Difference between revisions of "Archiso (日本語)"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m
m
Line 14: Line 14:
 
{{Related articles start (日本語)}}
 
{{Related articles start (日本語)}}
 
{{Related2|Remastering the Install ISO|インストール ISO のリマスター}}
 
{{Related2|Remastering the Install ISO|インストール ISO のリマスター}}
{{Related|Archiso as pxe server}}
+
{{Related2|PXE (日本語)|PXE}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
'''Archiso''' は Arch Linux をベースとしたライブ CD 及びライブ USB イメージを構築するための bash スクリプトの小さなセットです。公式の CD/USB イメージを生成するのに使われているツールですが、とても汎用的なツールなので、レスキューシステムやインストールディスクから、特殊なライブ CD/DVD/USB システムまで、あらゆるものを作成することができます。要するに、Arch に関係していることなら、何だって出来ちゃいます。Archiso の中心は mkarchiso です。mkarchiso のオプションは全てドキュメント化されているので、ここでは使用方法を直接説明することはありません。代わりに、この wiki 記事ではライブメディアをすぐに作り出すためのガイドを提供します。
 
'''Archiso''' は Arch Linux をベースとしたライブ CD 及びライブ USB イメージを構築するための bash スクリプトの小さなセットです。公式の CD/USB イメージを生成するのに使われているツールですが、とても汎用的なツールなので、レスキューシステムやインストールディスクから、特殊なライブ CD/DVD/USB システムまで、あらゆるものを作成することができます。要するに、Arch に関係していることなら、何だって出来ちゃいます。Archiso の中心は mkarchiso です。mkarchiso のオプションは全てドキュメント化されているので、ここでは使用方法を直接説明することはありません。代わりに、この wiki 記事ではライブメディアをすぐに作り出すためのガイドを提供します。
Line 21: Line 21:
  
 
{{Note|It is recommended to act as root in all the following steps. If not, it is very likely to have problems with false permissions later.}}
 
{{Note|It is recommended to act as root in all the following steps. If not, it is very likely to have problems with false permissions later.}}
Before we begin, we need to [[pacman|install]] {{Pkg|archiso}} from the [[official repositories]]. Alternatively, {{AUR|archiso-git}} can be found in the [[AUR]].
+
初めに、[[公式リポジトリ]]から {{Pkg|archiso}} [[インストール]]する必要があります。もしくは、[[AUR (日本語)|AUR]] の {{AUR|archiso-git}} を使うこともできます。
  
 
Create a directory to work within, this is where all the modifications to the live image will take place: {{ic|~/archlive}} should do fine.
 
Create a directory to work within, this is where all the modifications to the live image will take place: {{ic|~/archlive}} should do fine.
Line 37: Line 37:
 
  # cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/'''PROFILE'''/ ~/archlive
 
  # cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/'''PROFILE'''/ ~/archlive
  
If you are using the ''releng'' profile to make a fully customised image, then you can proceed onto [[#Configure our live medium]].
+
''releng'' プロファイルを使って完全にカスタマイズしたイメージを作成する場合は、[[#ライブメディアの設定]] に進んで下さい。
  
If you are using the ''baseline'' profile to create a bare image, then you won't be needing to do any customisations and can proceed onto [[#Build the ISO]].
+
''baseline'' プロファイルを使って最低限のイメージを作成する場合は、カスタマイズをする必要がないので、[[#ISO の作成]] に進んで下さい。
  
 
== ライブメディアの設定 ==
 
== ライブメディアの設定 ==
Line 221: Line 221:
  
 
=== Chroot とベースシステムの設定 ===
 
=== Chroot とベースシステムの設定 ===
Next, chroot into your newly installed system:
+
次に、新しくインストールしたシステムに chroot します:
 
  # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
 
  # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
  
 
Please note that before you configure the locale,keymap,etc,... there are something necessary to do, in order to get rid of the trace of a Live environment(in other words, the customization of archiso which does not fit a non-Live environment).
 
Please note that before you configure the locale,keymap,etc,... there are something necessary to do, in order to get rid of the trace of a Live environment(in other words, the customization of archiso which does not fit a non-Live environment).
  
==== Restore the configuration of journald ====
+
==== journald の設定の復旧 ====
 
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh#n19 This customization of archiso] will lead to storing the system journal in RAM, it means that the journal will not available after reboot:
 
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh#n19 This customization of archiso] will lead to storing the system journal in RAM, it means that the journal will not available after reboot:
 
  # sed -i 's/Storage=volatile/#Storage=auto/' /etc/systemd/journald.conf
 
  # sed -i 's/Storage=volatile/#Storage=auto/' /etc/systemd/journald.conf
  
==== Reset the pam's configuration ====
+
==== pam の設定のリセット ====
 
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/etc/pam.d/su This configuration of pam] perhaps break the security of your new system, it's recommend to use the default configuration:
 
[https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/airootfs/etc/pam.d/su This configuration of pam] perhaps break the security of your new system, it's recommend to use the default configuration:
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/pam.d/su|
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/pam.d/su|

Revision as of 15:58, 29 November 2014

zh-CN:Archiso Template:Related articles start (日本語)

  • インストール ISO のリマスター
  • PXE
  • Archiso は Arch Linux をベースとしたライブ CD 及びライブ USB イメージを構築するための bash スクリプトの小さなセットです。公式の CD/USB イメージを生成するのに使われているツールですが、とても汎用的なツールなので、レスキューシステムやインストールディスクから、特殊なライブ CD/DVD/USB システムまで、あらゆるものを作成することができます。要するに、Arch に関係していることなら、何だって出来ちゃいます。Archiso の中心は mkarchiso です。mkarchiso のオプションは全てドキュメント化されているので、ここでは使用方法を直接説明することはありません。代わりに、この wiki 記事ではライブメディアをすぐに作り出すためのガイドを提供します。

    設定

    Note: It is recommended to act as root in all the following steps. If not, it is very likely to have problems with false permissions later.

    初めに、公式リポジトリから archisoインストールする必要があります。もしくは、AURarchiso-gitAUR を使うこともできます。

    Create a directory to work within, this is where all the modifications to the live image will take place: ~/archlive should do fine.

    $ mkdir ~/archlive
    

    The archiso scripts that were installed to the host system earlier now need to be copied over into the newly created directory you will be working within.

    Archiso comes with two "profiles": releng and baseline.

    If you wish to create a fully customised live version of Arch Linux, pre-installed with all your favourite programs and configurations, use releng.

    If you just want to create the most basic live medium, with no pre-installed packages and a minimalistic configuration, use baseline.

    So, depending on your needs, execute the following, replacing 'PROFILE' with either releng or baseline.

    # cp -r /usr/share/archiso/configs/PROFILE/ ~/archlive
    

    releng プロファイルを使って完全にカスタマイズしたイメージを作成する場合は、#ライブメディアの設定 に進んで下さい。

    baseline プロファイルを使って最低限のイメージを作成する場合は、カスタマイズをする必要がないので、#ISO の作成 に進んで下さい。

    ライブメディアの設定

    This section details configuring the image you will be creating, allowing you to define the packages and configurations you want your live image to contain.

    Change into the directory we created earlier (~/archlive/releng/ if you have been following this guide), you will see a number of files and directories; we are only concerned with a few of these, mainly: packages.* - this is where you list, line by line, the packages you want to have installed, and the airootfs directory - this directory acts as an overlay and it is where you make all the customisations.

    Generally, every administrative task that you would normally do after a fresh install except for package installation can be scripted into ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/root/customize-airootfs.sh. It has to be written from the perspective of the new environment, so / in the script means the root of the live-iso which is created.

    パッケージをインストール

    You will want to create a list of packages you want installed on your live CD system. A file full of package names, one-per-line, is the format for this. This is great for special interest live CDs, just specify packages you want in packages.both and bake the image. The packages.i686 and packages.x86_64 files allow you to install software on just 32bit or 64bit, respectively.

    I recommend installing "rsync" if you wish to install the system later on with no internet connection or skipping downloading it all over again. (#Installation)

    カスタムローカルリポジトリ

    You can also create a custom local repository for the purpose of preparing custom packages or packages from AUR/ABS. When doing so with packages for both architectures, you should follow a certain directory order to not run into problems.

    例えば:

    • ~/customrepo
      • ~/customrepo/x86_64
        • ~/customrepo/x86_64/foo-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz
        • ~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db.tar.gz
        • ~/customrepo/x86_64/customrepo.db (symlink created by repo-add)
      • ~/customrepo/i686
        • ~/customrepo/i686/foo-i686.pkg.tar.xz
        • ~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db.tar.gz
        • ~/customrepo/i686/customrepo.db (symlink created by repo-add)

    You can then add your repository by putting the following into ~/archlive/releng/pacman.conf, above the other repository entries (for top priority):

    # custom repository
    [customrepo]
    SigLevel = Optional TrustAll
    Server = file:///home/user/customrepo/$arch
    

    So, the build scripts just look for the appropriate packages.

    If this is not the case you will be running into error messages similar to this:

    error: failed to prepare transaction (package architecture is not valid)
    :: package foo-i686 does not have a valid architecture
    

    base グループに含まれているパッケージのインストールを避ける

    By, default /usr/bin/mkarchiso, a script which is used by ~/archlive/releng/build.sh, calls one of the arch-install-scripts named pacstrap without the -i flag, which causes Pacman to not wait for user input during the installation process.

    When blacklisting base group packages by adding them to the IgnorePkg line in ~/archlive/releng/pacman.conf, Pacman asks if they still should be installed, which means they will when user input is bypassed. To get rid of these packages there are several options:

    • Dirty: Add the -i flag to each line calling pacstrap in /usr/bin/mkarchiso.
    • Clean: Create a copy of /usr/bin/mkarchiso in which you add the flag and adapt ~/archlive/releng/build.sh so that it calls the modified version of the mkarchiso script.
    • Advanced: Create a function for ~/archlive/releng/build.sh which explicitly removes the packages after the base installation. This would leave you the comfort of not having to type enter so much during the installation process.

    ユーザーを追加

    User management can be handled the same way as during the normal installation process, except you put your commands scripted into ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh. For further information have a look at User management.

    イメージにファイルを追加

    Note: You must be root to do this, do not change the ownership of any of the files you copy over, everything within the airootfs directory must be root owned. Proper ownerships will be sorted out shortly.

    The airootfs directory acts as an overlay, think of it as root directory '/' on your current system, so any files you place within this directory will be copied over on boot-up.

    So if you have a set of iptables scripts on your current system you want to be used on you live image, copy them over as such:

    # cp -r /etc/iptables ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc
    

    Placing files in the users home directory is a little different. Do not place them within airootfs/home, but instead create a skel directory within airootfs/ and place them there. We will then add the relevant commands to the customize_root_image.sh which we are going to use to copy them over on boot and sort out the permissions.

    First, create the skel directory; making sure you are within ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc directory (if this is where you are working from):

    # cd ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc && mkdir skel
    

    Now copy the 'home' files to the skel directory, again doing everything as root! e.g for .bashrc.

    # cp ~/.bashrc ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc/skel/
    

    When ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/root/customize-airootfs.sh is executed and a new user is created, the files from the skel directory will automatically be copied over to the new home folder, permissions set right.

    ブートローダー

    デフォルトのファイルで大抵は動作するので、触れる必要はほとんどありません。

    Due to the modular nature of isolinux, you are able to use lots of addons since all *.c32 files are copied and available to you. Take a look at the official syslinux site and the archiso git repo. Using said addons, it is possible to make visually attractive and complex menus. See here.

    ログインマネージャ

    ブート時に X を起動させるのはログインマネージャの systemd サービスを有効化すれば出来ます。どの .service ファイルがソフトリンクを必要としているのかわからない場合、作成する iso と同じプログラムを使っていればすぐに確認することができます。まず次のコマンドで一時的にオフにしてください:

    # systemctl disable nameofyourloginmanager
    

    Next type the same command again and replace "disable" with "enable" to activate it again. Systemctl prints information about softlink it creates. Now change to ~/archiso/releng/airootfs/etc/systemd/system and create the same softlink there.

    An example (make sure you're either in ~/archiso/releng/airootfs/etc/systemd/system or add it to the command):

    # ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/system/lxdm.service display-manager.service
    

    This will enable LXDM at system start on your live system.

    自動ログインの変更

    The configuration for getty's automatic login is located under airootfs/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf.

    You can modify this file to change the auto login user:

    [Service]
    ExecStart=
    ExecStart=-/sbin/agetty --autologin isouser --noclear %I 38400 linux
    

    Or remove it altogether to disable auto login.

    ISO の作成

    Now you are ready to turn your files into the .iso which you can then burn to CD or USB: Inside the directory you are working with, either ~/archlive/releng, or ~/archlive/baseline, execute:

    # ./build.sh -v
    

    The script will now download and install the packages you specified to work/*/airootfs, create the kernel and init images, apply your customizations and finally build the iso into out/.

    Note: If you want to use a window manager in the Live CD then you must add the necessary and correct video drivers, or the WM may freeze on loading.

    ISO の再作成

    If you want to rebuild your iso again after a few modifications, you have to remove lock files in the work directory:

    # rm -v work/build.make_*
    

    ISO を使う

    CD

    Just burn the iso to a cd. You can follow CD Burning as you wish.

    USB

    USB インストールメディアを見て下さい。

    GRUB

    Multiboot_USB_drive#Arch_Linux を見て下さい。

    grub4dos

    Grub4dos is a utility that can be used to create multiboot usbs, able to boot multiple linux distros from the same usb stick.

    To boot the generated system on a usb with grub4dos already installed, loop mount the ISO and copy the entire /arch directory to the root of the usb. Then edit the menu.lst file from the grub4dos (it must be on the usb root) and add these lines:

    title Archlinux x86_64
    kernel /arch/boot/x86_64/vmlinuz archisolabel=<your usb label>
    initrd /arch/boot/x86_64/archiso.img
    

    Change the x86_64 part as necessary and put your real usb label there.

    インターネットにアクセスできない環境でのインストール

    If you wish to install the archiso(e.g. the offical monthly release) as it is without an Internet connection, or, if you don't want to download the packages you want again:

    First, please follow the beginners' guide and skip some parts(like #Establish_an_internet_connection) until the #Install_the_base_system step.

    新しい root に archiso をインストール

    Instead of installing the packages with pacstrap(as it downloads every packages from remote repository and we have no Internet access now), please copy everything in the Live environment to the new root:

    # time (cp -ax /{usr,bin,lib,lib64,sbin,etc,home,opt,root,srv,var} /mnt)
    
    Note: This command excludes some special directories, as they should not be copied to the new root.

    Then, create some directories and copy the kernel image to the new root, in order to keep the integrity of the new system:

    # mkdir -vm755 /mnt/{boot,dev,run,mnt}
    # cp -vaT /run/archiso/bootmnt/arch/boot/$(uname -m)/vmlinuz /mnt/boot/vmlinuz-linux
    # mkdir -vm1777 /mnt/tmp
    # mkdir -vm555 /mnt/{sys,proc}
    

    After that, please generate a fstab as described in Beginners' guide#Generate_an_fstab.

    Chroot とベースシステムの設定

    次に、新しくインストールしたシステムに chroot します:

    # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
    

    Please note that before you configure the locale,keymap,etc,... there are something necessary to do, in order to get rid of the trace of a Live environment(in other words, the customization of archiso which does not fit a non-Live environment).

    journald の設定の復旧

    This customization of archiso will lead to storing the system journal in RAM, it means that the journal will not available after reboot:

    # sed -i 's/Storage=volatile/#Storage=auto/' /etc/systemd/journald.conf
    

    pam の設定のリセット

    This configuration of pam perhaps break the security of your new system, it's recommend to use the default configuration:

    # nano /etc/pam.d/su
    #%PAM-1.0
    auth            sufficient      pam_rootok.so
    # Uncomment the following line to implicitly trust users in the "wheel" group.
    #auth           sufficient      pam_wheel.so trust use_uid
    # Uncomment the following line to require a user to be in the "wheel" group.
    #auth           required        pam_wheel.so use_uid
    auth            required        pam_unix.so
    account         required        pam_unix.so
    session         required        pam_unix.so
    

    特殊な udev ルールの削除

    This rule of udev starts the dhcpcd automatically if there are any wired network interfaces.

    # rm /etc/udev/rules.d/81-dhcpcd.rules
    

    archiso によって作成されたサービスの無効化と削除

    Some service files are created for the Live environment, please disable the services and remove the file as they are unnecessary for the new system:

    # systemctl disable pacman-init.service choose-mirror.service
    # rm -r /etc/systemd/system/{choose-mirror.service,pacman-init.service,etc-pacman.d-gnupg.mount,getty@tty1.service.d}
    # rm /etc/systemd/scripts/choose-mirror
    

    ライブ環境の特殊なスクリプトの削除

    There are some scripts installed in the live system by archiso scripts, which are unnecessary for the new system:

    # rm /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf
    # rm /root/{.automated_script.sh,.zlogin}
    # rm /etc/sudoers.d/g_wheel
    # rm /etc/mkinitcpio-archiso.conf
    # rm -r /etc/initcpio
    

    arch のパスワードを設定

    The customization script created a normal user called arch for the Live environment. You can set a passwd for user arch in order to login with this username(there is no passwd for arch by default):

    # passwd arch
    

    Or, if you don't want to use this username, please remove this user:

    # userdel -r arch
    

    initial ramdisk 環境を作成

    Please create an initial ramdisk as described in Beginners'_guide#Create_an_initial_ramdisk_environment.

    通常の設定

    After all of these, now you can follow the beginners' guide and finish the installation.

    参照

    ドキュメントとチュートリアル

    カスタマイズテンプレートのサンプル