Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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(#REDIRECT Installation guide, merge completed, see Talk:Installation_guide#BG_merge)
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#REDIRECT [[Installation guide]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
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[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[zh-TW:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
== Installation ==
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
=== Change the language ===
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.}}
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
# loadkeys ''layout''
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
Use {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
# locale-gen
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
Remember, {{Keypress|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
=== Establish an internet connection ===
{{Warning|udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. If you're coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the "ip" utility to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
From systemd-197's release and onward, udev now assigns predictable, stable network interface names that deviate from the legacy incremental naming scheme (wlan0, wlan1, etc.).  These interface names are guaranteed to be persistent across reboots, which solves the problem of the lack of predictability of network interface name assignment. For more information about why this was necessary, read http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames .
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
PING www.l.google.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net ( icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, first check if there is any problem with your cable (or if you have enough wireless signal), otherwise you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare the storage drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
==== Wired ====
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
First, identify the name of your ethernet interface.
{{hc|# ip link|
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff}}
In this case, the ethernet interface is enp2s0f0. If you're unsure, your ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w".  You can also use iwconfig and see which interfaces are not wireless:
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97" 
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF 
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm 
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm 
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
In this example, neither enp2s0f0 nor the loopback device have wireless extensions, meaning enp2s0f0 is our ethernet interface.
You also need to know these settings:
* Static IP address.
* Subnet mask.
* Gateway's IP address.
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. {{ic|enp2s0f0}}):
# ip link set enp2s0f0 up
Add the address:
# ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface>
For example:
# ip addr add dev enp2s0f0
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
# ip route add default via <ip address>
For example:
# ip route add default via
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com}}
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Network Configuration]] page.
==== Wireless ====
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
If you're coming from another distribution, or if this is your first time installing Arch Linux since the deprecation of the old interface naming scheme, you might be surprised to learn that the first wireless interface is not named "wlan0". In fact, none of the interfaces are automatically prefixed with "wlan" any longer. Don't panic; simply execute {{ic|iwconfig}} to discover the name of your wireless interface.
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlp3s0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
The basic procedure will be:
* Identify the wireless interface:
# lspci | grep -i net
Or, if using a USB adapter:
# lsusb
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|iwconfig}}:
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97" 
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF 
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm 
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm 
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
In this example, {{ic|wlp3s0}} is the available wireless interface.
* Bring the interface up with:
# ip link set wlp3s0 up
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
{{hc|# ip link set wlp3s0 up|
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset. }}
Next, use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|wifi-menu}} to connect to a network.  Replace ''wlp3s0" with the name of your interface:
# wifi-menu wlp3s0
{{Warning|At the moment, netcfg's wifi-menu, when executed without arguments, will look for "wlan0". Execute wifi-menu with your interface as the argument in order to use it.  See [[Network Configuration#Get_current_device_names]]
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
If you have a router in bridge mode, run:
# pppoe-setup
* Type in the username that the ISP provided you with.
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "eth0".
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "no", so that it stays up continuously.
* Type {{ic|server}} (since this is usually the case).
* Press {{Keypress|1}} for a firewall.
* Type in the password that the ISP provided you with.
* Press {{Keypress|Y}} at the end.
To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:
# pppoe-start
You may also need to adjust your {{ic|resolv.conf}}:
# echo nameserver > /etc/resolv.conf
If you have a dial-up or ISDN connection, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
==== Behind a proxy server ====
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. See [[Proxy settings]] for more information.
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, and is [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php provided as a "live" CD]. It is also included on live CDs of most Linux distributions such as [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]] and [[Wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]]. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
See [[Swap]] for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or file now. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a BTRFS filesystem.
If you have already done so, proceed to [[#Mount the partitions|Mount the partitions]].
Otherwise, see the following example.
==== Example ====
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: {{ic|fdisk}}, {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cfdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}}, {{ic|parted}}.
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[UEFI]] boot:|
* If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create an UEFI System Partition in Linux|UEFI System Partition]].
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.}}
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[GPT]] partitioning:|
* If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read [[GPT]] for a list of advantages.
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra [[GRUB2#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]. Syslinux doesn't need one.
* Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a [[Partitioning#/home|home]] partition for the remaining space. Choose either [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Do not choose both!
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
{| class="wikitable"
| rowspan="2" | '''MBR'''
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cfdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
| '''Root:'''
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "15360" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Bootable.
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size).
| rowspan="2" | '''GPT'''
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cgdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
| '''Root:'''
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector (2048) – type in "15G" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
| '''Home:'''
* Press the down arrow a couple of times to move to the larger free space area.
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size; for example "30G") – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
If you chose MBR, here's how it should look like:
Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]      Size (MB)
sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15360
sda2              Primary    Linux                            133000*
If you chose GPT, here's how it should look like:
Part. #    Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
            1007.0 KiB  free space
    1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
    2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk (or cgdisk).
If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press {{Keypress|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without making any more changes.
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it's actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} and {{ic|/dev/sda2}} that you want to format.}}
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), don't forget to format and activate it with:
# mkswap /dev/sda''X''
# swapon /dev/sda''X''
=== Mount the partitions ===
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
To display the current partition layout:
# lsblk /dev/sda
{{Note|Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.}}
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example when using {{ic|cfdisk}} above (yours may be different), it would be:
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
# mkdir /mnt/home
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:
# mkdir -p /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot/efi
=== Select a mirror ===
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
* {{Keypress|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
* {{Keypress|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{Keypress|Ctrl+K}}), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
* Use the [https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
* If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
=== Install the base system ===
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
The {{ic|-i}} switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the ''base'' and ''base-devel'' groups without prompting.
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check the system time with {{ic|cal}}. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
{{Note| If pacman complains about invalid signatures during the pacstrap phase (''error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)'') run the following command below.}}
# pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
=== Generate an fstab ===
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]]). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the {{ic|-U}} option with {{ic|-L}}.
{{Note|If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
{{Warning|The fstab file should always be checked after generating it. If you made an EFI system partition earlier, then {{ic|genfstab}} has incorrectly added options to your EFI system partition. This will in fact ''prevent'' your computer from booting from that drive, so you need to remove all options for the EFI partition except for {{ic|noatime}}. For the other partitions that use it, be sure to replace {{ic|1="codepage=cp437"}} with {{ic|1="codepage=437"}} or else when you next reboot, any mounts with this option will fail and systemd will halt and drop into recovery mode. This should be fixed by linux 3.8}}
A few considerations:
* Only the root ({{ic|/}}) partition needs {{ic|1}} for the last field. Everything else should have either {{ic|2}} or {{ic|0}} (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
# arch-chroot /mnt
{{Note|Use {{ic|arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash}} to chroot into a bash shell.}}
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
==== Locale ====
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
# locale-gen
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file doesn't exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
{{Note|If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
# echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
To use other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, first run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
{{Warning|Using the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.}}
==== Console font and keymap ====
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
* Possible option {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. Removing it or leaving it blank is safe.
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
==== Time zone ====
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
To view the available <Zone>, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
==== Hardware clock ====
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
To synchronize your "UTC" time over the internet, see [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]].
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC in Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''.
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and disable any time-related services, like [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]] . This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight saving time|DST]] kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
==== Kernel modules ====
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
==== Hostname ====
Set the [[Wikipedia:hostname|hostname]] to your liking (e.g. ''arch''):
# echo ''myhostname'' > /etc/hostname
{{Note|There is no need to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}.}}
=== Configure the network ===
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish an internet connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Network Configuration]] and [[Wireless Setup]].}}
==== Wired ====
; Dynamic IP
{{Warning|A bug has been noted in the install ISO, in which the name your interface has during installation differs from the one it will have upon reboot. See [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/33923 Bug #33923] for more details.
Until this bug is fixed, you can use the following script to find the name your interface will have after boot:
  for i in /sys/class/net/*; do
    echo "&#61;&#61;$i"
    udevadm test-builtin net_id "$i";
  done 2>/dev/null
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service. Where <interface> is your wired interface:
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@<interface>.service
Alternatively, you can use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:
Install {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which is required for {{ic|net-auto-wired}}:
# pacman -S ifplugd
Edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}} and modify the network interface name, most likely it is not eth0. You can find out more about the naming in the warning above.
{{hc|nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wired}} service.
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
; Static IP
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/network.d}}:
# cd /etc/network.d
# cp examples/ethernet-static .
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|INTERFACE}}, {{ic|ADDR}}, {{ic|GATEWAY}} and {{ic|DNS}}):
# nano ethernet-static
Edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}} and add the new network profile to the {{ic|NETWORKS}} array:
{{hc|nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|
Enable the {{ic|netcfg}} service:
# systemctl enable netcfg.service
==== Wireless ====
You will need to install additional programs to be able to configure and manage wireless network profiles for [[netcfg]].
[[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are other popular alternatives.
* Install the required packages:
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog
If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. For example:
# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
* After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu <interface>}} (where {{ic|<interface>}} is the interface of your wireless chipset), which will generate a profile file in {{ic|/etc/network.d}} named after the SSID. There are also templates available in {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} for manual configuration.
# wifi-menu <interface>
{{Warning|If you're using {{ic|wifi-menu}}, this must be done *after* your reboot when you're no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the templates previously mentioned so that you don't have to worry about using {{ic|wifi-menu}} at all.}}
* Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
{{Note|[[Netcfg]] also provides {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which can be used in conjunction with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}.}}
* Make sure that the correct wireless interface (e.g. {{ic|wlp3s0}}) is set in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
{{hc|# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
=== Configure pacman ===
Pacman is the Arch Linux '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use it. Read {{ic|man pacman}}, have a look at the [[pacman]] and [[Pacman - An Introduction]] articles, or check out the [[Pacman Rosetta]] article for a comparison to other popular package managers.
For repository selections and pacman options, edit {{ic|pacman.conf}}:
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
Most people will want to use {{ic|[core]}}, {{ic|[extra]}} and {{ic|[community]}}.
If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, it's recommended that you enable the {{ic|[multilib]}} repository, as well (to be able to run both 32 bit and 64 bit applications):
{{Note|When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the {{ic|[''repo_name'']}} header lines, as well as the lines below. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error. A correct example for the multilib repository is found below.}}
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
You will then need to update the package list by running {{ic|pacman}} with the {{ic|-Sy}} switch. Failing to do so will generate "warning: database file for 'multilib' does not exist" error when next using pacman.
See [[Official Repositories]] for more information, including details about the purpose of each repository.
For software unavailable directly through pacman, see [[Arch User Repository]].
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
# mkinitcpio -p linux
{{Note|Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using {{ic|virt-manager}}) may need {{ic|virtio}} modules in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}} to be able to boot.
{{hc|# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"}}}}
=== Set the root password ===
Set the root password with:
# passwd
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and [[LILO]]. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
{{Note|Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
===== Syslinux =====
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
{{Note|If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package, as well ({{ic|pacman -S gptfdisk}}), because it contains {{ic|sgdisk}}, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.}}
# pacman -S syslinux
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as in [[#Prepare the storage drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
LABEL arch
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
===== GRUB =====
Install the {{Pkg|grub-bios}} package and then run {{ic|grub-install /dev/sda}}:
{{Note|Change {{ic|/dev/sda}} to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use {{ic|sda''X''}}).}}
{{Note|For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a "[[GRUB2#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]".}}
# pacman -S grub-bios
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB2]].
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type {{ic|EF00}}) must be present and mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.
While there are other [[UEFI Bootloaders|UEFI bootloaders]] available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB.
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.}}
===== EFISTUB =====
The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}. The below steps set up rEFInd (a fork of rEFIt) to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. You can also use [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using gummiboot|gummiboot]] instead of rEFInd, however, gummiboot requires kernel 3.8 which is still in testing. Both rEFInd and gummiboot can detect Windows UEFI bootloader in case of dual-boot.
1. Boot in UEFI mode and load {{ic|efivars}} kernel module before chrooting:
# modprobe efivars      # before chrooting
2. Mount the UEFISYS partition at {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}}, chroot and [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Setting_up_EFISTUB|copy the kernel and initramfs files]] as described below.
* Create {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/}} directory.
* Copy {{ic|/boot/vmlinuz-linux}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi}}. The {{ic|.efi}} file extension is very important as some UEFI firmwares refuse to launch a file without this extension. '''Important:''' Remember that the file is called vmlinu'''z''', but not vmlinu'''x'''.
* Copy {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux.img}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img}}.
* Copy {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img}}.
Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in {{ic|/boot}}, they need to be updated in {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch}}. This can be automated [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Systemd|using systemd]].
3. In this guide you set up a bootloader GUI called rEFInd. Alternative bootloaders can be found on the page [[UEFI Bootloaders#Booting EFISTUB]].
For the recommended rEFInd bootloader install the following packages:
# pacman -S refind-efi efibootmgr
4. Install rEFInd to the UEFISYS partition (summarized from [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd]]):
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/refind
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind.conf
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/refind/icons
5. Create a {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:
{{hc|# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf|2=
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"}}
{{Note|{{ic|refind_linux.conf}} is copied in the directory {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/}} where the initramfs and the kernel have been copied to in step 2. }}
{{Note|In {{ic|refind_linux.conf}}, sdaX refers to your root file system, not your boot partition, if you created them separately. }}
6. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]].
{{Warning|Using {{ic|efibootmgr}} on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use {{AUR|mactel-boot}}, or "bless" from within Mac OS X.}}
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "rEFInd" -l '\EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi'
{{Note|In the above command, X and Y denote the drive and partition of the UEFISYS partition. For example, in {{ic|/dev/sdc5}}, X is "c" and Y is "5".}}
7. (Optional) As a fallback, in case {{ic|efibootmgr}} created boot entry does not work, copy {{ic|refind_x64.efi}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi}} as follows:
# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi
===== GRUB =====
{{Note|In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Macs, install {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead, and use {{ic|1=--target=i386-efi}}.}}
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
The next command creates a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. However, as of {{Pkg|grub-efi-x86_64}} version 2.00, {{ic|grub-install}} tries to create a menu entry, so running {{ic|efibootmgr}} may not be necessary. See [[UEFI#efibootmgr]] for more info.
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\EFI\arch_grub\grubx64.efi'
Next, while using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
Exit from the chroot environment:
# exit
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
Reboot the computer:
# reboot
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}<noinclude>
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 11:34, 23 August 2016

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