Difference between revisions of "Arduino"

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[[Category:Development (English)]]
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[[Category:Development]]
[[Category:Mathematics and science (English)]]
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[[Category:Mathematics and science]]
Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. More information is availible on the [http://www.arduino.cc/ Arduino HomePage].
+
Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It is intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. More information is available on the [http://www.arduino.cc/ Arduino HomePage].
  
==Installation==
+
== Installation ==
  
* Install {{AUR|arduino}} from the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]].
+
{{Warning|Arduino 1.0.5 has an [https://github.com/arduino/Arduino/issues/1609 issue] that prevents uploading to Arduino boards, it is recommend that you download the [http://downloads.arduino.cc/arduino-jssc-nightly-linux32.tgz JSSC nightly build] until 1.5.6 BETA is released. You will also need to have {{pkg|libusb-compat}} installed.}}
 +
 
 +
* Install {{AUR|arduino}} from the [[AUR]].
 
* Add yourself to the {{ic|uucp}} [[Users and Groups|group]]. (More information in the next section: "Accessing serial")
 
* Add yourself to the {{ic|uucp}} [[Users and Groups|group]]. (More information in the next section: "Accessing serial")
  
==Configuration==
+
=== Intel Galileo ===
  
===Accessing serial===
+
The version of the Arduino IDE that support the Intel Galileo board can be downloaded [https://communities.intel.com/community/makers/software/drivers here].
  
The arduino board communicates with the PC via a serial connection or a serial over USB connection. So the user needs read/write access to the serial device file. [[Udev]] creates files in /dev/tts/ owned by group uucp so adding the user to the uucp group gives the required read/write access.
+
== Configuration ==
  
gpasswd -a <user> uucp
+
=== Accessing serial ===
  
{{Note|You'll have to logout and login again for this to take effect.}}
+
The arduino board communicates with the computer via a serial connection or a serial over USB connection. So the user needs read/write access to the serial device file. [[Udev]] creates files in /dev/tts/ owned by group uucp so adding the user to the uucp group gives the required read/write access.
  
Briefly run the {{ic|arduino}} command and stop it, then modify {{ic|~/.arduino/preferences.txt}} .
+
gpasswd -a $USER uucp
  
Change serial port from COM1 to your serial port. With your arduino board connected, you can find out what your serial port is with:
+
{{Note|You will have to logout and login again for this to take effect.}}
  
  ls /dev/ttyUSB* /dev/ttyACM*
+
Before uploading to the Arduino, be sure to set the correct serial port, board, and processor from the Tools menu.
  
If in doubt, unconnect the board and look which of these disappears, and/or monitor {{ic|/var/log/everything.log}}.
+
== stty ==
  
The line to change in {{ic|~/.arduino/preferences.txt}} should look something like this when you're done:
+
Preparing:
 +
# stty -F /dev/ttyACM0 cs8 9600 ignbrk -brkint -imaxbel -opost -onlcr -isig -icanon -iexten -echo -echoe -echok -echoctl -echoke noflsh -ixon -crtscts
  
  serial.port=/dev/ttyACM3
+
Sending commands through Terminal without new line after command
 +
# echo -n "Hello World" > /dev/ttyACM0
 +
{{Note| As autoreset on serial connection is activated by default on most boards, you need to disable this feature if you want to communicate directly with your board with the last command instead of a terminal emulator (arduino IDE, screen, picocom...). If you have a Leonardo board, you are not concerned by this, because it does not autoreset. If you have a Uno board, connect a 10 µF capacitor between the RESET and GND pins. If you have another board, connect a 120 ohms resistor between the RESET and 5V pins. See http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/DisablingAutoResetOnSerialConnection for more details.}}
  
Rerun {{ic|arduino}}. If you get a message like "Arduino Uno on COM1" message in the GUI's lower right corner, connection has been established.
+
Reading what your Arduino has to tell you
 +
$ cat /dev/ttyACM0
  
==Working with Uno/Mega2560==
+
== Alternatives for IDE ==
  
The Arduino Uno and Mega2560 have an onboard USB interface (an Atmel 8U2) that accepts serial data, so they are accessed through /dev/ttyACM0 created by the cdc-acm kernel module when it is plugged in.
+
=== ArduIDE ===
  
The 8U2 firmware may need an update to ease serial communications. See [http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1286350399] for more details and reply #11 for a fix. The original arduino bbs, where you can find an image explaining how to get your Uno into DFU, is now in a read-only state. If you do not have an account to view the image, see [http://www.scribd.com/doc/45913857/Arduino-UNO].
+
ArduIDE is a Qt-based IDE for Arduino. {{AUR|arduide-git}} is available in the [[AUR]].
  
You can perform a general function test of the Uno by putting it in loopback mode and typing characters into the arduino serial monitor at 115200 baud. It should echo the characters back to you. To put it in loopback, short pins 0 -> 1 on the digital side and either hold the reset button or short the GND -> RESET pins while you type.
+
If you prefer working from terminal, below there are some other options to choose from.
  
== Running Arduino Uno ==
+
=== Arduino-CMake ===
  
Once Arduino is running you must ensure you have selected the correct board from the Tools->Boards menu item:
+
Using [https://github.com/queezythegreat/arduino-cmake arduino-cmake] and [http://www.cmake.org/cmake/resources/software.html CMake] you can build Arduino firmware from the command line using multiple build systems. CMake lets you generate the build system that fits your needs, using the tools you like. It can generate any type of build system, from simple Makefiles, to complete projects for Eclipse, Visual Studio, XCode, etc.
Arduino Uno
+
  
Secondly you must ensure you have selected the correct serial port from the Tools->Serial Port menu item as explained above.
+
Requirements:
 +
* [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=cmake CMake]
 +
* [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=8388 Arduino SDK]
 +
* [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=gcc-avr gcc-avr]
 +
* [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=binutils-avr binutils-avr]
 +
* [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=avr-libc avr-libc]
 +
* [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=avrdude avrdude]
  
Once these are done you should be able to write and upload sketches to your Arduino Uno without any issues.
+
=== gnoduino ===
  
 +
{{aur|gnoduino}} is an implementation of original Arduino IDE for GNOME available in the [[AUR]]. The original Arduino IDE software is written in Java. This is a Python implementation and it is targeted at GNOME but will work on xfce4 and other WM. Its purpose is to be light, while maintaining compatibility with the original Arduino IDE. The source editor is based on gtksourceview.
  
==Alternatives for IDE==
+
=== Ino ===
  
===Arduide===
+
[https://github.com/amperka/ino Ino] is a command line toolkit for working with arduino hardware. {{AUR|ino}} is available in the [[AUR]].
  
ArduIDE is a Qt-based IDE for Arduino and is available to [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=39927 download] from aur.
+
=== Makefile ===
  
If you prefer working from terminal, below there are some other options to choose from.
+
{{Note|Update 2011-03-12. Arduino Is not shipping a Makefile with version (22). The Makefile from the [http://code.google.com/p/dogm128/source/browse/libraries/Dogm/examples/SpaceTrash/Makefile.uno_dogs102 dogm128] project works for me though.}}
 
+
===gnoduino===
+
 
+
gnoduino ([http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=51581 aur])is an implementation of original Arduino IDE for GNOME. The original Arduino IDE software is written in Java. This is a Python implementation and it is targeted at GNOME but will work on xfce4 and other WM. Its purpose is to be light, while maintaining compatibility with the original Arduino IDE. The source editor is based on gtksourceview.
+
 
+
===Scons===
+
 
+
Using [http://www.scons.org/ scons] together with [http://code.google.com/p/arscons/ arscons] it is very easy to use to compile and upload Arduino projects from the command line. Scons is based on python and you will need python-pyserial to use the serial interface. Install everything with
+
 
+
# pacman -S python-pyserial scons
+
 
+
That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .pde (eg. test.pde). Get the [http://arscons.googlecode.com/git/SConstruct SConstruct] script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It's a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run
+
 
+
$ scons                # This will build the project
+
$ scons upload        # This will upload the project to your Arduino
+
 
+
===Makefile===
+
Update 2011-03-12. Arduino Is not shipping a Makefile with version (22). The Makefile from the [http://code.google.com/p/dogm128/source/browse/libraries/Dogm/examples/SpaceTrash/Makefile.uno_dogs102 dogm128] project works for me though.
+
  
Instead of using the arduino IDE it's possible to use another editor and a Makefile.
+
Instead of using the Arduino IDE it is possible to use another editor and a Makefile.
  
 
Set up a directory to program your Arduino and copy the Makefile into this directory. A copy of the Makefile can be obtained from /usr/share/arduino/hardware/cores/arduino/Makefile
 
Set up a directory to program your Arduino and copy the Makefile into this directory. A copy of the Makefile can be obtained from /usr/share/arduino/hardware/cores/arduino/Makefile
Line 90: Line 84:
 
Now you should be able to make && make upload to your board to execute your sketch.
 
Now you should be able to make && make upload to your board to execute your sketch.
  
===Arduino-CMake===
+
=== Scons ===
  
Using [https://github.com/queezythegreat/arduino-cmake arduino-cmake] and [http://www.cmake.org/cmake/resources/software.html CMake] you can build Arduino firmware from the command line using multiple build systems. CMake lets you generate the build system that fits your needs, using the tools you like. It can generate any type of build system, from simple Makefiles, to complete projects for Eclipse, Visual Studio, XCode, etc.
+
Using [http://www.scons.org/ scons] together with [https://github.com/suapapa/arscons arscons] it is very easy to use to compile and upload Arduino projects from the command line. Scons is based on python and you will need python-pyserial to use the serial interface. Install {{Pkg|python-pyserial}} and {{Pkg|scons}}.
  
Requirements:
+
That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .ino (eg. test.ino). Get the [https://github.com/suapapa/arscons/blob/master/SConstruct SConstruct] script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It is a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=cmake CMake]
+
* [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=8388 Arduino SDK]
+
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=gcc-avr gcc-avr]
+
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=binutils-avr binutils-avr]
+
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=avr-libc avr-libc]
+
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=avrdude avrdude]
+
  
==Troubleshooting==
+
$ scons                # This will build the project
 +
$ scons upload        # This will upload the project to your Arduino
  
===delay() function doesn't work===
+
== Troubleshooting ==
There are some cases where the delay() function doesn't work, causing programs such as the example [http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Blink Blink] to malfunction.
+
It appears that the Arch compiler sometimes generates code that writes to addresses before the start of memory. RAM starts at address 0x200 on the mega, but the Blink code has the delay() timer variables located at 0x100-0x10b. This only seems to happen when the code contains no initialized global variables (.data segment in asm-speak) - the linker is told that the data segment starts at 0x200, but if there's nothing to go in it it generates an incorrect start address for the uninitialized global variables (.bss segment). Since the timer variables are uninitialized  globals (or globals initialized to zero) they end up at an illegal address.
+
  
There are currently two ways to bypass this issue.
+
=== Consistent naming of Arduino devices ===
  
* Use '''Serial.begin(9600);''' in '''setup()''' function. [[http://forums.adafruit.com/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=21075 Source post]]
+
If you have more than one arduino you may have noticed that they names /dev/ttyUSB[0-9] are assigned in the order of connection. In the IDE this is not so much of a problem, but when you have programmed your own software to communicate with an arduino project in the background this can be annoying. Use the following udev rules to assign static symlinks to your arduino's:
 
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/52-arduino.rules|<nowiki>
<pre>
+
SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", KERNEL=="ttyUSB[0-9]*", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0403", ATTRS{idProduct}=="6001", SYMLINK+="sensors/ftdi_%s{serial}"
/*
+
</nowiki>}}
  Blink
+
Your arduino's will be available under names like "/dev/sensors/ftdi_A700dzaF". If you want you can also assign more meaningfull names to several devices like this:
  Turns on an LED on for one second, then off for one second, repeatedly.
+
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/52-arduino.rules|<nowiki>
+
SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", KERNEL=="ttyUSB[0-9]*", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0403", ATTRS{idProduct}=="6001", ATTRS{serial}=="A700dzaF", SYMLINK+="arduino/nano"
  This example code is in the public domain.
+
</nowiki>}}
*/
+
which will create a symlink in /dev/arduino/nano to the device with the specified serialnumber.
 
+
You do need to unplug and replug your arduino for this to take effect or run
void setup() {              
+
udevadm trigger
  // initialize the digital pin as an output.
+
  // Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards:
+
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);   
+
  Serial.begin(9600);
+
}
+
 
+
void loop() {
+
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);  // set the LED on
+
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
+
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);    // set the LED off
+
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
+
}
+
</pre>
+
 
+
* Use an initialized global variable. [[http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,49900.msg363688.html#msg363688 Source post]]
+
 
+
<pre>
+
char dummyvariablecuzmaintainerborkedthecompiler = 123; // force something into the .data segment with non-zero initializer
+
/*
+
  Blink
+
  Turns on an LED on for one second, then off for one second, repeatedly.
+
+
  This example code is in the public domain.
+
*/
+
 
+
void setup() {
+
  dummyvariablecuzmaintainerborkedthecompiler++;  // stops the linker from removing the global variable
+
 
+
  // initialize the digital pin as an output.
+
  // Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards:
+
  pinMode(13, OUTPUT);   
+
}
+
 
+
void loop() {
+
  digitalWrite(13, HIGH);  // set the LED on
+
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
+
  digitalWrite(13, LOW);    // set the LED off
+
  delay(1000);              // wait for a second
+
}</pre>
+
 
+
Related pages:
+
* http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,56841.0.html
+
* http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,49900.0.html
+
* http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php?topic=59409.0.html
+
 
+
Fedora has the same problem with binutils 2.21 ([https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=688645 bug report]).
+
Downgraded packages that work are binutils-avr 2.20.1-3 and gcc-avr 4.5.1-2.
+
There is also an upstream bug report [http://sourceware.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=12757 here] but no one has replied yet.
+
  
 
=== Error opening serial port ===
 
=== Error opening serial port ===
You may see the serial port initially when the IDE starts, but the TX/RX leds do nothing when uploading. You may have previously changed the baudrate in the serial monitor to something it doesn't like. Edit ~/.arduino/preferences.txt so that serial.debug_rate is a different speed, like 115200.
 
 
=== Arduino Mega2560 and new gcc-avr ===
 
 
If you are using gcc-avr >= 4.3.5 then there is a C++ bug in the gcc-avr toolchain which builds bad firmware for the Atmel2560 processors. gcc-avr must be rebuilt using a patch found at [http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=45263]. You can read more about the problems at [http://andybrown.me.uk/ws/2010/10/24/the-major-global-constructor-bug-in-avr-gcc/].
 
 
Here is the patch for gcc:
 
<pre>
 
--- gcc-4.5.1.orig/gcc/config/avr/libgcc.S 2009-05-23 17:16:07 +1000
 
+++ gcc-4.5.1/gcc/config/avr/libgcc.S 2010-08-12 09:38:05 +1000
 
@@ -802,7 +802,9 @@
 
mov_h r31, r29
 
mov_l r30, r28
 
out    __RAMPZ__, r20
 
+ push r20
 
XCALL __tablejump_elpm__
 
+ pop r20
 
.L__do_global_ctors_start:
 
cpi r28, lo8(__ctors_start)
 
cpc r29, r17
 
@@ -843,7 +845,9 @@
 
mov_h r31, r29
 
mov_l r30, r28
 
out    __RAMPZ__, r20
 
+ push r20
 
XCALL __tablejump_elpm__
 
+ pop r20
 
.L__do_global_dtors_start:
 
cpi r28, lo8(__dtors_end)
 
cpc r29, r17
 
</pre>
 
  
The easiest way to rebuild gcc-avr is using ABS and makepkg.
+
You may see the serial port initially when the IDE starts, but the TX/RX leds do nothing when uploading. You may have previously changed the baudrate in the serial monitor to something it does not like. Edit ~/.arduino/preferences.txt so that serial.debug_rate is a different speed, like 115200.
  
 
=== Missing twi.o ===
 
=== Missing twi.o ===
Line 209: Line 117:
 
If the file /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/libraries/Wire/utility/twi.o does not exist arduino may try to create it. Normal users do not have permission to write there so this will fail. Run arduino as root so it can create the file, after the file has been created arduino can be run under a normal user.
 
If the file /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/libraries/Wire/utility/twi.o does not exist arduino may try to create it. Normal users do not have permission to write there so this will fail. Run arduino as root so it can create the file, after the file has been created arduino can be run under a normal user.
  
== Bugs ==
+
=== Working with Uno/Mega2560 ===
  
This section is targeted at the package maintainers.
+
The Arduino Uno and Mega2560 have an onboard USB interface (an Atmel 8U2) that accepts serial data, so they are accessed through /dev/ttyACM0 created by the cdc-acm kernel module when it is plugged in.
  
{| border="1"
+
The 8U2 firmware may need an update to ease serial communications. See [http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1286350399] for more details and reply #11 for a fix. The original arduino bbs, where you can find an image explaining how to get your Uno into DFU, is now in a read-only state. If you do not have an account to view the image, see [http://www.scribd.com/doc/45913857/Arduino-UNO].
! Symptom !! Cause / Upstream bug report !! Patches / Workarounds !! Patched Packages / End-User solutions
+
 
|-
+
You can perform a general function test of the Uno by putting it in loopback mode and typing characters into the arduino serial monitor at 115200 baud. It should echo the characters back to you. To put it in loopback, short pins 0 -> 1 on the digital side and either hold the reset button or short the GND -> RESET pins while you type.
| delay() sleeps forever || ??? || [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Arduino#delay.28.29_function_doesn.27t_work workaround] || none
+
|-
+
| progmem error || [http://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=49764 bug in gcc-avr (fixed, but unreleased)] || [http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,66710.msg491529.html#msg491529 workaround] || [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=50146 aur/gcc-avr-svn] or [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=8388 aur/arduino]
+
|}
+
  
==See also==
+
== See also ==
  
* http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=295312
+
* https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=295312
* http://regomodoslinux.blogspot.com/2007/10/how-to-install-arduino-ide-in-archlinux.html
+
* http://gunnewiek.com/2011/open-pde-files-with-arduino-ide-in-linux/
+
 
* https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=981348
 
* https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=981348
 +
* http://answers.ros.org/question/9097/how-can-i-get-a-unique-device-path-for-my-arduinoftdi-device/

Revision as of 00:05, 24 October 2013

Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It is intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. More information is available on the Arduino HomePage.

Installation

Warning: Arduino 1.0.5 has an issue that prevents uploading to Arduino boards, it is recommend that you download the JSSC nightly build until 1.5.6 BETA is released. You will also need to have libusb-compat installed.
  • Install arduinoAUR from the AUR.
  • Add yourself to the uucp group. (More information in the next section: "Accessing serial")

Intel Galileo

The version of the Arduino IDE that support the Intel Galileo board can be downloaded here.

Configuration

Accessing serial

The arduino board communicates with the computer via a serial connection or a serial over USB connection. So the user needs read/write access to the serial device file. Udev creates files in /dev/tts/ owned by group uucp so adding the user to the uucp group gives the required read/write access.

gpasswd -a $USER uucp
Note: You will have to logout and login again for this to take effect.

Before uploading to the Arduino, be sure to set the correct serial port, board, and processor from the Tools menu.

stty

Preparing:

# stty -F /dev/ttyACM0 cs8 9600 ignbrk -brkint -imaxbel -opost -onlcr -isig -icanon -iexten -echo -echoe -echok -echoctl -echoke noflsh -ixon -crtscts

Sending commands through Terminal without new line after command

# echo -n "Hello World" > /dev/ttyACM0
Note: As autoreset on serial connection is activated by default on most boards, you need to disable this feature if you want to communicate directly with your board with the last command instead of a terminal emulator (arduino IDE, screen, picocom...). If you have a Leonardo board, you are not concerned by this, because it does not autoreset. If you have a Uno board, connect a 10 µF capacitor between the RESET and GND pins. If you have another board, connect a 120 ohms resistor between the RESET and 5V pins. See http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/DisablingAutoResetOnSerialConnection for more details.

Reading what your Arduino has to tell you

$ cat /dev/ttyACM0

Alternatives for IDE

ArduIDE

ArduIDE is a Qt-based IDE for Arduino. arduide-gitAUR is available in the AUR.

If you prefer working from terminal, below there are some other options to choose from.

Arduino-CMake

Using arduino-cmake and CMake you can build Arduino firmware from the command line using multiple build systems. CMake lets you generate the build system that fits your needs, using the tools you like. It can generate any type of build system, from simple Makefiles, to complete projects for Eclipse, Visual Studio, XCode, etc.

Requirements:

gnoduino

gnoduinoAUR is an implementation of original Arduino IDE for GNOME available in the AUR. The original Arduino IDE software is written in Java. This is a Python implementation and it is targeted at GNOME but will work on xfce4 and other WM. Its purpose is to be light, while maintaining compatibility with the original Arduino IDE. The source editor is based on gtksourceview.

Ino

Ino is a command line toolkit for working with arduino hardware. inoAUR is available in the AUR.

Makefile

Note: Update 2011-03-12. Arduino Is not shipping a Makefile with version (22). The Makefile from the dogm128 project works for me though.

Instead of using the Arduino IDE it is possible to use another editor and a Makefile.

Set up a directory to program your Arduino and copy the Makefile into this directory. A copy of the Makefile can be obtained from /usr/share/arduino/hardware/cores/arduino/Makefile

You will have to modify this a little bit to reflect your settings. The makefile should be pretty self explainatory. Here are some lines you may have to edit.

PORT = usually /dev/ttyUSBx, where x is the usb serial port your arduino is plugged into
TARGET = your sketch's name
ARDUINO = /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/arduino

Depending on which library functions you call in your sketch, you may need to compile parts of the library. To do that you need to edit your SRC and CXXSRC to include the required libraries.

Now you should be able to make && make upload to your board to execute your sketch.

Scons

Using scons together with arscons it is very easy to use to compile and upload Arduino projects from the command line. Scons is based on python and you will need python-pyserial to use the serial interface. Install python-pyserial and scons.

That will get the dependencies you need too. You will also need Arduino itself so install it as described above. Create project directory (eg. test), then create a arduino project file in your new directory. Use the same name as the directory and add .ino (eg. test.ino). Get the SConstruct script from arscons and put it in your directory. Have a peek in it and, if necessary, edit it. It is a python script. Edit your project as you please, then run

$ scons                # This will build the project
$ scons upload         # This will upload the project to your Arduino

Troubleshooting

Consistent naming of Arduino devices

If you have more than one arduino you may have noticed that they names /dev/ttyUSB[0-9] are assigned in the order of connection. In the IDE this is not so much of a problem, but when you have programmed your own software to communicate with an arduino project in the background this can be annoying. Use the following udev rules to assign static symlinks to your arduino's:

/etc/udev/rules.d/52-arduino.rules
SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", KERNEL=="ttyUSB[0-9]*", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0403", ATTRS{idProduct}=="6001", SYMLINK+="sensors/ftdi_%s{serial}"

Your arduino's will be available under names like "/dev/sensors/ftdi_A700dzaF". If you want you can also assign more meaningfull names to several devices like this:

/etc/udev/rules.d/52-arduino.rules
SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", KERNEL=="ttyUSB[0-9]*", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0403", ATTRS{idProduct}=="6001", ATTRS{serial}=="A700dzaF", SYMLINK+="arduino/nano"

which will create a symlink in /dev/arduino/nano to the device with the specified serialnumber. You do need to unplug and replug your arduino for this to take effect or run

udevadm trigger

Error opening serial port

You may see the serial port initially when the IDE starts, but the TX/RX leds do nothing when uploading. You may have previously changed the baudrate in the serial monitor to something it does not like. Edit ~/.arduino/preferences.txt so that serial.debug_rate is a different speed, like 115200.

Missing twi.o

If the file /usr/share/arduino/lib/targets/libraries/Wire/utility/twi.o does not exist arduino may try to create it. Normal users do not have permission to write there so this will fail. Run arduino as root so it can create the file, after the file has been created arduino can be run under a normal user.

Working with Uno/Mega2560

The Arduino Uno and Mega2560 have an onboard USB interface (an Atmel 8U2) that accepts serial data, so they are accessed through /dev/ttyACM0 created by the cdc-acm kernel module when it is plugged in.

The 8U2 firmware may need an update to ease serial communications. See [1] for more details and reply #11 for a fix. The original arduino bbs, where you can find an image explaining how to get your Uno into DFU, is now in a read-only state. If you do not have an account to view the image, see [2].

You can perform a general function test of the Uno by putting it in loopback mode and typing characters into the arduino serial monitor at 115200 baud. It should echo the characters back to you. To put it in loopback, short pins 0 -> 1 on the digital side and either hold the reset button or short the GND -> RESET pins while you type.

See also