Difference between revisions of "BIND"

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[[Category:Domain Name System]]
 
[[Category:Domain Name System]]
 
[[Category:Daemons and system services]]
 
[[Category:Daemons and system services]]
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[[de:BIND]]
 
Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND) is the reference implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols.
 
Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND) is the reference implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols.
  

Revision as of 12:32, 5 November 2012

Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND) is the reference implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols.

BIND as caching-only server

These few steps show you how to install BIND as a caching-only server.

Install BIND

Install the bind package which can be found in the official repositories.

Edit /etc/named.conf and add this under the options section:

listen-on { 127.0.0.1; };

Start BIND

Start the daemon:

rc.d start named

Or add it to /etc/rc.conf:

DAEMONS=(.. named ..)

Set /etc/resolv.conf to use the local DNS server

Edit /etc/resolv.conf:

nameserver 127.0.0.1

BIND as simple DNS forwarder

If, for example you have problems with VPN connections, they can sometimes be solved by setting-up forwarding DNS server. It is set very simply with BIND. Add these lines to /etc/named.conf, and change IP address according to your setup.

listen-on { 192.168.66.1; };
forwarders {8.8.8.8; 8.8.4.4; };

Don't forget to restart the service!

Running BIND in a chrooted environment

Running in a chroot environment is not required but improves security. See BIND (chroot) for how to do this.

A configuration template for running a domain

In our example we use "domain.tld" as our domain.

1. Preparing some folder structure

mkdir /var/named/{pri,sec}

2. Creating a zonefile

# nano /var/named/pri/domain.tld.zone
$TTL 7200
; domain.tld
@       IN      SOA     ns01.domain.tld. postmaster.domain.tld. (
                                        2007011601 ; Serial
                                        28800      ; Refresh
                                        1800       ; Retry
                                        604800     ; Expire - 1 week
                                        86400 )    ; Minimum
                IN      NS      ns01
                IN      NS      ns02
ns01            IN      A       0.0.0.0
ns02            IN      A       0.0.0.0
localhost       IN      A       127.0.0.1
@               IN      MX 10   mail
imap            IN      CNAME   mail
smtp            IN      CNAME   mail
@               IN      A       0.0.0.0
www             IN      A       0.0.0.0
mail            IN      A       0.0.0.0
@               IN      TXT     "v=spf1 mx"

$TTL defines the default time-to-live for all record types. 7200 are seconds so its 2 hours.

Serial must be incremented manually before restarting named every time you change a resource record for the zone. If you forget to do it slaves will not re-transfer the zone: they only do it if the serial is greater than that of the last time they transferred the zone.

3. Configuring master server

Add your zone to /etc/named.conf:

zone "domain.tld" IN {
        type master;
        file "pri/domain.tld.zone";
        allow-update { none; };
        notify no;
};

4. Configuring slave server

Add your zone to /etc/named.conf:

zone "domain.tld" IN {
        type slave;
        file "sec/domain.tld.zone";
        masters { 0.0.0.0; };   # IP address of the master server
};

Restart the services and you are done.

Configuring BIND to serve DNSSEC signed zones

See DNSSEC#BIND (serving signed DNS zones)

Automatically listen on new interfaces without chroot and root privileges

Add

 interface-interval <rescan-timeout-in-minutes>;

parameter into named.conf options. Then you should modify rc-script:

     stat_busy "Starting DNS"
-    [ -z "$PID" ] && /usr/sbin/named ${NAMED_ARGS}
+    setcap cap_net_bind_service=eip /usr/sbin/named
+    NAMED_ARGS=`echo ${NAMED_ARGS} | sed 's#-u [[:alnum:]]*##'`
+    [ -z "$PID" ] && sudo -u named /usr/sbin/named ${NAMED_ARGS}

So your /etc/rc.d/named should look like this:

     stat_busy "Starting DNS"
     setcap cap_net_bind_service=eip /usr/sbin/named
     NAMED_ARGS=`echo ${NAMED_ARGS} | sed 's#-u [[:alnum:]]*##'`
     [ -z "$PID" ] && sudo -u named /usr/sbin/named ${NAMED_ARGS}

Change user name in last line (with "... sudo -u named ...") if your named user is not 'named'.

See also

BIND Resources