Difference between revisions of "Automatic login to virtual console"

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(With systemd: add instructions to disable getty@.service before enabling autologin@.service)
(all information available in getty via https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php?title=Getty&diff=440522&oldid=440520)
 
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[[Category:Boot process]]
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#REDIRECT: [[Getty#Automatic_login_to_virtual_console]]
[[Category:Security]]
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[[es:Automatic login to virtual console]]
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[[it:Automatic login to virtual console]]
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{{Article summary start}}
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{{Article summary text|Describes how to automatically log in to a virtual console.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Display Manager}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Start X at Login}}
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{{Article summary end}}
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This article describes how to automatically log in to a ''virtual console'' at the end of the [[boot process]]. This article only covers console log-ins; methods for starting an [[Xorg|X server]] are described in [[Start X at Boot]].
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__TOC__
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== With default init ==
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=== Using agetty ===
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This is the preferred (i.e. clean) method. Edit {{ic|/etc/inittab}} like this:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -a ''USERNAME'' -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
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to automatically log in {{ic|''USERNAME''}} to the first console (tty1).
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If you want your username to be used automatically without skipping the password prompt:
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -a ''USERNAME'' -o "-- \u" -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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=== Using mingetty ===
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{{Note|Although a {{pkg|mingetty}} derivative, {{AUR|fgetty}} does not support the {{ic|--autologin}} parameter.}}
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Alternatively, you can install the {{pkg|mingetty}} package from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]]. Mingetty is designed to be a minimal [[getty]] and allows automatic log-ins:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty --autologin ''USERNAME'' tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
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Using the above methods, you will get a re-login loop when trying to log out. If you wish to only login at boot, use the following:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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a1:2345:wait:/sbin/mingetty --autologin ''USERNAME'' tty1 linux
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty1 linux
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}}
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=== Using a C login program ===
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As an alternative, a C login program can be written:
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{{hc|autologin.c|
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#include <unistd.h>
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int main(void) {
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  execlp("login", "login", "-f", "''USERNAME''", NULL);
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}
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}}
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Here, the C function {{Ic|execlp}} executes the command {{Ic|login -f ''USERNAME''}}.
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The program must be compiled and copied to an appropriate location:
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$ gcc -o autologin autologin.c
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# cp autologin /usr/local/sbin/
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Finally, tell {{ic|/etc/inittab}} to use it:
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{{hc|/etc/inittab|
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c1:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -n -l /usr/local/sbin/autologin -s 38400 tty1 linux
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c2:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty2 linux
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c3:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty3 linux
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c4:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty4 linux
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c5:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty5 linux
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c6:2345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -8 -s 38400 tty6 linux
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}}
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== With systemd ==
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Create a new service file similar to {{ic|getty@.service}} by copying it to {{ic|/etc/systemd/system/}}:
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# cp /usr/lib/systemd/system/getty@.service /etc/systemd/system/autologin@.service
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{{Note|{{ic|/etc/systemd/system/}} takes precedence over {{ic|/usr/lib/systemd/system/}}.}}
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Once created you can link the new {{ic|autologin@.service}} to your chosen tty, e.g. {{ic|tty1}}, {{ic|tty2}}, [...] {{ic|tty8}}, etc, by specifying it as an alias in the {{ic|[Install]}} section of the unit file. Also, change the value of {{ic|ExecStart}} in {{ic|autologin@.service}}, to end up with something like this:
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{{hc|/etc/systemd/system/autologin@.service|
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2=[Service]
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[...]
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ExecStart&#61;-/sbin/agetty --noclear -a ''USERNAME'' %I 38400
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[...]
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[Install]
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Alias=getty.target.wants/getty@''tty1''.service
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}}
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{{Tip|It is possible to change {{ic|1=Type=idle}} to {{ic|1=Type=simple}} and avoid delaying the execution of agetty until all jobs (state change requests to units) are completed. This option is more useful when [[Start X at Login|starting X automatically]]. See {{ic|man systemd.service}} for more info. {{Note|{{ic|1=Type=simple}} can cause systemd boot-up messages to pollute the login prompt.}}}}
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For security reasons, you may also want to change {{ic|1=Restart=always}} to {{ic|1=Restart=no}}.
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Finally, you need to disable the old getty@.service for the specified TTY and enable the new autologin@.service for the same TTY:
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# systemctl daemon-reload
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# systemctl disable getty@tty1.service
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# systemctl enable autologin@tty1.service
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# systemctl start autologin@tty1.service
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{{Warning|If you are currently in an X session on the same TTY configured in the service file, starting autologin@tty''X''.service will kill your X server.}}
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To avoid errors related to display-manager.service in dmesg, you should set the default target to multi-user instead of graphical:
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# systemctl enable multi-user.target
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(See also: [[Systemd#Change_default_runlevel.2Ftarget_to_boot_into|Change default runlevel/target to boot into]].)
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Latest revision as of 12:48, 17 August 2016