Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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#REDIRECT [[Installation guide]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
== Installation ==
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
=== Change the language ===
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.}}
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB_United_States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
# loadkeys ''layout''
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard_layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English_alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
Use {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
# locale-gen
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
Remember, {{Keypress|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
=== Establish an internet connection ===
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
PING www.l.google.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare_the_storage_drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
==== Wired ====
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
If your computer is connected to an Ethernet network, in most cases, you will have one interface, called {{ic|eth0}}. If you have additional network cards (apart from the one integrated on the motherboard, for example), their name will follow the sequence {{ic|eth1}}, {{ic|eth2}}, etc.
You need to know these settings:
* Static IP address.
* Subnet mask.
* Gateway's IP address.
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
Activate the connected Ethernet interface, e.g. for {{ic|eth0}}:
# ip link set eth0 up
Add the address:
# ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface>
For example:
# ip addr add dev eth0
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
# ip route add default via <ip address>
For example:
# ip route add default via
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com}}
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Configuring Network]] page.
==== Wireless ====
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlan0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
The basic procedure will be:
* (optional) Identify the wireless interface:
# lspci | grep -i net
Or, if using a USB adapter:
# lsusb
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|iwconfig}}:
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
lo no wireless extensions.
eth0 no wireless extensions.
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
        Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
        Bit Rate:0 kb/s  Tx-Power=20 dBm  Sensitivity=8/0
        Retry limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
        Power Management:off
        Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
        Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
        Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0}}
In this example, {{ic|wlan0}} is the available wireless interface.
* Bring the interface up with:
# ip link set wlan0 up
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
{{hc|# ip link set wlan0 up|
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
Next, use {{pkg|netcfg}}'s wifi-menu to connect to a network:
# wifi-menu wlan0
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
If you have a router in bridge mode, run:
# pppoe-setup
* Type in the username that the ISP provided you with.
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "eth0".
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "no", so that it stays up continuously.
* Type {{ic|server}} (since this is usually the case).
* Press {{Keypress|1}} for a firewall.
* Type in the password that the ISP provided you with.
* Press {{Keypress|Y}} at the end.
To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:
# pppoe-start
You may also need to adjust your {{ic|resolv.conf}}:
# echo nameserver > /etc/resolv.conf
If you have an analog modem (dial-up), or an ISDN connection, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
==== Behind a proxy server ====
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. '''[[Proxy|Click here]]''' for more information.
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, run from a "live" Linux distribution such as [[Wikipedia:Parted_Magic|Parted Magic]], [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu_(operating_system)|Ubuntu]], [[Wikipedia:Linux_Mint|Linux Mint]], etc. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
If you have already done so, proceed to [[#Mount_the_partitions|Mount the partitions]].
Otherwise, see the following example.
==== Example ====
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools:
* [[Wikipedia:gdisk|gdisk]] – supports only [[GPT]] partition tables.
* [[Wikipedia:cfdisk|cfdisk]] – supports only [[MBR]] partition tables.
* [[Wikipedia:parted|parted]] – supports both.
This example uses '''cfdisk''', but it can easily be followed using '''gdisk''', which will allow for GPT instead of MBR partitioning.
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[UEFI]] boot:|
* If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create an UEFI System Partition_in_Linux|UEFI System partition]].
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.}}
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[GPT]] partitioning:|
* If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read [[GPT]] for a list of advantages.
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create a 2 MiB "[[GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]". Syslinux doesn't need one.}}
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
# cfdisk /dev/sda
The example system will contain a 15 GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1 GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining space.
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "15360" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Bootable.
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "1024" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning.
* Choose Type (or press {{Keypress|T}}) – press any key to scroll down the list – {{Keypress|Enter}} for 82.
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size).
Here's how it should look like:
Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]      Size (MB)
sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15360
sda2              Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024
sda3              Primary    Linux                            133000*
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk.
If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press {{Keypress|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit cfdisk without making any more changes.
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it's actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} that you want to format.}}
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
Format and activate the swap partition:
# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2
=== Mount the partitions ===
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
To see the current partition layout:
# lsblk /dev/sda
Pay attention, because the mounting order is important.
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example above (yours may be different), it would be:
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Then mount the {{ic|/home}} partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
# mkdir /mnt/home
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home
In case you have a separate {{ic|/boot}} partition:
# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:
# mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot/efi
=== Select a mirror ===
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
* {{Keypress|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
* {{Keypress|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{Keypress|Ctrl+K}}), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
* Use the [http://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting_mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
* If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
=== Install the base system ===
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
=== Generate an fstab ===
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} option, respectively. It's also a good idea to check it before continuing:
{{Note|If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
Only the root ({{ic|/}}) partition needs {{ic|1}} for the last field. Everything else should have either {{ic|2}} or {{ic|0}} (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
Also, {{ic|1=data=ordered}} should be removed. This option will be used automatically whether you specify it or not. No point cluttering up your fstab.
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
# arch-chroot /mnt
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
==== Locale ====
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
# locale-gen
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file doesn't exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
{{Note|If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
# echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
To use other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, first run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
{{Warning|Using the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.}}
==== Console font and keymap ====
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
* {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. The default (blank) is safe.
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
==== Time zone ====
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
To view the available <Zone>, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
==== Hardware clock ====
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC_in_Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use [[ntpd]] on your Arch Linux installation instead.
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and disable any time-related services, like {{ic|ntpd.service}}. This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight_savings_time|DST]] kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
==== Kernel modules ====
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch_Linux_guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
==== Hostname ====
Add your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hostname}}:
# echo '''myhostname''' > /etc/hostname
Set it to your liking (e.g. ''arch''). This is the name of your computer. And add it to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, as well:
{{Warning|This format, including {{ic|localhost}} and your actual hostname, is required for program compatibility. Errors in these entries may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all.}}
{{hc|# nano /etc/hosts|  '''myhostname''' localhost
::1        '''myhostname''' localhost
# '''myhostname'''.domain.org '''myhostname'''  #Uncomment if you use a static IP and remove this comment.}}
{{Note|{{ic|}} and {{ic|::1}} are the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of the local [[Wikipedia:localhost|loopback]] network interface.}}
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use {{ic|/etc/hosts}} aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web. media data
The above example would allow you access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
=== Configure the network ===
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish_an_internet_connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Configuring Network]] and [[Wireless Setup]].}}
==== Wired ====
; Dynamic IP
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service:
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@.service
Alternatively, you can use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:
# pacman -S netcfg ifplugd
# cd /etc/network.d
# ln -s examples/ethernet-dhcp .
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
; Static IP
Install {{Pkg|netcfg}} and {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which are required for {{ic|net-auto-wired}}:
# pacman -S netcfg ifplugd
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/network.d}}:
# cd /etc/network.d
# cp examples/ethernet-static .
Edit the profile as needed:
# nano ethernet-static
Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wired}} service:
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
==== Wireless ====
You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as [[netcfg]].
[[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are other popular alternatives.
* Install the required packages:
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond netcfg dialog
If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless_Setup#Drivers_and_firmware|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. For example:
# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
* Connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu}} (optionally checking the interface name with {{ic|ip link}}, but usually it's {{ic|wlan0}}), which will generate a profile file in {{ic|/etc/network.d}} named after the SSID. There are also templates available in {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} for manual configuration.
# wifi-menu
* Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
{{Note|[[Netcfg]] also provides {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which can be used in conjunction with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}.}}
* Make sure that the correct wireless interface (usually {{ic|wlan0}}) is set in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
{{hc|# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
For xDSL, analog modem (dial-up) and ISDN, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
=== Configure pacman ===
Pacman is the Arch Linux '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use it. Read {{ic|man pacman}}, have a look at the [[pacman]] article, or check out the [[Pacman Rosetta]] article for a comparison to other popular package managers.
For repository selections and pacman options, edit {{ic|pacman.conf}}:
{{Note|When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the {{ic|[''repo_name'']}} header lines, as well as the {{ic|Include}} lines. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error.}}
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
Most people will want to use {{ic|[core]}}, {{ic|[extra]}} and {{ic|[community]}}.
If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, it's recommended that you enable the {{ic|[multilib]}} repository, as well (to be able to run both 32 bit and 64 bit applications):
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
See [[Official Repositories]] for more information, including details about the purpose of each repository.
For software unavailable directly through pacman, see [[Arch User Repository]].
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
# mkinitcpio -p linux
=== Set the root password and add a regular user ===
Set the root password with:
# passwd
{{Warning|Linux is a multi-user operating system. You should not perform everyday tasks using the root account. It is considered a very poor practice and could be extremely dangerous. The root account should only be used for administrative tasks.}}
Then add a normal user account. For a more interactive way, you can use {{ic|adduser}}. However, below is the non-interactive way. The user ''archie'' is just an example.
# useradd -m -g users -s /bin/bash ''archie''
# passwd ''archie''
If you wish to start over, use {{ic|userdel}}. The {{ic|-r}} option will remove the user's home directory and its content, along with the user's settings (the so-called "dot" files).
# userdel -r ''archie''
For more information, read [[Users and Groups]].
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and [[LILO]]. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
===== Syslinux =====
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
{{Note|If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package, as well ({{ic|pacman -S gptfdisk}}), because it contains {{ic|sgdisk}}, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.}}
# pacman -S syslinux
# syslinux-install_update -iam
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as we did in [[#Prepare_the_storage_drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
LABEL arch
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
===== GRUB =====
{{Note|For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a 2 MiB "[[GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]".}}
{{Note|Please do not use {{ic|/dev/sda''X''}} in the below command. You may use {{ic|/dev/sdb}} if you installed Arch there, as long as you set that drive to boot first from the BIOS settings.}}
# pacman -S grub-bios
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type {{ic|EF00}}) must be present and mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.
While there are other [[UEFI_Bootloaders|UEFI bootloaders]] available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB.
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.}}
===== EFISTUB =====
The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}. The below steps set up rEFInd (a fork of rEFIt) to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. You can also use [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Using_gummiboot|gummiboot]] (not tested) instead of rEFInd. Both rEFInd and gummiboot can detect Windows UEFI bootloader in case of dual-boot.
1. Boot in UEFI mode and load {{ic|efivars}} kernel module before chrooting:
# modprobe efivars      # before chrooting
2. Mount the UEFISYS partition at {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}}, chroot and [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Setting_up_EFISTUB|copy the kernel and initramfs files]] to {{ic|/boot/efi}}.
3. Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in {{ic|/boot}}, they need to be updated in {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch}}. This can be automated either [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Systemd|using systemd]] or [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Incron|using incron]] (for non-systemd setups).
4. Install the following packages:
# pacman -S refind-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
5. Install rEFInd to the UEFISYS partition (summarized from [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd]]):
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refindx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/refindx64.efi
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/refind.conf
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/icons
6. Create a {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:
{{hc|# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf|2=
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"}}
7. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]].
{{Warning|Using {{ic|efibootmgr}} on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use {{AUR|mactel-boot}}, or "bless" from within Mac OS X.}}
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (rEFInd)" -l '\EFI\arch\refind\refindx64.efi'
{{Note|In the above command, X and Y denote the drive and partition of the UEFISYS partition. For example, in {{ic|/dev/sdc5}}, X is "c" and Y is "5".}}
8. (Optional) As a fallback, in case {{ic|efibootmgr}} created boot entry does not work, copy {{ic|refindx64.efi}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi}} as follows:
# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refindx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi
===== GRUB =====
{{Note|In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Macs, install {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead, and use {{ic|1=--target=i386-efi}}.}}
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
Run the next command to create a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. See [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]] for more info.
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\EFI\arch_grub\grubx64.efi'
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
=== Update the system ===
{{Warning|1=System updates should be performed with care. It is very important to read and understand [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=57205 this] before proceeding.}}
Often, the developers will provide important information about required configurations and modifications for known issues. The Arch Linux user is expected to consult these places before performing an upgrade:
* [https://archlinux.org/news/ Arch news]. If you did not read this before an upgrade and you encounter an error, check the news ''before'' you post a question on the forum!
* [https://archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-announce/ Announce mailing list].
Sync, refresh the package database, and upgrade your entire system with:
# pacman -Syu
Or, same thing:
# pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade
If you are prompted to upgrade pacman itself at this point, respond by pressing {{Keypress|Y}}, and then reissue the {{ic|pacman -Syu}} command when finished.
{{Note|Occasionally, configuration changes may take place requiring user action during an update; read pacman's output for any pertinent information. See [[Pacnew and Pacsave Files]] for more details.}}
Keep in mind that Arch is a '''rolling release''' distribution. This means the user doesn't have to reinstall or perform elaborate system rebuilds to upgrade to the newest version. Issuing {{ic|pacman -Syu}} periodically (and noting the above warning) keeps the entire system up-to-date and on the bleeding edge. At the end of this upgrade, the system will be completely current.
See [[Pacman]] and [[FAQ#Package Management]] for answers regarding updating and managing packages.
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
Exit from the chroot environment:
# exit
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
Reboot the computer:
# reboot
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}<noinclude>
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 11:34, 23 August 2016

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