Difference between revisions of "Automatic login to virtual console"

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{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Display Manager}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Display Manager}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|Silent boot}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Start X at Login}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Start X at Login}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
  
This article describes how to automatically log in to a ''virtual console'' at the end of the [[boot process]]. This article only covers console log-ins; methods for starting an [[Xorg|X server]] are described in [[Start X at Boot]].
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This article describes how to automatically log in to a ''virtual console'' at the end of the [[boot process]]. This article only covers console log-ins; methods for starting an [[Xorg|X server]] are described in [[Start X at Login]].
  
__TOC__
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== Installation ==
== With default init ==
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=== Use drop-in feature of systemd for getty autologin ===
 +
First create a new directory named getty@tty1.service.d under /etc/systemd/system:
  
=== Using agetty ===
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# mkdir /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d
This is the preferred (i.e. clean) method. Edit {{ic|/etc/inittab}} like this:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -a ''USERNAME'' -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
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to automatically log in {{ic|''USERNAME''}} to the first console (tty1).
+
  
If you want your username to be used automatically without skipping the password prompt:
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Then create a new file named autologin.conf and add it into the directory:
  
c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -a ''USERNAME'' -o "-- \u" -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf|
 
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2=[Service]
=== Using mingetty ===
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ExecStart=
{{Note|Although a {{pkg|mingetty}} derivative, {{AUR|fgetty}} does not support the {{ic|--autologin}} parameter.}}
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ExecStart=-/usr/bin/agetty --autologin <username> --noclear %I 38400 linux
 
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Alternatively, you can install the {{pkg|mingetty}} package from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]]. Mingetty is designed to be a minimal [[getty]] and allows automatic log-ins:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty --autologin ''USERNAME'' tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
 
}}
  
Using the above methods, you will get a re-login loop when trying to log out. If you wish to only login at boot, use the following:
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{{Tip|The option {{ic|1=Type=simple}} will delay the execution of agetty until all jobs (state change requests to units) are completed. On the other hand it may cause systemd boot-up messages to pollute the login prompt. This option is more useful when [[Start X at Login|starting X automatically]]. See {{ic|man systemd.service}} for more info.}}
{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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a1:2345:wait:/sbin/mingetty --autologin ''USERNAME'' tty1 linux
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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}}
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=== Using a C login program ===
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If wanting to use 'Type=simple', then your autologin.conf should look like this:
  
As an alternative, a C login program can be written:
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{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf|
 
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2=[Service]
{{hc|autologin.c|
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ExecStart=
#include <unistd.h>
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ExecStart=-/usr/bin/agetty --autologin <username> --noclear %I 38400 linux
 
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Type=simple
int main(void) {
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  execlp("login", "login", "-f", "''USERNAME''", NULL);
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}
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}}
 
}}
  
Here, the C function {{Ic|execlp}} executes the command {{Ic|login -f ''USERNAME''}}.
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== Tips & Tricks ==
 
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The program must be compiled and copied to an appropriate location:
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$ gcc -o autologin autologin.c
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# cp autologin /usr/local/sbin/
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Finally, tell {{ic|/etc/inittab}} to use it:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -n -l /usr/local/sbin/autologin -s 38400 tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
+
c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
+
c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
+
c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
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== With systemd ==
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Create a new service file similar to {{ic|getty@.service}} by copying it to {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/}}:
+
 
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# cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/getty@.service /etc/systemd/system/autologin@.service
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{{Note|{{ic|/etc/systemd/system/}} takes precedence over {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/}}.}}
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Once created you can link the new {{ic|autologin@.service}} to your chosen tty, e.g. {{ic|tty1}}, {{ic|tty2}}, [...] {{ic|tty8}}, etc, by specifying it as an alias in the {{ic|[Install]}} section of the unit file. Also, change the value of {{ic|ExecStart}} in {{ic|autologin@.service}}, to end up with something like this:
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{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/autologin@.service|
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2=[Service]
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[...]
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ExecStart&#61;-/sbin/agetty --noclear -a ''USERNAME'' %I 38400
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[...]
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[Install]
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Alias=getty.target.wants/getty@''tty1''.service
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}}
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{{Tip|It is possible to change {{ic|1=Type=idle}} to {{ic|1=Type=simple}} and avoid delaying the execution of agetty until all jobs (state change requests to units) are completed. This option is more useful when [[Start X at Boot|starting X automatically]]. See {{ic|man systemd.service}} for more info. {{Note|{{ic|1=Type=simple}} can cause systemd bootup messages to pollute the login prompt.}}}}
+
  
For security reasons you may also want to change {{ic|1=Restart=always}} to {{ic|1=Restart=no}}.
+
=== Avoiding unnecessary dmesg errors ===
 +
To avoid errors related to {{ic|display-manager.service}} in dmesg, you should set the default target to multi-user instead of graphical:
 +
# systemctl enable multi-user.target
  
Finally you should reload the daemons and enable and start the service:
+
==See also==
# systemctl daemon-reload
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* [[Systemd#Change_default_target_to_boot_into|Change default runlevel/target to boot into]].
# systemctl enable autologin@tty1.service
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# systemctl start autologin@tty1.service
+

Revision as of 21:24, 23 June 2013

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

This article describes how to automatically log in to a virtual console at the end of the boot process. This article only covers console log-ins; methods for starting an X server are described in Start X at Login.

Installation

Use drop-in feature of systemd for getty autologin

First create a new directory named getty@tty1.service.d under /etc/systemd/system:

# mkdir /etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d

Then create a new file named autologin.conf and add it into the directory:

/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf
[Service]
ExecStart=
ExecStart=-/usr/bin/agetty --autologin <username> --noclear %I 38400 linux
Tip: The option Type=simple will delay the execution of agetty until all jobs (state change requests to units) are completed. On the other hand it may cause systemd boot-up messages to pollute the login prompt. This option is more useful when starting X automatically. See man systemd.service for more info.

If wanting to use 'Type=simple', then your autologin.conf should look like this:

/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf
[Service]
ExecStart=
ExecStart=-/usr/bin/agetty --autologin <username> --noclear %I 38400 linux
Type=simple

Tips & Tricks

Avoiding unnecessary dmesg errors

To avoid errors related to display-manager.service in dmesg, you should set the default target to multi-user instead of graphical:

# systemctl enable multi-user.target

See also