Arch terminology (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Arch_terminology翻译,最后翻译时间:2016-03-16,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

本页面试图揭开 Arch Linux 社区术语的神秘面纱。您可以自由的添加或更改任何术语,但是请使用某个章节的编辑选项。如果想添加新术语请按照字母顺序。

Arch Linux

应该用下面术语指代 Arch:

  • Arch Linux
  • Arch (Linux implied)
  • archlinux (UNIX name)

Archlinux、ArchLinux、archLinux、aRcHlInUx 等等称呼都不是标准的。

'Arch' 在 "Arch Linux" 中的官方读音是 /ˈɑrtʃ/ ,就像单词 "archer",或者 "arch-nemesis" 中的读音,但不是在单词 "ark" 或者 "archangel" 中的读音。

ABS

Arch 编译系统 (ABS) 可以:

  • 为没有打包的软件制作软件包
  • 定制/修改已有的软件包,满足您的需求(启用或禁用选项)
  • 用自定义的编译选项编译整个系统,"类似 Gentoo"
  • 让内核模块在自定义内核上工作

ABS 不是必须的,但是很有用。

Arch Linux Archive

Arch Linux Archive (a.k.a ALA), 之前被称为 Arch Linux Rollback Machine (a.k.a ARM), 保存历史上的官方软件仓库快照,ISO 镜像和 boot straps 压缩包。

AUR

Arch用户软件仓库(Arch User Repository,AUR)是为用户而建、由用户主导的Arch软件仓库。AUR中的软件包以软件包生成脚本(PKGBUILD)的形式提供,用户自己通过makepkg生成包,再由pacman安装。创建AUR的初衷是方便用户维护和分享新软件包,并由官方定期从中挑选软件包进入community仓库。本文介绍用户访问和使用AUR的方法。

许多官方仓库软件包都来自AUR。通过AUR,大家相互分享新的软件包生成脚本(PKGBUILD和其他相关文件)。用户还可以为软件包投票。如果一个软件包投票足够多、没有协议问题、打包质量好,那么它就很有希望被收录进官方[community]仓库(以后就可以直接通过pacmanabs 安装了)。

通过这个页面可以访问 AUR。

PKGBUILD

PKGBUILD 是编译 Arch Linux 软件包使用的脚本。详情参考 Creating packages (简体中文).

TU, 可信用户

trusted user(可信用户)是 AUR 和 [community] 仓库的维护人员。可信用户可以在需要的时候将软件包从 AUR 移动到 [community] 仓库。老的可信用户可以通过投票指定新的 TU.

可信用户遵循 AUR 可信用户准测TU 法

bbs

Bulletin board system, 在 Arch 中指 用户论坛

community/[community]

[community] 仓库存储 可信用户 预先编译的软件包。[community] 中的大部分软件包都来自 AUR.

要访问 [community] 仓库,取消 /etc/pacman.conf 中的注释。

core/[core]

[core] 仓库包含 Arch linux 需要的基本软件包,一个可用命令行需要的所有软件包都在 [core] 中。

custom/user repository

任何人都可以创建供其它人使用的仓库,需要一批软件包,针对这些软件包编写 pacman 可读的数据库文件。然后把这些软件放到网上,其他人就可以把你的仓库加到 pacman 配置文件并使用了。参考 Custom local repository.

Developer

无偿为 Arch 提供帮助的人,半个上帝,开发者 等级仅在我们的上帝 Judd Vinet 和 Aaron Griffin 之下。

extra/[extra]

Arch 的官方软件包很精简,但是我们提供了丰富,更完整的 "附加" 软件仓库,包含大量不会进入到 core 的软件包。此仓库在强大社区的支持下,越来越大。桌面软件环境,窗口管理器和常用程序都位于此仓库。

initramfs

请阅读 mkinitcpio.

initrd

已经过时,有时会作为 initramfs 的别名使用。

makepkg

makepkg 会读取 PKGBUILD 文件,然后按脚本编译软件包。所需的是 Linux 平台编译环境, wget 和一些编译脚本。脚本编译的优点是只需要做一次工作。一旦有了编译脚本,只需要执行 makepkg,它会执行剩余的工作: 下载并验证源代码,检查依赖关系,配置编译时间,编译软件包,安装软件包到临时目录,进行定制,生成元数据,然后打包供 pacman 使用。

namcap

namcap 是软件包分析工具,可以检查 Arch Linux 软件包和 PKGBUILD 文件. 可以用规则检查文件列表、文件本身或单独的 PKGBUILD 文件。工具的输出和错误标记请参考 Namcap

package

A package is an archive containing

  • all of the (compiled) files of an application
  • metadata about the application, such as application name, version, dependencies, ...
  • installation files and directives for pacman
  • (optionally) extra files to make your life easier, such as a start/stop script

Arch's package manager pacman can install, update, and remove those packages. Using packages instead of compiling and installing programs yourself has various benefits:

  • easily updatable: pacman will update existing packages as soon as updates are available
  • dependency checks: pacman handles dependencies for you, you only need to specify the program and pacman installs it together with every other program it needs
  • clean removal: pacman has a list of every file in a package. This way, no files are left behind when you decide to remove a package.
Note: Different GNU/Linux distributions use different packages and package managers, meaning that you cannot use pacman to install a Debian package on Arch.

Package maintainer

The role of the package maintainer is to update packages as new versions become available upstream and to field support questions relating to bugs in said packages. The term may be applied to any of the following:

  • A core Arch Linux developer who maintains a software package in one of the official repositories (core, extra, or testing).
  • A Trusted User of the community who maintains software packages in the unsupported/unofficial community repository.
  • A normal user who maintains a PKGBUILD and local source files in the AUR.

The maintainer of a package is the person currently responsible for the package. Previous maintainers should be listed as contributors in the PKGBUILD along with others who have contributed to the package.

pacman

The pacman package manager is one of the great highlights of Arch Linux. It combines a simple binary package format with an easy-to-use build system (see ABS). Pacman makes it possible to easily manage and customize packages, whether they be from the official Arch repositories or the user's own creations. The repository system allows users to build and maintain their own custom package repositories, which encourages community growth and contribution (see AUR).

Pacman can keep a system up to date by synchronizing package lists with the master server, making it a breeze for the security-conscious system administrator to maintain. This server/client model also allows you to download/install packages with a simple command, complete with all required dependencies (similar to Debian's apt-get).

NB: Pacman was written by Judd Vinet, the creator of Arch Linux. It is used as a package management tool by other distributions as well, such as FrugalWare, Rubix, UfficioZero (in Italy, based on Ubuntu), and, of course, Arch based distributions such as Archie and AEGIS.

pacman.conf

This is the configuration file of pacman. It is located in /etc. For a full explanation of its powers, type this at the command line:

man pacman.conf

repository/repo

The repository has the pre-compiled packages of one or (usually) more PKGBUILDs. Official repositories are

  • [core]: containing the latest version of packages required for a full CLI system
  • [extra]: containing the latest version of packages not needed for a working system but are needed for an enjoyable system ;)
  • [community]: containing packages that came from AUR and got enough user votes

Pacman uses these repositories to search for packages and install them. A repository can be local (i.e. on your own computer) or remote (i.e. the packages are downloaded before they are installed).

RTFM

"Read The Fucking (or Fine) Manual". This simple message is replied to a lot of new Linux/Arch users who ask about the functionality of a program when it is clearly defined in the program's manual.

It is often used when a user fails to make any attempt to find a solution to the problem themselves. If someone tells you this, they are not trying to offend you; they are just frustrated with your lack of effort.

The best thing to do if you are told to do this is to read the manual page.

  • To read the program manual page for a particular program, type this at the command line:
man PROGRAM-NAME

where PROGRAM-NAME is the name of the program you need more information about.

If you do not find the answer to your question in the program manual, there are more ways to find the answer. You can:

taurball

The tarballed PKGBUILD and local source files that are required by makepkg to create an installable binary package. The name is derived from the practice of uploading such tarballs to the AUR, hence "tAURball".

testing/[testing]

This is the repository where major packages/updates to packages are kept prior to release into the main repositories, so they can be bug tested and upgrade issues can be found. It is disabled by default but can be enabled in /etc/pacman.conf

udev

udev provides a dynamic device directory containing only the files for actually present devices. It creates or removes device node files in the /dev directory, or it renames network interfaces.

Usually udev runs as udevd(8) and receives uevents directly from the kernel if a device is added/removed to/from the system.

If udev receives a device event, it matches its configured rules against the available device attributes provided in sysfs to identify the device. Rules that match may provide additional device information or specify a device node name and multiple symlink names and instruct udev to run additional programs as part of the device event handling.

wiki

这里! 一个寻找 Arch Linux 文档的地方,任何人都可以修改这些文档。