Difference between revisions of "Archboot (简体中文)"

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(Archboot的发布)
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{{TranslationStatus|Archboot|2012-08-25|219396}}
 
==Archboot是什么?==
 
==Archboot是什么?==
 
* Archboot是一组启动CD/USB/PXE等启动介质的脚本。
 
* Archboot是一组启动CD/USB/PXE等启动介质的脚本。
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* 它不依赖于任何文件系统,只能运行在内存中,因此需要你有足够的内存。
 
* 它不依赖于任何文件系统,只能运行在内存中,因此需要你有足够的内存。
 
{{bc|pacman -S archboot}}
 
{{bc|pacman -S archboot}}
{{TranslationStatus|Archboot|2012-08-25|219396}}
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==Archboot的发布==
 
==Archboot的发布==
 
* 提供ISO镜像文件和BT种子,并且包含i686和x86_64的core库。
 
* 提供ISO镜像文件和BT种子,并且包含i686和x86_64的core库。

Revision as of 03:57, 25 August 2012

Translation Status: This article is a localized version of Archboot. Last translation date: 2012-08-25. You can help to synchronize translation, if there were changes in English version.

Archboot是什么?

  • Archboot是一组启动CD/USB/PXE等启动介质的脚本。
  • 它用来安装或者恢复系统。
  • 它不依赖于任何文件系统,只能运行在内存中,因此需要你有足够的内存。
pacman -S archboot

Archboot的发布

News

2012.06 „2k12-R3“

  • 仅使用签名过的软件包,实验性的 systemd 支持

General

  • kernel 3.4.2 / LTS kernel 3.0.34
  • pacman 4.0.3 usage
  • RAM recommendations: 768 MB

Kernel changes

  • bump to latest 3.4.x series and bump lts to latest 3.0.x series

Environment changes

  • synced with latest mkinitcpio changes
  • added systemd support, use init=/bin/systemd on boot command line to activate systemd installation mode

setup changes

  • added systemd support
  • generate enough entropy for pacman with haveged
  • adopted pacman changes to use signed only packages

快速安装修改

  • added systemd support
  • generate enough entropy for pacman with haveged
  • adopted pacman changes to use signed only packages

已知问题

  • systemd booting has a little bug: /var/run needs to be a symlink to /run
rm -r /var/run 
ln -s /run /var/run
systemctl restart dbus.service systemd-logind.service

烧录发布

Hybrid镜像是一个CD和硬盘镜像。

  • 可以用来刻录CD(RW)光盘.
  • 可以使用'dd' 或者 similar 工具写入磁盘介质. 这种方法也可用用来制作USB盘。
'dd if=<imagefile> of=/dev/<yourdevice> bs=1M'

PXE 启动 / 恢复系统

从/boot目录的PXE/rescue启动文件中下载需要的文件 Download the the needed files from the /boot directory PXE/rescue files.

  • vmlinuz_i686 + initramfs_i686.img (i686)
  • vmlinuz_x86_64 + initramfs_x86_64.img(x86_64)
  • vmlinuz_i686_lts + initramfs_i686.img (i686 LTS kernel)
  • vmlinuz_x86_64_lts + initramfs_x86_64.img (x86_64 LTS kernel)
  • For PXE booting add the kernel and initrd to your tftp setup and you will get a running installation/rescue system.
  • For Rescue booting add a entry to your bootloader pointing to the kernel and initrd.

历史

发布历史可以从 这里 找到.

与正式发布的区别

  • It runs a modified Arch Linux system in initramfs.
  • It is restricted to RAM usage, everything which is not necessary like man pages etc. is not provided.
  • It supports (u)efi booting via grub-efi-x86_64.
  • LTS kernel boot images are provided.
  • hwdetect script is used for preconfiguration
  • systemd is supported
  • It does not mount anything during boot process.
  • It contains [core] repository on media.
  • It provides an ineteractive setup and quickinst script.

设置特性(历史版本)

  • CD/USB/OTHER and FTP/HTTP installation mode
  • Changing keymap and consolefont
  • Changing time and date
  • Preparing harddisk, like auto-prepare, partitioning, GUID (gpt) support, 4k sector drive support etc.
  • Creation of software raid/raid partitions, lvm2 devices and luks encrypted devices
  • Supports standard linux,raid/raid_partitions,dmraid,lvm2 and encrypted devices
  • Filesystem support: ext2/3/4, btrfs, nilfs2, reiserfs,xfs,jfs,ntfs-3g,vfat
  • Package selection support
  • Autoaddition of usefull packages, like ntfs-3g, dhclient etc.
  • LTS kernel support
  • Auto/Preconfiguration of fstab, mkinitcpio.conf, rc.conf, crypttab and mdadm.conf
  • Auto/Preconfiguration of KMS/framebuffers
  • Configuration of basic system files
  • Setting root password
  • grub2, lilo, extlinux/syslinux, grub2-uefi, rEFInd bootloader support

启动参数

建立启动参数

  • earlymodules
load modules before hooks are executed
Usage:
earlymodules=<comma-separated-array>
earlymodules=ahci,ehci-hcd
  • disablehooks
disable a hook which is run during bootup
Usage:
disablehooks=<comma-separated-array>
disablehooks=arch_floppy,arch_cdrom
  • root
Using this option will boot you into your specified existing system.
Usage:
root=/dev/<your-root-of-installed-system>
root=/dev/sda3
  • rootflags
Using this option will pass special mount options for your root device
Usage:
rootflags=<comma-separated-array>
rootflags=subvol=root,compress,ssd
  • lvmwait=
Using parameter followed by a comma-separated list of device names can be given on the command line.
It will cause the hook to wait until all given devices exist before trying to scan and activate any volume groups.
Usage:
lvmwait=/dev/mapper/device1,/dev/mapper/device2
  • advanced
This will override advanced hooks running order for your system.
Default order is arch_mdadm,arch_lvm2,arch_encrypt
Advanced hooks are: arch_mdadm,arch_lvm2,arch_encrypt
Usage:
advanced=hook1,hook2,hook3
advanced=arch_encrypt,arch_mdadm
  • ide-legacy
This will turn on the old IDE subsystem. This is only needed, if your system does not support the new PATA subsystem.
only valid parameter on LTS kernel images
  • arch-addons
You want to load external addon packages or configs into the install environment.
Place external addon packages in /packages directory of your external device.
Place external configs in /config directory of your external device.

视频和framebuffer 选项

  • uvesafb
enables uvesafb mode during boot and activates setup routine to use it later on installed system.
you need to specify your supported resolution eg.:
uvesafb=<resolution>-<depth>
uvesafb=1024x768-16
  • fbmodule
Loads the fb module you specify durin boot process and activates setup routine to use it later on installed system.
Use it like this fbmodule=<yourmodule>, e.g. fbmodule=cirrusfb

问题, Known Issues and limitations

  • Release specific known issues and workarounds are posted in changelog files.
  • Check also the forum threads for posted fixes and workarounds.
  • Why are /etc/modprobe.d/sound_persistent.conf and /etc/udev/rules.d/network_persistent.rules created?
These 2 files ensure persistent ordering of network and soundcards, else it might happen that the order changes during every boot.
  • dmraid might be broken on some boards, support is not perfect here.
The reason is there are so many different hardware components out there. At the moment 1.0.0rc16 is included, with latest fedora patchset.
  • grub2 cannot detect correct bios boot order:
It may happen that hd(x,x) entries are not correct, thus first reboot may not work.
Reason: grub cannot detect bios boot order.
Fix: Either change bios boot order or change menu.lst to correct entries after successful boot. This cannot be fixed it is a restriction in grub/grub2!
  • Why is parted used in setup routine, instead of cfdisk in msdos partitiontable mode?
parted is the only linux partition program that can handle all type of things the setup routine offers.
cfdisk cannot handle GPT/GUID nor it can allign partitions correct with 1MB spaces for 4k sector disks.
cfdisk is a nice tool but is too limited to be the standard partitioner anymore.
cfdisk is still included but has to be run in an other terminal.

UEFI 参考

Bugs

Arch Linux Bugtracker

链接

Usbstick 恢复

Take care about which device actually is your USB stick. The next command will render all data on /dev/sdX inaccessible.

  • First, wipe the bootsector of the USB stick:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdX bs=512 count=1
  • Then, create a new FAT32 partition on the stick and write a FAT32 filesystem on it (vfat or type b in fdisk terminology):
fdisk /dev/sdX <<EOF
n
p
1

t
b
w
EOF

mkdosfs -F32 /dev/sdX1

建立镜像文件

如何建立Archboot Allinone ISO

(Quick regeneration of installation media with latest available core packages)

前提条件

  • x86_64环境
  • archboot的iso
  • 3G以上的硬盘空间

建立archboot chroots

# 安装 archboot
pacman -S archboot
# 以loop设备挂载archboot镜像文件
mount -o loop <imagefile> <imagepath>
# 建立 x86_64 chroot
mkdir <x86_64_chroot>
/usr/share/archboot/installer/quickinst media <x86_64_chroot> <imagepath>/core-x86_64/pkg
# 建立 i686 chroot
mkdir <i686_chroot>
linux32 /usr/share/archboot/installer/quickinst media <i686_chroot> <imagepath>/core-i686/pkg
# 卸载光盘镜像文件
umount <imagepath>
  • 挂载并复制文件到chroot目录下:
mount -o bind /dev <chrootpath>/dev
mount -o bind /tmp <chrootpath>/tmp
mount -o bind /sys <chrootpath>/sys
mount -o bind /proc <chrootpath>/proc
cp -a /etc/mtab <chrootpath>/etc/mtab
cp /etc/resolv.conf  <chrootpath>/etc/resolv.conf
  • 进入 archboot x86_64 chroot:
chroot <chrootpath>
  • 进入 archboot i686 chroot:
linux32 chroot <chrootpath>

安装和更新archboo

# 安装 in both chroots archboot:
pacman -S archboot
# 更新 in both chroots to latest available packages
pacman -Syu

生成镜像

# 运行 in both chroots (needs quite some time ...)
archboot-allinone.sh -t
# put the generated tarballs in one directory and run (needs quite some time ...)
archboot-allinone.sh -g
  • Finished you get a burnable iso image, a rawwrite usb image and a hybrid image which is both in one.
  • 在离开chroot时记得卸载它们:
umount <chrootpath>/dev
umount <chrootpath>/tmp
umount <chrootpath>/sys
umount <chrootpath>/proc

Have fun! tpowa (Archboot Developer)