user(可信用户)是 AUR 和 [community] 仓库的维护人员。可信用户可以在需要的时候将软件包从 AUR 移动到 [community] 仓库。老的可信用户可以通过投票指定新的 TU.
Bulletin board system, 在 Arch 中指 用户论坛。
要访问 [community] 仓库，取消
[core] 仓库包含 Arch linux 需要的基本软件包，一个可用命令行需要的所有软件包都在 [core] 中。
无偿为 Arch 提供帮助的人，半个上帝，开发者 等级仅在我们的上帝 Judd Vinet 和 Aaron Griffin 之下。
Arch's official package set is fairly streamlined, but we supplement this with a larger, more complete "extra" repository that contains a lot of the stuff that never made it into our core package set. This repository is constantly growing with the help of packages submitted from our strong community. This is where desktop environments, window managers and common programs are found.
已经过时，有时会作为 initramfs 的别名使用。
makepkg will build packages for you. makepkg will read the metadata required from a PKGBUILD file. All it needs is a build-capable Linux platform, , and some build scripts. The advantage to a script-based build is that you only really do the work once. Once you have the build script for a package, you just need to run makepkg and it will do the rest: download and validate source files, check dependencies, configure the build time settings, build the package, install the package into a temporary root, make customizations, generate meta-info, and package the whole thing up for pacman to use.
Rules return lists of messages. Each message can be one of three types: error, warning, or information (think of them as notes or comments). Errors (designated by 'E:') are things that namcap is very sure are wrong and need to be fixed. Warnings (designated by 'W:') are things that namcap thinks should be changed but if you know what you are doing then you can leave them. Information (designated 'I:') are only shown when you use the info argument. Information messages give information that might be helpful but is not anything that needs changing.
A package is an archive containing
- all of the (compiled) files of an application
- metadata about the application, such as application name, version, dependencies, ...
- installation files and directives for pacman
- (optionally) extra files to make your life easier, such as a start/stop script
Arch's package manager pacman can install, update, and remove those packages. Using packages instead of compiling and installing programs yourself has various benefits:
- easily updatable: pacman will update existing packages as soon as updates are available
- dependency checks: pacman handles dependencies for you, you only need to specify the program and pacman installs it together with every other program it needs
- clean removal: pacman has a list of every file in a package. This way, no files are left behind when you decide to remove a package.
The role of the package maintainer is to update packages as new versions become available upstream and to field support questions relating to bugs in said packages. The term may be applied to any of the following:
- A core Arch Linux developer who maintains a software package in one of the official repositories (core, extra, or testing).
- A Trusted User of the community who maintains software packages in the unsupported/unofficial community repository.
- A normal user who maintains a PKGBUILD and local source files in the AUR.
The maintainer of a package is the person currently responsible for the package. Previous maintainers should be listed as contributors in the PKGBUILD along with others who have contributed to the package.
The pacman package manager is one of the great highlights of Arch Linux. It combines a simple binary package format with an easy-to-use build system (see ABS). Pacman makes it possible to easily manage and customize packages, whether they be from the official Arch repositories or the user's own creations. The repository system allows users to build and maintain their own custom package repositories, which encourages community growth and contribution (see AUR).
Pacman can keep a system up to date by synchronizing package lists with the master server, making it a breeze for the security-conscious system administrator to maintain. This server/client model also allows you to download/install packages with a simple command, complete with all required dependencies (similar to Debian's apt-get).
NB: Pacman was written by Judd Vinet, the creator of Arch Linux. It is used as a package management tool by other distributions as well, such as FrugalWare, Rubix, UfficioZero (in Italy, based on Ubuntu), and, of course, Arch based distributions such as Archie and AEGIS.
This is the configuration file of pacman. It is located in
/etc. For a full explanation of its powers, type this at the command line:
The repository has the pre-compiled packages of one or (usually) more PKGBUILDs. Official repositories are
- [core]: containing the latest version of packages required for a full CLI system
- [extra]: containing the latest version of packages not needed for a working system but are needed for an enjoyable system ;)
- [community]: containing packages that came from AUR and got enough user votes
Pacman uses these repositories to search for packages and install them. A repository can be local (i.e. on your own computer) or remote (i.e. the packages are downloaded before they are installed).
"Read The Fucking (or Fine) Manual". This simple message is replied to a lot of new Linux/Arch users who ask about the functionality of a program when it is clearly defined in the program's manual.
It is often used when a user fails to make any attempt to find a solution to the problem themselves. If someone tells you this, they are not trying to offend you; they are just frustrated with your lack of effort.
The best thing to do if you are told to do this is to read the manual page.
- To read the program manual page for a particular program, type this at the command line:
where PROGRAM-NAME is the name of the program you need more information about.
If you do not find the answer to your question in the program manual, there are more ways to find the answer. You can:
The tarballed PKGBUILD and local source files that are required by makepkg to create an installable binary package. The name is derived from the practice of uploading such tarballs to the AUR, hence "tAURball".
This is the repository where major packages/updates to packages are kept prior to release into the main repositories, so they can be bug tested and upgrade issues can be found. It is disabled by default but can be enabled in
udev provides a dynamic device directory containing only the files for actually present devices. It creates or removes device node files in the
/dev directory, or it renames network interfaces.
Usually udev runs as udevd(8) and receives uevents directly from the kernel if a device is added/removed to/from the system.
If udev receives a device event, it matches its configured rules against the available device attributes provided in sysfs to identify the device. Rules that match may provide additional device information or specify a device node name and multiple symlink names and instruct udev to run additional programs as part of the device event handling.
这里! 一个寻找 Arch Linux 文档的地方，任何人都可以修改这些文档。