Difference between revisions of "Arduino"

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  # pacman -S python-pyserial scons
 
  # pacman -S python-pyserial scons
  
That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .pde (eg. test.pde). Get the [http://code.google.com/p/arscons/source/browse/trunk/SConstruct SConstruct] script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It's a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run
+
That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .pde (eg. test.pde). Get the [http://arscons.googlecode.com/git/SConstruct SConstruct] script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It's a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run
  
 
  $ scons                # This will build the project
 
  $ scons                # This will build the project

Revision as of 15:59, 25 August 2011

Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. More information is availible on the Arduino HomePage.


Installation

Install Template:Package AUR from the AUR.

Add the following modules to your /etc/rc.conf file.

cdc-acm 
ftdi_sio

Load them manually with modprobe so you don't have to reboot:

# modprobe --all cdc-acm ftdi_sio

Running arduino for the first time

If the file /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/libraries/Wire/utility/twi.o does not exist arduino will try and create it. Normal users don't have permission to write there so this will fail. Run arduino as root so it can create the file, after the file has been created it can be run under a normal user.

Configuration

Accessing serial

The arduino board communicates with the PC via a serial connection or a serial over USB connection. So the user needs read/write access to the serial device file. Udev creates files in /dev/tts/ owned by group uucp so adding the user to the uucp group gives the required read/write access.

gpasswd -a <user> uucp
Note: You'll have to logout and login again for this to take effect.

Modify ~/.arduino/preferences.txt

Change serial port from COM1 to your serial port. You can find out what your serial port is with:

 ls /dev/ | grep "USB"

This is the line to change in ~/.arduino/preferences.txt:

 serial.port=/dev/ttyUSB0

Associate .pde files with the Arduino IDE

edit /usr/bin/arduino so it looks like this:

/usr/share/arduino/arduino "$*"

Then change the last line in /usr/share/arduino/arduino to look like this:

java -Dswing.defaultlaf=com.sun.java.swing.plaf.gtk.GTKLookAndFeel processing.app.Base "$*"

Now you can run "arduino /some/path/sketch.pde and it should open instead of a blank sketch

Working with Uno/Mega2560

The Arduino Uno and Mega2560 have an onboard USB interface (an Atmel 8U2) that accepts serial data, so they are accessed through /dev/ttyACM0 created by the cdc-acm kernel module when it is plugged in.

The 8U2 firmware may need an update to ease serial communications. See [1] for more details and reply #11 for a fix. The original arduino bbs, where you can find an image explaining how to get your Uno into DFU, is now in a read-only state. If you don't have an account to view the image, see [2].

You can perform a general function test of the Uno by putting it in loopback mode and typing characters into the arduino serial monitor at 115200 baud. It should echo the characters back to you. To put it in loopback, short pins 0 -> 1 on the digital side and either hold the reset button or short the GND -> RESET pins while you type.

Running Arduino Uno

Once Arduino is running you must ensure you have selected the correct board from the Tools->Boards menu item:

Arduino Uno

Secondly you must ensure you have selected the correct serial port from the Tools->Serial Port menu item:

/dev/ttyACM0

Once these are done you should be able to write and upload sketches to your Arduino Uno without any issues.


Alternatives for IDE

If you prefer working from terminal there are some other options to choose from.

Scons

Using scons together with arscons it is very easy to use to compile and upload Arduino projects from the command line. Scons is based on python and you will need python-pyserial to use the serial interface. Install everything with

# pacman -S python-pyserial scons

That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .pde (eg. test.pde). Get the SConstruct script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It's a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run

$ scons                # This will build the project
$ scons upload         # This will upload the project to your Arduino

Makefile

Update 2011-03-12. Arduino Is not shipping a Makefile with version (22). The Makefile from the dogm128 project works for me though.

Instead of using the arduino IDE it's possible to use another editor and a Makefile.

Set up a directory to program your Arduino and copy the Makefile into this directory. A copy of the Makefile can be obtained from arduino website or from /usr/share/arduino/hardware/cores/arduino/Makefile

You will have to modify this a little bit to reflect your settings. The makefile should be pretty self explainatory. Here are some lines you may have to edit.

PORT = usually /dev/ttyUSBx, where x is the usb serial port your arduino is plugged into
TARGET = your sketch's name
ARDUINO = /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/arduino

Depending on which library functions you call in your sketch, you may need to compile parts of the library. To do that you need to edit your SRC and CXXSRC to include the required libraries.

Now you should be able to make && make upload to your board to execute your sketch.

Arduino-CMake

Using arduino-cmake and CMake you can build Arduino firmware from the command line using multiple build systems. CMake lets you generate the build system that fits your needs, using the tools you like. It can generate any type of build system, from simple Makefiles, to complete projects for Eclipse, Visual Studio, XCode, etc.

Requirements:

Troubleshooting

gcc-avr-4.6.1-1 results to compilation errors

Current gcc-avr-4.6.1-1 results to compilation errors such as

In file included from /usr/share/arduino/hardware/arduino/cores/arduino/Tone.cpp:37:0:
/usr/share/arduino/hardware/arduino/cores/arduino/pins_arduino.h:66:48: error: variable 'port_to_mode_PGM' must be const in order to be put into read-only section by means of '__attribute__((progmem))'

In order to bypass this problem, downgrade to previous gcc-avr-4.6.0-3 (you can grab it from here). You may also want to prevent pacman to upgrade to newer gcc-avr. In order to do this, edit /etc/pacman.conf accordingly.

# Pacman won't upgrade packages listed in IgnorePkg and members of IgnoreGroup
#IgnoreGroup = 
IgnorePkg = gcc-avr
#NoUpgrade   =
#NoExtract   =

delay() function doesn't work

There are some cases where the delay() function doesn't work, causing programs such as the example Blink to malfunction. It appears that the Arch compiler sometimes generates code that writes to addresses before the start of memory. RAM starts at address 0x200 on the mega, but the Blink code has the delay() timer variables located at 0x100-0x10b. This only seems to happen when the code contains no initialized global variables (.data segment in asm-speak) - the linker is told that the data segment starts at 0x200, but if there's nothing to go in it it generates an incorrect start address for the uninitialized global variables (.bss segment). Since the timer variables are uninitialized globals (or globals initialized to zero) they end up at an illegal address.

There are currently two ways to bypass this issue.

  • Use Serial.begin(9600); in setup() function. [Source post]
/*
  Blink
  Turns on an LED on for one second, then off for one second, repeatedly.
 
  This example code is in the public domain.
 */

void setup() {                
  // initialize the digital pin as an output.
  // Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards:
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);     
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);   // set the LED on
  delay(10);              // wait for a second
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);    // set the LED off
  delay(10);              // wait for a second
}
char dummyvariablecuzmaintainerborkedthecompiler = 123; // force something into the .data segment with non-zero initializer
/*
  Blink
  Turns on an LED on for one second, then off for one second, repeatedly.
 
  This example code is in the public domain.
 */

void setup() {  
  dummyvariablecuzmaintainerborkedthecompiler++;  // stops the linker from removing the global variable
  
  // initialize the digital pin as an output.
  // Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards:
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);     
}

void loop() {
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);   // set the LED on
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);    // set the LED off
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
}

Related pages:

Fedora has the same problem with binutils 2.21 (bug report). Downgraded packages that work are binutils-avr 2.20.1-3 and gcc-avr 4.5.1-2. There is also an upstream bug report here but no one has replied yet.

Adruino Mega2560 and new gcc-avr

If you are using gcc-avr >= 4.3.5 then there is a C++ bug in the gcc-avr toolchain which builds bad firmware for the Atmel2560 processors. gcc-avr must be rebuilt using a patch found at [3]. You can read more about the problems at [4].

Here is the patch for gcc:

--- gcc-4.5.1.orig/gcc/config/avr/libgcc.S	2009-05-23 17:16:07 +1000
+++ gcc-4.5.1/gcc/config/avr/libgcc.S	2010-08-12 09:38:05 +1000
@@ -802,7 +802,9 @@
 	mov_h	r31, r29
 	mov_l	r30, r28
 	out     __RAMPZ__, r20
+	push	r20
 	XCALL	__tablejump_elpm__
+	pop	r20
 .L__do_global_ctors_start:
 	cpi	r28, lo8(__ctors_start)
 	cpc	r29, r17
@@ -843,7 +845,9 @@
 	mov_h	r31, r29
 	mov_l	r30, r28
 	out     __RAMPZ__, r20
+	push	r20
 	XCALL	__tablejump_elpm__
+	pop	r20
 .L__do_global_dtors_start:
 	cpi	r28, lo8(__dtors_end)
 	cpc	r29, r17

The easiest way to rebuild gcc-avr is using ABS and makepkg.

See also