Bcache allows one to use an SSD as a read/write cache (in writeback mode) or read cache (writethrough or writearound) for another blockdevice (generally a rotating HDD or array). This article will show how to install arch using Bcache as the root partition. For an intro to bcache itself, see the bcache homepage. Be sure to read and reference the bcache manual. Bcache is in the mainline kernel since 3.10.
An alternative to Bcache is Facebook's Flashcache.Bcache needs the backing device to be formatted as a bcache block device. In most cases, blocks to-bcache can do an in-place conversion.
Temporary install to SSD
The ArchLinux install disk does not include bcache in its kernel. You could either re-master to the install disk to include this kernel, or do the install twice. The example below is for installing twice.
- Install archlinux as normal to the SSD. Don't go crazy with partitions, just a / and an EFI system partition if you're not booting bios mode. This is just the temporary system we'll use to install the final system.
- Reboot to verify the install in step 1 worked.
- Install the "linux-bcache-git" and "bcache-tools-git" packages from AUR.
- Reboot to the bcache enabled kernel
Final install to the HDD
1. Partition your hdd
grub can't handle bcache, so you'll need at least 2 partitions (boot and one for the bcache backing device). If you're doing UEFI, you'll need an EFI System Partition (ESP) as well.
ex: 1 2048 22527 10.0 MiB EF00 EFI System 2 22528 432127 200.0 MiB 8300 arch_boot 3 432128 625142414 297.9 GiB 8300 bcache_backing
2. Configure your HDD as a bcache backing device.
# make-bcache -B /dev/sda3
3. Register any bcache devices with the kernel (this needs to done every bootup)
for i in /dev/sd*; do echo $i; echo $i > /sys/fs/bcache/register_quiet; done
You now have a /dev/bcache0 device
7. Format the bcache device. Use LLVM or btrfs subvolumes if you want to divide up the /dev/bcache0 device how you like (ex for seperate /, /home, /var, etc).
# mkfs.btrfs /dev/bcache0 # mount /dev/bcache0 /mnt/ # btrfs subvolume create /mnt/root # btrfs subvolume create /mnt/home # umount /mnt
8. Reinstall to the bcache volume (alternatively you can rsync the install you made on the SSD)
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2 # mkfs.msdos /dev/sda1 (if your ESP is at least 500MB, use mkfs.vfat to make a FAT32 partition instead) # pacman -S arch-install-scripts # mount /dev/bcache0 -o subvol=root,compress=lzo /mnt/ # mkdir /mnt/boot # mkdir /mnt/home # mount /dev/bcache0 -o subvol=home,compress=lzo /mnt/home # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot # mkdir /boot/efi # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/efi/
do the rest of the installation as normal
9, Edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and add the bcache hook between block and filesystems.
10. In the arch-chroot, first install "bcache-tools-git" then the "linux-bcache-git" packages from [[AUR]b ]. (Don't forget to update your bootloader to use the new kernel!)
11. Reboot and make sure it works from the /dev/bcache0 device
12. delete the partitions from /dev/sdb, format it as a caching device, and link it to the backing device
# parted /dev/sdb mklabel msdos; dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb bs=512 count=1 # make-bcache -C /dev/sdb # echo /dev/sdb > /sys/fs/bcache/register # echo <Set UUID from previous command> > /sys/block/bcache0/bcache/attach
There are many options that can be configured (such as writeback cache mode, cache flush interval, sequential write heuristic, etc.) This is currently done by writing to files in /sys. See the bcache user documentation.
Resize backing device
It's possible to resize the backing device so long as you don't move the partition start. This process is described on the mailing list. Here's an example using btrfs volume directly on bcache0. For LLVM containers or for other filesystems, procedure will differ.
Example of growing
In this example, I grow the filesystem by 4GB.
1. Reboot to a live CD/USB Drive (need not be bcache enabled) and use fdisk, gdisk, parted, or your other favorite tool to delete the backing partition and recreate it with the same start and a total size 4G larger.
2. Reboot to your normal install. Your filesystem will be currently mounted. That's fine. Issue the command to resize the partition to its maximum. For btrfs, that's
sudo btrfs filesystem resize max /
For ext3/4, that's
sudo resize2fs /dev/bcache0
3. That's it!
Example of shrinking
In this example, I shrink the filesystem by 4GB.
1. Disable writeback cache (switch to writethrough cache) and wait for the disk to flush.
echo writethrough | sudo tee /sys/block/bcache0/bcache/cache_mode watch cat /sys/block/bcache0/bcache/state
wait until state reports "clean". This might take a while.
2. Shrink the mounted filesystem by something more than the desired amount, to ensure we don't accidentally clip it later. for btrfs, that's
sudo btrfs filesystem resize -5G /
for ext3/4 you can use resize2fs, but only if the partition is unmounted
$ df -h /home /dev/bcache0 290G 20G 270G 1% /home $ sudo umount /home $ sudo resize2fs /dev/bcache0 283G
3. Reboot to a LiveCD/USB drive (doesn't need to support bcache) and use fdisk, gdisk, parted, or your other favorite tool to delete the backing partition and recreate it with the same start and a total size 4G smaller.
4. Reboot to your normal install. Your filesystem will be currently mounted. That's fine. Issue the command to resize the partition to its maximum (that is, the size we shrunk the actual partition to in step 3). For btrfs, that's
sudo btrfs filesystem resize max /
For ext3/4, that's
sudo resize2fs /dev/bcache0
5. Re-enable writeback cache if you want that enabled:
echo writeback | sudo tee /sys/block/bcache0/bcache/cache_mode
6. That's it!
/dev/bcache device doesn't exist on bootup
If you are sent to a busy box shell with an error:
ERROR: Unable to find root device 'UUID=b6b2d82b-f87e-44d5-bbc5-c51dd7aace15'. You are being dropped to a recovery shell Type 'exit' to try and continue booting
This might happen if the backing device is configured for "writeback" mode (default is writearound). When in "writeback" mode, the /dev/bcache0 device is not started until the cache device is both registered and attached. Registering is something that needs to happen every bootup, but attaching should only have to be done once. I've sometime had to re-attach.
To continue booting, try one of the following:
- Register both the backing device and the cacheing device
# echo /dev/sda3 > /sys/fs/bcache/register # echo /dev/sdb > /sys/fs/bcache/register
If the /dev/bcache0 device now exists, type exit and continue booting. You will need to fix your initcpio to ensure devices are registered before mounting the root device.
- Re-attach the cache to the backing device:
If the cache device was registered, a folder with the UUID of the cache should exist in /sys/fs/bcache. Use that UUID when following the example below:
# ls /sys/fs/bcache/ b6b2d82b-f87e-44d5-bbc5-c51dd7aace15 register register_quiet # echo b6b2d82b-f87e-44d5-bbc5-c51dd7aace15 > /sys/block/sda/sda3/bcache/attach
If the /dev/bcache0 device now exists, type exit and continue booting. You should not have to do this again. If it persists, ask on the bcache mailing list.
- Invalidate the cache and force the backing device to run without it.
You might want to check some stats, such as "dirty_data" so you have some idea of how much data will be lost.
# cat /sys/block/sda/sda3/bcache/dirty_data -3.9M
dirty data is data in the cache that has not been written to the backing device. If you force the backing device to run, this data will be lost, even if you later re-attach the cache.
# cat /sys/block/sda/sda3/bcache/running 0 # echo 1 > /sys/block/sda/sda3/bcache/running
The /dev/bcache0 device will now exist. Type exit and continue booting. You might want to unregister the cache device and run make-bcache again. An fsck on /dev/bcache0 would also be wise. See the bcache user documentation.
/sys/fs/bcache/ doesn't exist
The kernel you booted is not bcache enabled.