awesome (简体中文)

From ArchWiki
Revision as of 14:40, 28 September 2012 by Cael (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本页面需要更新翻译,内容可能已经与英文脱节。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译组Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end

From the awesome website:

"awesome is a highly configurable, next generation framework window manager for X. It is very fast, extensible and licensed under the GNU GPLv2 license.

It is primarly targeted at power users, developers and any people dealing with every day computing tasks and who want to have fine-grained control on its graphical environment." 来自awesome网站:

Awesome 是 XWindows 下可高度定制的新一代窗口管理器。运行快捷、扩展性强,遵循GPLv2发布。

Awesome主要面向高级用户、开发者和那些希望完美控制自己电脑的图形界面的人。

安装

安装位于官方软件仓库的软件包 awesome

如果你对不稳定的预览版本有兴趣,可以安装 awesome-gitAUR。但是请注意,这是一个不稳定的开发版,配置文件会有语法差异。

开始

使用Awesome

不使用登录管理器来运行 awesome,只要添加 exec awesome 到你的启动脚本(比如 ~/.xinitrc)。

如果你使用一些外设有问题(比如 usb 密钥,dvd),请阅读 HALPolicyKit 相关文档。当你不使用登录管理器时,系统不会自动载入任何东西。 有些情况下,使用 exec ck-launch-session awesome 能帮你解决问题。 为了确保这个命令正常知心,请安装 consolekit 软件包, 否则, ck-launch-session 将不能正常识别。请查看 ConsoleKit

使用登录管理器启动Awesome的办法可以参考登录管理器.

"SLIM" 是一个流行的轻量级登录管理器,十分受推崇。要使用SLIM登录Awesome,你可以这么做:

1) 编辑 /etc/slim.conf 把Awesome加进去.
例如:

sessions             awesome,wmii,xmonad

你可以可以不使用登录管理器进入Awesome。可以参考Start X at boot.

一种简单的办法是把"exec awesome"加入你的启动脚本(比如 ~/.xinitrc)中。

编辑 ~/.xinitrc file

DEFAULT_SESSION=awesome
case $1 in
  awesome) exec awesome ;;
  wmii) exec wmii ;;
  xmonad) exec xmonad ;;
  *) exec $DEFAULT_SESSION ;;
esac

当然,你也能不用登录管理器来启动 awesome。通过编辑 ~/.xinitrc 和 /etc/inittab , 甚至可以做到不用登录即可启动 awesome。阅读文章 Start X at boot

设置

Awesome刚一装好带有一些很不错的默认设置,不过你迟早会想要做一些修改的。配置文件是一个lua脚本:~/.config/awesome/rc.lua.

创建设置文件

创建设置文件所在的文件夹

 $ mkdir -p ~/.config/awesome/

Awesome会自动使用~/.config/awesome/rc.lua里的所有配置。这个文件并不会自动创建,所以我们先要从样本复制一个过来:

$ cp /etc/xdg/awesome/rc.lua ~/.config/awesome

配置文件的语法会随着Awesome的版本升级而变化,所以当你升级了之后遇到问题时,重复上面的步骤,或者你得手动修改配置文件。

要获得关于配置Awesome的更多信息,请看Awesome wiki的配置部分

更多资源

注意: Awesome配置文件语法有时会变化,所以你可能得动手修改下载的配置文件。

一些不错的rc.lua可以在下面这些站点找到:

用 Xephyr 测试 rc.lua

用这种方式可以在不改变现有桌面的情况下对rc.lua进行测试。首先把 rc.lua 复制到一个新文件rc.lua.new,接着进行修改。然后在Xephyr中运行新的rc.lua (Xephyr允许你在XWindow中植入一个新的XWindow - screenshot)。 你可以这样测试你的新rc.lua

$ Xephyr -ac -br -noreset -screen 1152x720 :1 &
$ DISPLAY=:1.0 awesome -c ~/.config/awesome/rc.lua.new

这种方式的巨大优势在于如果你弄坏了rc.lua.new,你不至于把现有的Awesome桌面弄得一团糟(并且很可能还会把XWindow弄崩溃了,没保存的工作全部丢失………)。一旦你觉得新的配置文件不错,就用rc.lua.new代替rc.lua,然后重启Awesome。

主题

Beautiful可以让你动态地改变背景图片和颜色主题,而不需要改变rc.lua文件。

默认的主题文件是 /usr/share/awesome/themes/default。把它复制到 ~/.config/awesome/themes/default 然后修改一下 rc.lua中的theme_path。

更多细节参考这里

一个主题样本

设置墙纸

Beautiful 可以设置墙纸,所以你就不用在.xinitrc 或者 .xsession 中自己设置了。Beautiful 允许你给每个主题配一个墙纸。如果你看一看默认的主题文件,可以找到一个 wallpaper_cmd 值。当beautiful.init("path_to_theme_file")运行的时候,给定的命令就会运行。如果不想要 Beautiful 修改你的墙纸,你可以在这里自己定义一个命令,或者把这个值注释掉。

例如,如果你想用 awsetbg 设置墙纸,你可以这样写:

wallpaper_cmd = { "awsetbg -f .config/awesome/themes/awesome-wallpaper.png" }

注意: 要让Awsetbg工作,你需要有一个能设置背景图片的软件,比如"Feh"。

随机墙纸

想要随机切换墙纸,只需要注释掉 wallpaper_cmd 一行,然后使用下面的代码添加脚本到到你的 .xinitrc 文件中:

while true;
do
  awsetbg -r <path/to/the/directory/of/your/wallpapers>
  sleep 15m
done &

Tips & Tricks

Feel free to add any tips or tricks that you would like to pass on to other awesome users.

Use awesome as GNOME's window manager

GNOME has the advantage of being very "ready to use" and integrating. You can set up GNOME to use awesome as the visual interface, but have GNOME work in the background for your pleasure. If you are using GNOME 3, you can simply install the awesome-gnome package, then when logging in with GDM, choose the session type "Awesome GNOME". See the awesome wiki for details.

Expose effect like compiz

Revelation brings up a view of all your open clients; left-clicking a client pops to the first tag that client is visible on and raises/focuses the client. In addition, the Enter key pops to the currently focused client, and Escape aborts.

http://awesome.naquadah.org/wiki/Revelation

Hide / show wibox in awesome 3

To map Modkey-b to hide/show default statusbar on active screen (as default in awesome 2.3), add to your globalkeys in rc.lua:

awful.key({ modkey }, "b", function ()
    mywibox[mouse.screen].visible = not mywibox[mouse.screen].visible
end),

Enable printscreens

To enable printscreens in awesome through the PrtScr button you need to have a screen capturing program. Scrot is a easy to use utility for this purpose and is available in Arch repositories.

Just type:

# pacman -S scrot

and install optional dependencies if you feel that you need them.

Next of we need to get the key name for PrtScr, most often this is named "Print" but one can never be too sure.

Start up:

# xev

And press the PrtScr button, the output should be something like:

 KeyPress event ....
     root 0x25c, subw 0x0, ...
     state 0x0, keycode 107 (keysym 0xff61, Print), same_screen YES,
     ....

In my case as you see, the keyname is Print.

Now to the configuration of awesome!

Somewhere in your globalkeys array (doesn't matter where) type:

Lua code:

 awful.key({ }, "Print", function () awful.util.spawn("scrot -e 'mv $f ~/screenshots/ 2>/dev/null'") end),

Also, this function saves screenshots inside ~/screenshots/, edit this to fit your needs.

Dynamic tagging

Eminent is a small lua library that monkey-patches awful to provide you with effortless and quick wmii-style dynamic tagging. Unlike shifty, eminent does not aim to provide a comprehensive tagging system, but tries to make dynamic tagging as simple as possible. In fact, besides importing the eminent library, you do not have to change your rc.lua at all, eminent does all the work for you.

Shifty is an Awesome 3 extension that implements dynamic tagging. It also implements fine client matching configuration allowing YOU to be the master of YOUR desktop only by setting two simple config variables and some keybindings!

Space Invaders

Space Invaders is a demo to show the possibilities of the Awesome Lua API.

Please note that it is no longer included in the Awesome package since the 3.4-rc1 release.

Naughty for popup notification

See the awesome wiki page on naughty.

弹出式菜单

awesome3 中自带一个很容易自定义的简单菜单。如果你在使用 2.x awesome, 你需要阅读 awful.menu

awesome3 的一个范例:

myawesomemenu = {
   { "lock", "xscreensaver-command -activate" },
   { "manual", terminal .. " -e man awesome" },
   { "edit config", editor_cmd .. " " .. awful.util.getdir("config") .. "/rc.lua" },
   { "restart", awesome.restart },
   { "quit", awesome.quit }
}

mycommons = {
   { "pidgin", "pidgin" },
   { "OpenOffice", "soffice-dev" },
   { "Graphic", "gimp" }
}

mymainmenu = awful.menu.new({ items = { 
                                        { "terminal", terminal },
                                        { "icecat", "icecat" },
                                        { "Editor", "gvim" },
                                        { "File Manager", "pcmanfm" },
                                        { "VirtualBox", "VirtualBox" },
                                        { "Common App", mycommons, beautiful.awesome_icon },
                                        { "awesome", myawesomemenu, beautiful.awesome_icon }
                                       }
                             })

awesome 中的桌面插件

awesome 中的桌面插件是可以放到任意一个 widget-box 中(状态栏和标题栏)。 它们可以通过窗口管理器提供或者设置系统的动态信息。 桌面插件使用简单,并提供一大堆可扩展的功能。 -- 来自 Awesome Wiki: Widgets

有一个被广泛使用的库叫做 Wicked (适合 awesome < 3.4), 能够提供例如 MPD 插件、CPU 使用情况、内存使用情况等等很多插件。 详细信息查阅 Wicked page

在 awesome v3.4 中作为 Wicked 的替代品,请查阅 ViciousObviousBashets。 如果你选择 vicious,你最好看一下 vicious documentation

Transparency

Awesome has support for true transparency through xcompmgr. Note that you'll probably want the git version of xcompmgr, which is available in AUR.

Add this to your ~/.xinitrc:

xcompmgr &

See man xcompmgr or xcompmgr for more options.

In awesome 3.4, window transparency can be set dynamically using signals. For example, your rc.lua could contain the following:

client.add_signal("focus", function(c)
                              c.border_color = beautiful.border_focus
                              c.opacity = 1
                           end)
client.add_signal("unfocus", function(c)
                                c.border_color = beautiful.border_normal
                                c.opacity = 0.7
                             end)

If you got error messages about add_signal, using connect_signal insteaded.

Note that if you are using conky, you must set it to create its own window instead of using the desktop. To do so, edit ~/.conkyrc to contain:

own_window yes
own_window_transparent yes
own_window_type desktop

Otherwise strange behavior may be observed, such as all windows becoming fully transparent. Note also that since conky will be creating a transparent window on your desktop, any actions defined in awesome's rc.lua for the desktop will not work where conky is.

As of Awesome 3.1, there is built-in pseudo-transparency for wiboxes. To enable it, append 2 hexadecimal digits to the colors in your theme file (~/.config/awesome/themes/default, which is usually a copy of /usr/share/awesome/themes/default), like shown here:

bg_normal = #000000AA

where "AA" is the transparency value.

To change transparency for the actual selected window by pressing Modkey + PageUp/PageDown you can also use tansset-df available through the community package repository and the following modification to your rc.lua:

globalkeys = awful.util.table.join(
    -- your keybindings
    [...]
    awful.key({ modkey }, "Next", function (c)
        exec("transset-df --actual --inc 0.1")
    end),
    awful.key({ modkey }, "Prior", function (c)
        exec("transset-df --actual --dec 0.1")
    end),
    -- Your other key bindings
    [...]
)

ImageMagick

You may have problems if you set your wallpaper with imagemagick's display command, it doesn't work well with xcompmgr. Please note that awsetbg may be using display if it doesn't have any other options. Installing habak, feh, hsetroot or whatever should fix the problem (grep -A 1 wpsetters /usr/bin/awsetbg to see your options).

Autorun programs

See also the Autostart page on the Awesome wiki.

awesome doesn't run programs set to autostart by the Freedesktop specification like GNOME or KDE. However, awesome does provide a few functions for starting programs (in addition to the Lua standard library function os.execute). To run the same programs on startup as GNOME or KDE, you can install dex from the AUR and then run that in your rc.lua:

os.execute"dex -a"

If you just want to set up a list of apps for awesome to launch at startup, you can create a table of all the commands you want to spawn and loop through it:

do
  local cmds = 
  { 
    "swiftfox",
    "mutt",
    "consonance",
    "linux-fetion",
    "weechat-curses",
    --and so on...
  }

  for _,i in pairs(cmds) do
    awful.util.spawn(i)
  end
end

(You could also run calls to os.execute with commands ending in '&', but it's probably a better idea to stick to the proper spawn function.)

To run a program only if it is not currently running, you can spawn it with a shell command that runs the program only if pgrep doesn't find a running process with the same name:

function run_once(prg)
  awful.util.spawn_with_shell("pgrep -u $USER -x " .. prg .. " || (" .. prg .. ")")
end

So, for example, to run parcellite only if there is not a parcellite process already running:

run_once("parcellite")

Passing content to widgets with awesome-client

You can easily send text to an awesome widget. Just create a new widget:

 mywidget = widget({ type = "textbox", name = "mywidget" })
 mywidget.text = "initial text"

To update the text from an external source, use awesome-client:

 
 echo -e 'mywidget.text = "new text"' | awesome-client

Don't forget to add the widget to your wibox.

Using a different panel with awesome

If you like awesome's lightweightness and functionality but do not like the way its default panel looks, you can install a different panel. Just install xfce4-panel by issuing:

sudo pacman -S xfce4-panel

Of course any other panel will do as well. Then add it to autorun section of your rc.lua (how to do that is written elsewhere on this wiki). You can also comment out the section which creates wiboxes for each screen (starting from "mywibox[s] = awful.wibox({ position = "top", screen = s })" ) but it isn't necessary. Any way do not forget to check your rc.lua for errors by typing

awesome -k rc.lua

Also you should change your "modkey+R" keybinding, in order to start some other application launcher instead of built in awesome. Xfrun4, bashrun, etc. Check the Application launchers section of Openbox article for examples. Don't forget to add

      properties = { floating = true } },
    { rule = { instance = "$yourapplicationlauncher" },

to your rc.lua.

Fix Java (GUI appears gray only)

Guide taken from [1].

  1. Install wmname from community
  2. Run the following command or add it to your .xinitrc:
    wmname LG3D

Prevent Nautilus from displaying the desktop (Gnome3)

Run dconf-editor. Navigate to org->background and uncheck "draw-background" as well as "show-desktop-icons" for good measure. That's it!

Another option is moving /usr/bin/nautilus to a new location and replacing it with a script that runs 'nautilus --no-desktop' passing any arguments it receives along.

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/nautilus-real --no-desktop $@

Transitioning away from Gnome3

Run 'gnome-session-properties' and remove programs that you won't be needing anymore (e.g Bluetooth Manager, Login Sounds, etc).

If you'd like to get rid of GDM, make sure that your rc.conf DAEMONS list includes "dbus" (and "cupsd" if you have a printer). It's advisable to get a different login manager (like SLiM), but you can do things manually if you wish. That entails setting up your .xinitrc properly and installing something like devmon (AUR).

If you wan't to keep a few convenient systray applets and your GTK theme, append this to your rc.lua;

function start_daemon(dae)
	daeCheck = os.execute("ps -eF | grep -v grep | grep -w " .. dae)
	if (daeCheck ~= 0) then
		os.execute(dae .. " &")
	end
end
procs = {"gnome-settings-daemon", "nm-applet", "kupfer", "gnome-sound-applet", "gnome-power-manager"}
for k = 1, #procs do
	start_daemon(procs[k])
end

Prevent the mouse scroll wheel from changing tags

In your rc.lua, change the Mouse Bindings section to the following;

-- {{{ Mouse bindings
root.buttons(awful.util.table.join(
    awful.button({ }, 3, function () mymainmenu:toggle() end)))
-- }}}

Troubleshooting

Mod4 key

The Mod4 is by default the Win key. If it's not mapped by default, for some reason, you can check the keycode of your Mod4 key with

$ xev

It should be 115 for the left one. Then add this to your ~/.xinitrc

xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = Super_L" -e "add mod4 = Super_L"
exec awesome

The problem in this case is that some xorg installations recognize keycode 115, but incorrectly as the 'Select' key. The above command explictly remaps keycode 115 to the correct 'Super_L' key.

Mod4 key vs. IBM ThinkPad users

IBM ThinkPads do not come equipped with a Window key (although Lenovo have changed this tradition on their ThinkPads). As of writing, the Alt key is not used in command combinations by the default rc.lua (refer to the Awesome wiki for a table of commands), which allows it be used as a replacement for the Super/Mod4/Win key. To do this, edit your rc.lua and replace:

modkey = "Mod4"

by:

modkey = "Mod1"

Note: Awesome does a have a few commands that make use of Mod4 plus a single letter. Changing Mod4 to Mod1/Alt could cause overlaps for some key combinations. The small amount of instances where this happens can be changed in the rc.lua file.

If you do not like to change the awesome standards, you might like to remap a key. For instance the caps lock key is rather useless (for me) adding the following contents to ~/.Xmodmap

clear lock 
add mod4 = Caps_Lock

and (re)load the file. This will change the caps lock key into the mod4 key and works nicely with the standard awesome settings. In addition, if needed, it provides the mod4 key to other X-programs as well.

Not confirmed, but if recent updates of xorg related packages break mentioned remapping the second line can be replaced by (tested on a DasKeyboard with no left Super key):

keysym Caps_Lock = Super_L Caps_Lock

Brasero

If Brasero doesn't detect your blank disks when started in Awesome, but works just fine when started in Gnome, try using

$ dbus-launch brasero

Eclipse: cannot resize/move main window

If you get stuck and cannot move or resize the main window (using mod4 + left/right mouse button) edit the workbench.xml and set fullscreen/maximized to false (if set) and reduce the width and height to numbers smaller than your single screen desktop area.

Note: workbench.xml can be found in: <eclipse_workspace>/.metadata/.plugins/org.eclipse.ui.workbench/ and the line to edit is <window height="xx" maximized="true" width="xx" x="xx" y="xx">.

YouTube: fullscreen appears in background

[2] If YouTube videos appear underneath your web browser when in fullscreen mode, add this to your rc.lua

   { rule = { instance = "plugin-container" },
     properties = { floating = true } },

External Links