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[[Category:Live Arch systems]]
 
[[Category:Live Arch systems]]
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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[[ar:Archiso]]
 
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[[ja:Archiso]]
 
[[nl:Archiso]]
 
[[nl:Archiso]]
 
[[ru:Archiso]]
 
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[[uk:Archiso]]
 
[[uk:Archiso]]
'''Archiso''' is a small set of bash scripts capable of building fully functional Arch Linux based live CD and USB images. It is a very generic tool, so it could potentially be used to generate anything from rescue systems, install disks, to special interest live CD/DVD/USB systems, and who knows what else. Simply put, if it involves Arch on a shiny coaster, it can do it. The heart and soul of Archiso is mkarchiso. All of its options are documented in its usage output, so its direct usage won't be covered here. Instead, this wiki article will act as a guide for rolling your own live media in no time!
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[[zh-CN:Archiso]]
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Remastering the Install ISO}}
 +
{{Related|Archiso as pxe server}}
 +
{{Related|Archboot}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 +
'''Archiso''' is a small set of bash scripts capable of building fully functional Arch Linux live CD/DVD/USB images. It is the same tool used to generate the official images, but since it is a very generic tool, it can be used to generate anything from rescue systems, install disks, to special interest live CD/DVD/USB systems, and who knows what else. Simply put, if it involves Arch on a shiny coaster, it can do it. The heart and soul of Archiso is ''mkarchiso''. All of its options are documented in its usage output, so its direct usage will not be covered here. Instead, this wiki article will act as a guide for rolling your own live media in no time!
  
 
== Setup ==
 
== Setup ==
{{Note|The script is to be used on an x86_64 machine.}}
 
Before we begin, we need to [[pacman|install]] {{Pkg|archiso}} from the [[official repositories]]. Alternatively, {{AUR|archiso-git}} can be found in the [[AUR]].
 
  
Create a directory to work within, this is where all the modifications to the live image will take place: {{ic|~/archlive}} should do fine.
+
{{Note|
$ mkdir ~/archlive
+
* To use Archiso you must be running on a x86_64 platform. [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/docs/README.build#n67]
 +
* It is recommended to act as root in all the following steps. If not, it is very likely to have problems with false permissions later.}}
 +
Before you begin, [[install]] the {{Pkg|archiso}} or {{AUR|archiso-git}} package.
  
The archiso scripts that were installed to the host system earlier now need to be copied over into the newly created directory you will be working within.
 
 
Archiso comes with two "profiles": ''releng'' and ''baseline''.
 
Archiso comes with two "profiles": ''releng'' and ''baseline''.
If you wish to create a fully customised live version of Arch Linux, pre-installed with all your favourite programs and configurations, use ''releng''.
 
If you just want to create the most basic live medium, with no pre-installed packages and a minimalistic configuration, use ''baseline''.
 
  
So, depending on your needs, execute the following, replacing 'PROFILE' with either '''releng''' or '''baseline'''.
+
* If you wish to create a fully customised live version of Arch Linux, pre-installed with all your favourite programs and configurations, use ''releng''.
# cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/'''PROFILE'''/ ~USER/archlive
+
* If you just want to create the most basic live medium, with no pre-installed packages and a minimalistic configuration, use ''baseline''.
  
If you are using the ''releng'' profile to make a fully customised image, then you can proceed onto [[#Configure our live medium]].
+
Now, copy the profile of your choice to a directory where you can make adjustments and build it (we will use {{ic|~/archlive}}). Execute the following, replacing {{ic|'''profile'''}} with either {{ic|releng}} or {{ic|baseline}}.
 +
# cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/'''profile'''/* ~/archlive
  
If you are using the ''baseline'' profile to create a bare image, then you won't be needing to do any customisations and can proceed onto [[#Build the ISO]].
+
* If you are using the {{ic|releng}} profile to make a fully customised image, then you can proceed onto [[#Configure the live medium]].
 +
* If you are using the {{ic|baseline}} profile to create a bare image, then you will not be needing to do any customisations and can proceed onto [[#Build the ISO]].
  
== Configure our live medium ==
+
== Configure the live medium ==
  
 
This section details configuring the image you will be creating, allowing you to define the packages and configurations you want your live image to contain.
 
This section details configuring the image you will be creating, allowing you to define the packages and configurations you want your live image to contain.
  
Change into the directory we created earlier (~/archlive/releng/ if you have been following this guide), you will see a number of files and directories; we are only concerned with a few of these, mainly:  
+
Inside the {{ic|~/archlive}} directory there are a number of files and directories; we are only concerned with a few of these, mainly:  
packages.* - this is where you list, line by line, the packages you want to have installed, and
+
* {{ic|packages.*}} - this is where you list, line by line, the packages you want to have installed, and
the root-image directory - this directory acts as an overlay and it is where you make all the customisations.
+
* the {{ic|airootfs}} directory - this directory acts as an overlay and it is where you make all the customisations.
 +
 
 +
Generally, every administrative task that you would normally do after a fresh install except for package installation can be scripted into {{ic|~/archlive/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh}}. It has to be written from the perspective of the new environment, so {{ic|/}} in the script means the root of the live-iso which is created.
  
 
=== Installing packages ===
 
=== Installing packages ===
  
You will want to create a list of packages you want installed on your live CD system. A file full of package names, one-per-line, is the format for this. This is '''''great''''' for special interest live CDs, just specify packages you want in packages.both and bake the image.
+
You will want to create a list of packages you want installed on your live CD system. A file full of package names, one-per-line, is the format for this. This is ''great'' for special interest live CDs, just specify packages you want in packages.both and bake the image.
The packages.i686 and packages.x86_64 files allow you to install software on just 32bit or 64bit, respectively.
+
The {{ic|packages.i686}} and {{ic|packages.x86_64}} files allow you to install software on just 32-bit or 64-bit, respectively.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|If you want to use a [[window manager]] in the Live CD then you must add the necessary and correct [[video drivers]], or the WM may freeze on loading.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Custom local repository ====
 +
 
 +
{{Merge|Pacman tips#Custom local repository|Move the general information (e.g. repo tree) into the main article.}}
 +
 
 +
You can also [[custom local repository|create a custom local repository]] for the purpose of preparing custom packages or packages from [[AUR]]/[[ABS]]. When doing so with packages for both architectures, you should follow a certain directory order to not run into problems.
 +
 
 +
For instance:
 +
 
 +
*{{ic|~/customrepo}}
 +
**{{ic|~/customrepo/x86_64}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/x86_64/foo-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db.tar.gz}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db}} (symlink created by {{ic|repo-add}})
 +
**{{ic|~/customrepo/i686}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/i686/foo-i686.pkg.tar.xz}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db.tar.gz}}
 +
***{{ic|~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db}} (symlink created by {{ic|repo-add}})
 +
 
 +
You can then add your repository by putting the following into {{ic|~/archlive/pacman.conf}}, above the other repository entries (for top priority):
 +
 
 +
# custom repository
 +
[customrepo]
 +
SigLevel = Optional TrustAll
 +
Server = file:///home/'''user'''/customrepo/$arch
 +
 
 +
So, the build scripts just look for the appropriate packages.
 +
 
 +
If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:
 +
 
 +
error: failed to prepare transaction (package architecture is not valid)
 +
:: package foo-i686 does not have a valid architecture
 +
 
 +
==== Avoid installation of packages belonging to base group ====
 +
 
 +
By, default {{ic|/usr/bin/mkarchiso}}, a script which is used by {{ic|~/archlive/build.sh}}, calls one of the {{Pkg|arch-install-scripts}} named {{ic|pacstrap}} without the {{ic|-i}} flag, which causes [[Pacman]] to not wait for user input during the installation process.
 +
 
 +
When blacklisting base group packages by adding them to the {{ic|IgnorePkg}} line in {{ic|~/archlive/pacman.conf}}, [[Pacman]] asks if they still should be installed, which means they will when user input is bypassed. To get rid of these packages there are several options:
 +
 
 +
* '''Dirty''': Add the {{ic|-i}} flag to each line calling {{ic|pacstrap}} in {{ic|/usr/bin/mkarchiso}}.
 +
 
 +
* '''Clean''': Create a copy of {{ic|/usr/bin/mkarchiso}} in which you add the flag and adapt {{ic|~/archlive/build.sh}} so that it calls the modified version of the mkarchiso script.
 +
 
 +
* '''Advanced''': Create a function for {{ic|~/archlive//build.sh}} which explicitly removes the packages after the base installation. This would leave you the comfort of not having to type enter so much during the installation process.
 +
 
 +
==== Installing packages from multilib ====
 +
 
 +
To install packages from the [[multilib]] repository you have to create two pacman configuration files: one for x86_64 and one for i686. Copy {{ic|pacman.conf}} to {{ic|pacmanx86_64.conf}} and {{ic|pacmani686.conf}}. Uncomment the following lines to enable ''multilib'' in {{ic|pacmanx86_64.conf}}:
 
   
 
   
{{Tip|You can also create a '''[[custom local repository]]''' for the purpose of preparing custom packages or packages from [[AUR]]/[[ABS]]. Just add your local repository at the first position (for top priority) of your build machine's '''pacman.conf''' and you are good to go!}}
+
{{hc|pacmanx86_64.conf|2=
I recommend installing "rsync" if you wish to install the system later on with no internet connection or skipping downloading it all over again. ([[#Installation]])
+
[multilib]
 +
SigLevel = PackageRequired
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
 +
}}
  
=== Adding a user ===
+
Then edit {{ic|build.sh}} with an editor. Replace the following lines:
  
There are two methods to creating a user: either by adding the relevant useradd command to rc.local, or by copying over (and modifying) /etc/shadow, /etc/passwd, and /etc/group.
+
{{hc|build.sh|
The latter method shall be discussed here.
+
run_once make_pacman_conf
  
Copy your /etc/shadow, /etc/passwd, and /etc/group from your '''host''' system to the /etc/ directory '''of the new live system''' (which should be ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc)
+
# Do all stuff for each airootfs
e.g.
+
for arch in i686 x86_64; do
# cp /etc/{shadow,passwd,group} ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc/
+
    run_once make_basefs
 +
    run_once make_packages
 +
done
  
{{Warning|The shadow file will contain your encrypted password. I recommend before you copy the shadow file over, you change the password of your host user to that which you want your live user to have, copy the shadow file over, and then change back your password.}}
+
run_once make_packages_efi
  
=== Adding files to image ===
+
for arch in i686 x86_64; do
 +
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
 +
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
 +
done
 +
}}
  
{{Note|You must be root to do this, do not change the ownership of any of the files you copy over, '''everything''' within the root-image directory must be root owned. Proper ownerships will be sorted out shortly.}}
+
with:
  
The root-image directory acts as an overlay, think of it as root directory '/' on your current system, so any files you place within this directory will be copied over on boot-up.
+
{{hc|build.sh|
 +
cp -v releng/pacmanx86_64.conf releng/pacman.conf
 +
run_once make_pacman_conf
  
So if you have a set of iptables scripts on your current system you want to be used on you live image, copy them over as such:
+
# Do all stuff for each airootfs
# cp -r /etc/iptables ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc
+
for arch in x86_64; do
 +
    run_once make_basefs
 +
    run_once make_packages
 +
    run_once make_packages_efi
 +
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
 +
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
 +
done
  
Placing files in the users home directory is a little different. Do not place them within root-image/home, but instead create a skel directory within root-image/ and place them there. We will then add the relevant commands to the rc.local we are going to create to copy them over on boot and sort out the permissions.
+
echo make_pacman_conf i686
 +
cp -v releng/pacmani686.conf releng/pacman.conf
 +
cp -v releng/pacmani686.conf ${work_dir}/pacman.conf
  
First, create the skel directory; making sure you are within ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc directory (if this is where you are working from):
 
# cd ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc && mkdir skel
 
  
Now copy the 'home' files to the skel directory, again doing everything as root!
+
for arch in i686; do
e.g for .bashrc.
+
    run_once make_basefs
# cp ~/.bashrc ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc/skel/
+
    run_once make_packages
 +
    run_once make_packages_efi
 +
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
 +
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
 +
done
 +
}}
  
Inside the root-image/etc/ directory, create the rc.local file, and '''make sure''' you make it executable:
+
In this way packages for x86_64 and i686 will be installed with their own pacman configuration file.
  
# cd ~/archlive/releng/root-image/etc && touch rc.local && chmod +x rc.local
+
=== Adding files to image ===
  
Now add the all of following to rc.local, replacing 'youruser' with the user you specified earlier.
+
{{Note|You must be root to do this, do not change the ownership of any of the files you copy over, '''everything''' within the airootfs directory must be root owned. Proper ownerships will be sorted out shortly.}}
# Create the user directory for live session
+
if [ ! -d /home/'''youruser''' ]; then
+
    mkdir /home/'''youruser''' && chown '''youruser''' /home/'''youruser'''
+
fi
+
# Copy files over to home
+
su -c "cp -r /etc/skel/.* /home/'''youruser'''/" '''youruser'''
+
  
=== aitab ===
+
The airootfs directory acts as an overlay, think of it as root directory '/' on your current system, so any files you place within this directory will be copied over on boot-up.
  
The default file should work fine, so you should not need to touch it.
+
So if you have a set of iptables scripts on your current system you want to be used on you live image, copy them over as such:
 +
# cp -r /etc/iptables ~/archlive/airootfs/etc
  
The aitab file holds information about the filesystems images that must be created by mkarchiso and mounted at initramfs stage from the archiso hook.
+
Placing files in the users home directory is a little different. Do not place them within {{ic|airootfs/home}}, but instead create a skel directory within {{ic|airootfs/}} and place them there. We will then add the relevant commands to the {{ic|customize_airootfs.sh}} which we are going to use to copy them over on boot and sort out the permissions.
It consists of some fields which define the behaviour of images.
+
  
  # <img>        <mnt>                <arch>  <sfs_comp>  <fs_type>  <fs_size>
+
First, create the skel directory:
 +
  # mkdir ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel
  
; <img>: Image name without extension (.fs .fs.sfs .sfs).
+
Now copy the 'home' files to the skel directory, e.g for {{ic|.bashrc}}:
; <mnt>: Mount point.
+
  # cp ~/.bashrc ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel/
; <arch>: Architecture { i686 | x86_64 | any }.
+
; <sfs_comp>: SquashFS compression type { gzip | lzo | xz }.
+
; <fs_type>: Set the filesystem type of the image { ext4 | ext3 | ext2 | xfs }. A special value of "none" denotes no usage of a filesystem. In that case all files are pushed directly to SquashFS filesystem.
+
; <fs_size>:  An absolute value of file system image size in MiB (example: 100, 1000, 4096, etc) A relative value of file system free space [in percent] {1%..99%} (example 50%, 10%, 7%). This is an estimation, and calculated in a simple way. Space used + 10% (estimated for metadata overhead) + desired %
+
  
{{Note|Some combinations are invalid. Example both sfs_comp and fs_type are set to none}}
+
When {{ic|~/archlive/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh}} is executed and a new user is created, the files from the skel directory will automatically be copied over to the new home folder, permissions set right.
 +
 
 +
Similarly, some care is required for special configuration file that reside somewhere down the hierarchy. As an example the {{ic|/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc}} configuration file resides on a path that might be overwritten by installing a package. To place the configuration file one should put into the custom {{ic|xinitrc}} in {{ic|~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel/}} and then modify {{ic|customize_airootfs.sh}} to move it appropriately.
  
 
=== Boot Loader ===
 
=== Boot Loader ===
 +
 
The default file should work fine, so you should not need to touch it.
 
The default file should work fine, so you should not need to touch it.
  
Line 110: Line 187:
 
=== Login manager ===
 
=== Login manager ===
  
Starting X at boot time was done by modifying ''inittab'' on [[sysvinit]] systems. On a [[systemd]] based system things are handled by enabling your login manager's service. If you know which .service file needs a softlink: Great. If not, you can easily find out in case you're using the same program on the system you build your iso on. Just use
+
Starting X at boot is done by enabling your login manager's [[systemd]] service. If you know which .service file needs a softlink: Great. If not, you can easily find out in case you are using the same program on the system you build your iso on. Just use:
  
  # systemctl disable '''nameofyourloginmanager'''
+
  $ ls -l /etc/systemd/system/display-manager.service
  
to temporarily turn it of. Next type the same command again and replace "disable" with "enable" to activate it again. Systemctl prints information about softlink it creates. Now change to ~/archiso/releng/root-image/etc/systemd/system and create the same softlink there.
+
Now create the same softlink in {{ic|~/archlive/airootfs/etc/systemd/system}}. For LXDM:
  
An example (make sure you're either in ~/archiso/releng/root-image/etc/systemd/system or add it to the command):
+
  # ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/lxdm.service ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/systemd/system/display-manager.service
 
+
  # ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/lxdm.service display-manager.service
+
  
 
This will enable LXDM at system start on your live system.
 
This will enable LXDM at system start on your live system.
 +
 +
Alternatively you can just enable the service in {{ic|airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh}} along with other services that are enabled there.
 +
 +
 +
If you want the graphical environment to actually start automatically during boot make sure to edit {{ic|airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh}} and replace
 +
 +
systemctl set-default multi-user.target
 +
with
 +
systemctl set-default graphical.target
 +
 +
=== Changing Automatic Login ===
 +
 +
The configuration for getty's automatic login is located under {{ic|airootfs/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf}}.
 +
 +
You can modify this file to change the auto login user:
 +
 +
[Service]
 +
ExecStart=
 +
ExecStart=-/sbin/agetty --autologin '''isouser''' --noclear %I 38400 linux
 +
 +
Or remove it altogether to disable auto login.
  
 
== Build the ISO ==
 
== Build the ISO ==
  
 
Now you are ready to turn your files into the .iso which you can then burn to CD or USB:
 
Now you are ready to turn your files into the .iso which you can then burn to CD or USB:
Inside the directory you are working with, either ~/archlive/releng, or ~/archlive/baseline, execute:
+
 
 +
First create the {{ic|out/}} directory,
 +
 
 +
# mkdir ~/archlive/out/
 +
 
 +
then inside {{ic|~/archlive}}, execute:
  
 
  # ./build.sh -v
 
  # ./build.sh -v
  
The script will now download and install the packages you specified to work/*/root-image, create the kernel and init images, apply your customizations and finally build the iso into out/.
+
The script will now download and install the packages you specified to {{ic|work/*/airootfs}}, create the kernel and init images, apply your customizations and finally build the iso into {{ic|out/}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Rebuild the ISO ===
 +
 
 +
Rebuilding the iso after modifications is not officially supported. However, it is easily possible by applying two steps. First you have to remove lock files in the work directory:
 +
 
 +
# rm -v work/build.make_*
 +
 
 +
Furthermore it is required to edit the script {{ic|airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh}}, and add an id command in the beginning of the {{ic|useradd}} line as shown here. Otherwise the rebuild stops at this point because the user that is to be added already exists [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/41865].
 +
 
 +
{{Style|typo?}}
 +
 
 +
! id arch && useradd -m -p "" -g users -G "adm,audio,floppy,log,network,rfkill,scanner,storage,optical,power,wheel" -s /usr/bin/zsh arch
 +
 
 +
Also remove persistent data such as created users or symlinks such as {{ic|/etc/sudoers}}.
 +
 
 +
{{Expansion|Report more data that needs to be removed or reset.}}
  
 
== Using the ISO ==
 
== Using the ISO ==
 +
 
=== CD ===
 
=== CD ===
Just burn the iso to a cd. You can follow [[CD Burning]] as you wish.
+
 
 +
Just burn the iso to a CD. You can follow [[Optical disc drive#Burning]] as you wish.
 +
 
 
=== USB ===
 
=== USB ===
You can now dd the iso file onto a USB using dd, an example of which:
+
 
# dd if=~/archlive/releng/out/*.iso of=/dev/sdx
+
See [[USB flash installation media]].
You will have to adjust accordingly, and make sure you choose the right output file! A simple mistake here will destory data on your harddisk.
+
 
 +
=== GRUB ===
 +
 
 +
See [[Multiboot USB drive#Arch Linux]].
 +
 
 
=== grub4dos ===
 
=== grub4dos ===
Grub4dos is a utility that can be used to create multiboot usbs, able to boot multiple linux distros from the same usb stick.
 
  
To boot the generated system on a usb with grub4dos already installed, loop mount the ISO and copy the entire {{ic|/arch}} directory to the '''root of the usb'''.
+
Grub4dos is a utility that can be used to create multiboot USBs, able to boot multiple linux distros from the same USB stick.
Then edit the {{ic|menu.lst}} file from the grub4dos (it must be on the usb root) and add this lines:
+
 
 +
To boot the generated system on a USB with grub4dos already installed, loop mount the ISO and copy the entire {{ic|/arch}} directory to the '''root of the USB'''.
 +
Then edit the {{ic|menu.lst}} file from the grub4dos (it must be on the USB root) and add these lines:
 +
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
title Archlinux x86_64
 
title Archlinux x86_64
Line 148: Line 274:
 
initrd /arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img
 
initrd /arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
 +
 
Change the {{ic|x86_64}} part as necessary and put your '''real''' usb label there.
 
Change the {{ic|x86_64}} part as necessary and put your '''real''' usb label there.
  
=== Installation ===
+
== Installation without Internet access ==
  
Boot the created CD/DVD/USB. If you wish to install the Archiso you created '''-as it is-''', there are several ways to do this, but either way we're following the [[Beginners' Guide]] mostly.
+
If you wish to install the archiso(e.g. [https://www.archlinux.org/download/ the offical monthly release]) as it is without an Internet connection, or, if you do not want to download the packages you want again:
  
If you don't have an internet connection on that PC, or if you don't want to download every packages you want again, follow the guide, and when you get to [[Beginners' Guide#Install_the_base_system]], instead of downloading, use this: [[Full System Backup with rsync]]. (more info here: [[Talk:Archiso]])
+
First, please follow the [[beginners' guide]] and skip some parts (like [[Beginners' guide#Establish an internet connection|#Establish an internet connection]]) until the [[Beginners' guide#Install the base system|#Install the base system]] step.
  
You can also try: [[Archboot]], GUI installer.
+
=== Install the archiso to the new root ===
 +
Instead of installing the packages with {{ic|pacstrap}}(as it downloads every packages from remote repository and we have no Internet access now), copy ''everything'' in the Live environment to the new root:
 +
# time cp -ax / /mnt
 +
{{Note|The option ({{ic|-x}}) excludes some special directories, as they should not be copied to the new root.}}
 +
Then, copy the kernel image to the new root, in order to keep the integrity of the new system:
 +
# cp -vaT /run/archiso/bootmnt/arch/boot/$(uname -m)/vmlinuz /mnt/boot/vmlinuz-linux
 +
 
 +
After that, please generate a fstab as described in [[Beginners' guide#Generate an fstab]].
 +
 
 +
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
 +
Next, chroot into your newly installed system:
 +
# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
 +
 
 +
Please note that before you configure the locale,keymap,etc,... there are something necessary to do, in order to get rid of the trace of a Live environment(in other words, the customization of archiso which does not fit a non-Live environment).
 +
 
 +
==== Restore the configuration of journald ====
 +
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh#n19 This customization of archiso] will lead to storing the system journal in RAM, it means that the journal will not available after reboot:
 +
# sed -i 's/Storage=volatile/#Storage=auto/' /etc/systemd/journald.conf
 +
 
 +
==== Remove special udev rule ====
 +
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/etc/udev/rules.d/81-dhcpcd.rules This rule of udev] starts the dhcpcd automatically if there are any wired network interfaces.
 +
 
 +
# rm /etc/udev/rules.d/81-dhcpcd.rules
 +
 
 +
==== Disable and remove the services created by archiso ====
 +
Some service files are created for the Live environment, please disable the services and remove the file as they are unnecessary for the new system:
 +
# systemctl disable pacman-init.service choose-mirror.service
 +
# rm -r /etc/systemd/system/{choose-mirror.service,pacman-init.service,etc-pacman.d-gnupg.mount,getty@tty1.service.d}
 +
# rm /etc/systemd/scripts/choose-mirror
 +
 
 +
==== Remove special scripts of the Live environment ====
 +
There are some scripts installed in the live system by archiso scripts, which are unnecessary for the new system:
 +
# rm /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf
 +
# rm /root/{.automated_script.sh,.zlogin}
 +
# rm /etc/mkinitcpio-archiso.conf
 +
# rm -r /etc/initcpio
 +
 
 +
==== Create an initial ramdisk environment ====
 +
Please create an initial ramdisk as described in [[Beginners' guide#Create an initial ramdisk environment]].
 +
 
 +
==== Normal configuration ====
 +
After all of these, now you can follow the [[Beginners' guide#Locale]] and finish the installation.
 +
 
 +
== Testing iso file by Virtualbox ==
 +
 
 +
* add 'virtualbox-guest-modules-arch' 'virtualbox-guest-utils' into packages.both
 +
* added three lines in airootfs/etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf
 +
  vboxguest
 +
  vboxsf
 +
  vboxvideo
 +
* in your .xinitrc add '/usr/bin/VBoxClient-all'
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
*[https://projects.archlinux.org/?p=archiso.git;a=summary Archiso project page]
+
=== Documentation and tutorials ===
*[[Archiso_as_pxe_server|Archiso as pxe server]]
+
* [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git Archiso project page]
*[https://kroweer.wordpress.com/2011/09/07/creating-a-custom-arch-linux-live-usb Step-by-step tutorial on using ArchISO]
+
* [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/docs Offical documentation]
*[http://didjix.blogspot.com/ A live DJ distribution powered by ArchLinux and built with Archiso]
+
 
 +
=== Example customization template ===
 +
* [http://didjix.blogspot.com/ A live DJ distribution powered by ArchLinux and built with Archiso]

Latest revision as of 15:23, 1 May 2016

Archiso is a small set of bash scripts capable of building fully functional Arch Linux live CD/DVD/USB images. It is the same tool used to generate the official images, but since it is a very generic tool, it can be used to generate anything from rescue systems, install disks, to special interest live CD/DVD/USB systems, and who knows what else. Simply put, if it involves Arch on a shiny coaster, it can do it. The heart and soul of Archiso is mkarchiso. All of its options are documented in its usage output, so its direct usage will not be covered here. Instead, this wiki article will act as a guide for rolling your own live media in no time!

Setup

Note:
  • To use Archiso you must be running on a x86_64 platform. [1]
  • It is recommended to act as root in all the following steps. If not, it is very likely to have problems with false permissions later.

Before you begin, install the archiso or archiso-gitAUR package.

Archiso comes with two "profiles": releng and baseline.

  • If you wish to create a fully customised live version of Arch Linux, pre-installed with all your favourite programs and configurations, use releng.
  • If you just want to create the most basic live medium, with no pre-installed packages and a minimalistic configuration, use baseline.

Now, copy the profile of your choice to a directory where you can make adjustments and build it (we will use ~/archlive). Execute the following, replacing profile with either releng or baseline.

# cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/profile/* ~/archlive
  • If you are using the releng profile to make a fully customised image, then you can proceed onto #Configure the live medium.
  • If you are using the baseline profile to create a bare image, then you will not be needing to do any customisations and can proceed onto #Build the ISO.

Configure the live medium

This section details configuring the image you will be creating, allowing you to define the packages and configurations you want your live image to contain.

Inside the ~/archlive directory there are a number of files and directories; we are only concerned with a few of these, mainly:

  • packages.* - this is where you list, line by line, the packages you want to have installed, and
  • the airootfs directory - this directory acts as an overlay and it is where you make all the customisations.

Generally, every administrative task that you would normally do after a fresh install except for package installation can be scripted into ~/archlive/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh. It has to be written from the perspective of the new environment, so / in the script means the root of the live-iso which is created.

Installing packages

You will want to create a list of packages you want installed on your live CD system. A file full of package names, one-per-line, is the format for this. This is great for special interest live CDs, just specify packages you want in packages.both and bake the image. The packages.i686 and packages.x86_64 files allow you to install software on just 32-bit or 64-bit, respectively.

Note: If you want to use a window manager in the Live CD then you must add the necessary and correct video drivers, or the WM may freeze on loading.

Custom local repository

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Pacman tips#Custom local repository.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Move the general information (e.g. repo tree) into the main article. (Discuss in Talk:Archiso#)

You can also create a custom local repository for the purpose of preparing custom packages or packages from AUR/ABS. When doing so with packages for both architectures, you should follow a certain directory order to not run into problems.

For instance:

  • ~/customrepo
    • ~/customrepo/x86_64
      • ~/customrepo/x86_64/foo-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
      • ~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db.tar.gz
      • ~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db (symlink created by repo-add)
    • ~/customrepo/i686
      • ~/customrepo/i686/foo-i686.pkg.tar.xz
      • ~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db.tar.gz
      • ~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db (symlink created by repo-add)

You can then add your repository by putting the following into ~/archlive/pacman.conf, above the other repository entries (for top priority):

# custom repository
[customrepo]
SigLevel = Optional TrustAll
Server = file:///home/user/customrepo/$arch

So, the build scripts just look for the appropriate packages.

If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:

error: failed to prepare transaction (package architecture is not valid)
:: package foo-i686 does not have a valid architecture

Avoid installation of packages belonging to base group

By, default /usr/bin/mkarchiso, a script which is used by ~/archlive/build.sh, calls one of the arch-install-scripts named pacstrap without the -i flag, which causes Pacman to not wait for user input during the installation process.

When blacklisting base group packages by adding them to the IgnorePkg line in ~/archlive/pacman.conf, Pacman asks if they still should be installed, which means they will when user input is bypassed. To get rid of these packages there are several options:

  • Dirty: Add the -i flag to each line calling pacstrap in /usr/bin/mkarchiso.
  • Clean: Create a copy of /usr/bin/mkarchiso in which you add the flag and adapt ~/archlive/build.sh so that it calls the modified version of the mkarchiso script.
  • Advanced: Create a function for ~/archlive//build.sh which explicitly removes the packages after the base installation. This would leave you the comfort of not having to type enter so much during the installation process.

Installing packages from multilib

To install packages from the multilib repository you have to create two pacman configuration files: one for x86_64 and one for i686. Copy pacman.conf to pacmanx86_64.conf and pacmani686.conf. Uncomment the following lines to enable multilib in pacmanx86_64.conf:

pacmanx86_64.conf
[multilib]
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

Then edit build.sh with an editor. Replace the following lines:

build.sh
run_once make_pacman_conf

# Do all stuff for each airootfs
for arch in i686 x86_64; do
    run_once make_basefs
    run_once make_packages
done

run_once make_packages_efi

for arch in i686 x86_64; do
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
done

with:

build.sh
cp -v releng/pacmanx86_64.conf releng/pacman.conf
run_once make_pacman_conf

# Do all stuff for each airootfs
for arch in x86_64; do
    run_once make_basefs
    run_once make_packages
    run_once make_packages_efi
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
done

echo make_pacman_conf i686
cp -v releng/pacmani686.conf releng/pacman.conf
cp -v releng/pacmani686.conf ${work_dir}/pacman.conf


for arch in i686; do
    run_once make_basefs
    run_once make_packages
    run_once make_packages_efi
    run_once make_setup_mkinitcpio
    run_once make_customize_airootfs
done

In this way packages for x86_64 and i686 will be installed with their own pacman configuration file.

Adding files to image

Note: You must be root to do this, do not change the ownership of any of the files you copy over, everything within the airootfs directory must be root owned. Proper ownerships will be sorted out shortly.

The airootfs directory acts as an overlay, think of it as root directory '/' on your current system, so any files you place within this directory will be copied over on boot-up.

So if you have a set of iptables scripts on your current system you want to be used on you live image, copy them over as such:

# cp -r /etc/iptables ~/archlive/airootfs/etc

Placing files in the users home directory is a little different. Do not place them within airootfs/home, but instead create a skel directory within airootfs/ and place them there. We will then add the relevant commands to the customize_airootfs.sh which we are going to use to copy them over on boot and sort out the permissions.

First, create the skel directory:

# mkdir ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel

Now copy the 'home' files to the skel directory, e.g for .bashrc:

# cp ~/.bashrc ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel/

When ~/archlive/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh is executed and a new user is created, the files from the skel directory will automatically be copied over to the new home folder, permissions set right.

Similarly, some care is required for special configuration file that reside somewhere down the hierarchy. As an example the /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc configuration file resides on a path that might be overwritten by installing a package. To place the configuration file one should put into the custom xinitrc in ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/skel/ and then modify customize_airootfs.sh to move it appropriately.

Boot Loader

The default file should work fine, so you should not need to touch it.

Due to the modular nature of isolinux, you are able to use lots of addons since all *.c32 files are copied and available to you. Take a look at the official syslinux site and the archiso git repo. Using said addons, it is possible to make visually attractive and complex menus. See here.

Login manager

Starting X at boot is done by enabling your login manager's systemd service. If you know which .service file needs a softlink: Great. If not, you can easily find out in case you are using the same program on the system you build your iso on. Just use:

$ ls -l /etc/systemd/system/display-manager.service

Now create the same softlink in ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/systemd/system. For LXDM:

# ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/lxdm.service ~/archlive/airootfs/etc/systemd/system/display-manager.service

This will enable LXDM at system start on your live system.

Alternatively you can just enable the service in airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh along with other services that are enabled there.


If you want the graphical environment to actually start automatically during boot make sure to edit airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh and replace

systemctl set-default multi-user.target

with

systemctl set-default graphical.target

Changing Automatic Login

The configuration for getty's automatic login is located under airootfs/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf.

You can modify this file to change the auto login user:

[Service]
ExecStart=
ExecStart=-/sbin/agetty --autologin isouser --noclear %I 38400 linux

Or remove it altogether to disable auto login.

Build the ISO

Now you are ready to turn your files into the .iso which you can then burn to CD or USB:

First create the out/ directory,

# mkdir ~/archlive/out/

then inside ~/archlive, execute:

# ./build.sh -v

The script will now download and install the packages you specified to work/*/airootfs, create the kernel and init images, apply your customizations and finally build the iso into out/.

Rebuild the ISO

Rebuilding the iso after modifications is not officially supported. However, it is easily possible by applying two steps. First you have to remove lock files in the work directory:

# rm -v work/build.make_*

Furthermore it is required to edit the script airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh, and add an id command in the beginning of the useradd line as shown here. Otherwise the rebuild stops at this point because the user that is to be added already exists [2].

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: typo? (Discuss in Talk:Archiso#)
! id arch && useradd -m -p "" -g users -G "adm,audio,floppy,log,network,rfkill,scanner,storage,optical,power,wheel" -s /usr/bin/zsh arch

Also remove persistent data such as created users or symlinks such as /etc/sudoers.

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Report more data that needs to be removed or reset. (Discuss in Talk:Archiso#)

Using the ISO

CD

Just burn the iso to a CD. You can follow Optical disc drive#Burning as you wish.

USB

See USB flash installation media.

GRUB

See Multiboot USB drive#Arch Linux.

grub4dos

Grub4dos is a utility that can be used to create multiboot USBs, able to boot multiple linux distros from the same USB stick.

To boot the generated system on a USB with grub4dos already installed, loop mount the ISO and copy the entire /arch directory to the root of the USB. Then edit the menu.lst file from the grub4dos (it must be on the USB root) and add these lines:

title Archlinux x86_64
kernel /arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz archisolabel=<your usb label>
initrd /arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img

Change the x86_64 part as necessary and put your real usb label there.

Installation without Internet access

If you wish to install the archiso(e.g. the offical monthly release) as it is without an Internet connection, or, if you do not want to download the packages you want again:

First, please follow the beginners' guide and skip some parts (like #Establish an internet connection) until the #Install the base system step.

Install the archiso to the new root

Instead of installing the packages with pacstrap(as it downloads every packages from remote repository and we have no Internet access now), copy everything in the Live environment to the new root:

# time cp -ax / /mnt
Note: The option (-x) excludes some special directories, as they should not be copied to the new root.

Then, copy the kernel image to the new root, in order to keep the integrity of the new system:

# cp -vaT /run/archiso/bootmnt/arch/boot/$(uname -m)/vmlinuz /mnt/boot/vmlinuz-linux

After that, please generate a fstab as described in Beginners' guide#Generate an fstab.

Chroot and configure the base system

Next, chroot into your newly installed system:

# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Please note that before you configure the locale,keymap,etc,... there are something necessary to do, in order to get rid of the trace of a Live environment(in other words, the customization of archiso which does not fit a non-Live environment).

Restore the configuration of journald

This customization of archiso will lead to storing the system journal in RAM, it means that the journal will not available after reboot:

# sed -i 's/Storage=volatile/#Storage=auto/' /etc/systemd/journald.conf

Remove special udev rule

This rule of udev starts the dhcpcd automatically if there are any wired network interfaces.

# rm /etc/udev/rules.d/81-dhcpcd.rules

Disable and remove the services created by archiso

Some service files are created for the Live environment, please disable the services and remove the file as they are unnecessary for the new system:

# systemctl disable pacman-init.service choose-mirror.service
# rm -r /etc/systemd/system/{choose-mirror.service,pacman-init.service,etc-pacman.d-gnupg.mount,getty@tty1.service.d}
# rm /etc/systemd/scripts/choose-mirror

Remove special scripts of the Live environment

There are some scripts installed in the live system by archiso scripts, which are unnecessary for the new system:

# rm /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf
# rm /root/{.automated_script.sh,.zlogin}
# rm /etc/mkinitcpio-archiso.conf
# rm -r /etc/initcpio

Create an initial ramdisk environment

Please create an initial ramdisk as described in Beginners' guide#Create an initial ramdisk environment.

Normal configuration

After all of these, now you can follow the Beginners' guide#Locale and finish the installation.

Testing iso file by Virtualbox

  • add 'virtualbox-guest-modules-arch' 'virtualbox-guest-utils' into packages.both
  • added three lines in airootfs/etc/modules-load.d/virtualbox.conf
 vboxguest
 vboxsf
 vboxvideo
  • in your .xinitrc add '/usr/bin/VBoxClient-all'

See also

Documentation and tutorials

Example customization template