Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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(→‎Example: Advise to use plain lsblk first, since it includes the SIZE column, which lsblk -f does not. I think we can get away without mentioning the -o <columnlist> option, because "lsblk" / "lsblk -f" combination includes all the important columns.)
(#REDIRECT Installation guide, merge completed, see Talk:Installation_guide#BG_merge)
 
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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#REDIRECT [[Installation guide]]
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{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related|:Category:Accessibility}}
 
{{Related|Installation guide}}
 
{{Related|Diskless system}}
 
{{Related|Install from SSH}}
 
{{Related|General recommendations}}
 
{{Related|General troubleshooting}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
This document will guide you through the process of installing [[Arch Linux]] using the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/ Arch Install Scripts]. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the [[FAQ]].
 
 
 
The community-maintained [[Main page|ArchWiki]] is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The [[IRC channel]] (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with [[the Arch Way]], you are encouraged to type {{ic|man ''command''}} to read the {{ic|man}} page of any command you are unfamiliar with.
 
 
 
== Preparation ==
 
 
 
{{Note|If you wish to install from an existing GNU/Linux distribution, please see [[Install from Existing Linux]]. This can be useful particularly if you plan to install Arch via [[VNC]] or [[SSH]] remotely. Users seeking to perform the Arch Linux installation remotely via an [[SSH]] connection should read [[Install from SSH]] for additional tips.}}
 
 
 
=== System requirements ===
 
 
 
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 64 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. If you are working with limited space, this can be trimmed down considerably, but you will have to know what you are doing.
 
 
 
=== Prepare the latest installation medium ===
 
 
 
The latest release of the installation media can be obtained from the [https://archlinux.org/download/ Download] page. Note that the single ISO image supports both 32 and 64-bit architectures. It is highly recommended to always use the latest ISO image.
 
 
 
{{Tip|The [https://downloads.archlinux.de/iso/archboot/latest archboot] ISO images can take several steps explained in this guide [[Archboot#Interactive_setup_features|interactively]]. See [[Archboot]] for details.}}
 
 
 
* Install images are signed and it is highly recommended to verify their signature before use. Dowload the ''.sig'' file from the download page (or one of the mirrors listed there) to the same directory as the ''.iso'' file. On Arch Linux, use {{ic|pacman-key -v ''iso-file''.sig}} as root; in other environments make use, still as root, of gpg2 directly with {{ic|gpg2 --verify ''iso-file''.sig}}. The file integrity checksums md5 and sha1 are also provided {{Note|The gpg2 verification will fail if you have not downloaded the public key corresponding to the RSA key ID. See http://sparewotw.wordpress.com/2012/10/31/how-to-verify-signature-using-sig-file/ for details}}
 
* Burn the ISO image on a CD or DVD with your preferred software. On Arch, that is covered in [[Optical disc drive#Burning]] <br> {{Note|The quality of optical drives and the discs themselves varies greatly. Generally, using a slow burn speed is recommended for reliable burns. If you are experiencing unexpected behaviour from the disc, try burning at the lowest speed supported by your burner}}
 
* Or you can write the ISO image to a USB stick. For detailed instructions, see [[USB flash installation media]]
 
 
 
==== Installing over the network ====
 
 
 
Instead of writing the boot media to a disc or USB stick, you may alternatively boot the ISO image over the network. This works well when you already have a server set up. Please see the [[PXE]] article for more information, and then continue to [[#Boot the installation medium]].
 
 
 
==== Install from an existing Linux system ====
 
 
 
Alternatively, it is possible to install from an already running Linux system. See [[Install from Existing Linux]].
 
 
 
==== Installing on a virtual machine ====
 
 
 
Installing on a [[Wikipedia:Virtual machine|virtual machine]] is a good way to become familiar with Arch Linux and its installation procedure without leaving your current operating system and repartitioning the storage drive. It will also let you keep this Beginners' Guide open in your browser throughout the installation. Some users may find it beneficial to have an independent Arch Linux system on a virtual drive, for testing purposes.
 
 
 
Examples of virtualization software are [[VirtualBox]], [[VMware]], [[QEMU]], [[Xen]], [[Parallels]].
 
 
 
The exact procedure for preparing a virtual machine depends on the software, but will generally follow these steps:
 
 
 
# Create the virtual disk image that will host the operating system.
 
# Properly configure the virtual machine parameters.
 
# Boot the downloaded ISO image with a virtual CD drive.
 
# Continue with [[#Boot the installation medium|Boot the installation medium]].
 
 
 
The following articles may be helpful:
 
 
 
* [[VirtualBox#Installation steps for Arch Linux guests|Arch Linux as VirtualBox guest]]
 
* [[Installing Arch Linux from VirtualBox]]
 
* [[VirtualBox Arch Linux Guest On Physical Drive|Arch Linux as VirtualBox guest on a physical drive]]
 
* [[Installing Arch Linux in VMware|Arch Linux as VMware guest]]
 
* [[Moving an existing install into (or out of) a virtual machine]]
 
 
 
==== Boot the installation medium ====
 
 
 
Most modern systems allow you to select the boot device during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase, usually by pressing the {{ic|F12}} key while the BIOS splash screen is visible.  Select the device which contains the Arch ISO. Alternatively, you may need to change the boot order in your computer's BIOS.
 
 
 
To do this, press a key (usually {{ic|Delete}}, {{ic|F1}}, {{ic|F2}}, {{ic|F11}} or {{ic|F12}}) during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase. This will take you into the BIOS settings screen where you can set the order in which the system searches for devices to boot from. Set the device which contains the Arch ISO as the first device from which boot is attempted. Select "Save & Exit" (or your BIOS's equivalent) and the computer should then complete its normal boot process.
 
 
 
When the Arch menu appears, select "Boot Arch Linux" and press {{ic|Enter}} to enter the live environment where you will run the actual installation (if booting from a UEFI boot disk, the option may look more like "Arch Linux archiso x86_64 UEFI").
 
 
 
===== Testing if you are booted into UEFI mode =====
 
 
 
In case you have a [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface|UEFI]] motherboard and UEFI Boot mode is enabled (and is preferred over BIOS/Legacy mode), the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via [[Gummiboot]] and you will get the following menu (white letters on black background), with the first item highlighted:
 
{{bc|
 
Arch Linux archiso x86_64 UEFI USB
 
UEFI Shell x86_64 v1
 
UEFI Shell x86_64 v2
 
EFI Default Loader}}
 
 
 
If you do not remember which menu you had at boot time, or if you want to make sure you booted into UEFI mode, run:
 
 
 
# efivar -l
 
 
 
If ''efivar'' lists the UEFI variables properly, then you have booted in UEFI mode. If not check whether all the requirements listed in [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Requirements for UEFI Variables support to work properly|Unified Extensible Firmware Interface]] are met.
 
 
 
==== Troubleshooting boot problems ====
 
 
 
* If you are using an Intel video chipset and the screen goes blank during the boot process, the problem is likely an issue with [[Kernel mode setting]]. A possible workaround may be achieved by rebooting and pressing {{ic|Tab}} over the entry that you are trying to boot (i686 or x86_64). At the end of the string type {{ic|nomodeset}} and press {{ic|Enter}}. Alternatively, try {{ic|1=video=SVIDEO-1:d}} which, if it works, will not disable kernel mode setting. You can also try {{ic|1=i915.modeset=0}}. See the [[Intel]] article for more information.
 
* If the screen does ''not'' go blank and the boot process gets stuck while trying to load the kernel, press {{ic|Tab}} while hovering over the menu entry, type {{ic|1=acpi=off}} at the end of the string and press {{ic|Enter}}.
 
 
 
== Installation ==
 
 
 
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root. Your shell is [[Zsh]]; this will provide you advanced Tab completion, and other features as part of the [http://grml.org/zsh/ grml config].
 
For editing text files, the console editor ''nano'' is suggested. If you are not familiar with it, see [[nano#nano usage]].
 
If you have (or plan on having) a dual boot setup with Windows, see [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot]].
 
 
 
=== Change the language ===
 
 
 
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language. Changes here ''only'' affect the installation process.}}
 
 
 
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
 
 
 
# loadkeys ''layout''
 
 
 
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|dvorak}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See this [[Wikipedia:ISO 3166-1 alpha-2#Officially assigned code elements|wikipedia article]] for a 2-letter country code list. Use the command {{ic|localectl list-keymaps}} to list all available keymaps.
 
 
 
If some glyphs of your language's alphabet (e.g. accented and non Latin letters) show up as white squares or as other symbols, you may want to change the console font with one from {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. For example:
 
 
 
# setfont lat9w-16
 
 
 
You can run the {{ic|showconsolefont}} command to display the full contents of the loaded font. Note that the font name is case-sensitive, so type it ''exactly'' as you see it. See [[Fonts#Console fonts]] for more information.
 
 
 
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [[locale]] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entries:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
 
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
 
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
 
}}
 
 
 
# locale-gen
 
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
 
 
 
=== Establish an internet connection ===
 
 
 
{{Warning|As of [http://cgit.freedesktop.org/systemd/systemd/tree/NEWS?id&#61;dee4c244254bb49d1ffa8bd7171ae9cce596d2d0 v197], udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the ''wlanX'' and ''ethX'' naming scheme. If you are coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named ''wlan0'', or that your wired interface is named ''eth0''. You can use the command {{ic|ip link}} to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
 
 
 
{{Note|Since the ISO released on 2014.04 (but maybe even on previous ones) there seems to be a problem in getting an IP address with DHCP if you are using the family of routers "FritzBox!". At this time models 7390[http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/126526/archlinux-2014-04-64bit-and-connectivity-problem-during-instalation] and 7112[https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/126694/enabling-wired-internet-connection-with-dhcp-during-arch-linux-installation/126709] seem to have this issue, but other models may be affected. The issue seems to be between the [[dhcpcd]] client and the FritzBox! routers and the way they assign IP addresses. The solution to the problem seems to be as follows: in your FritzBox! settings, manually delete the entry related to the IP address that identifies your machine. Also, disable the option "Assign always the same IP address to this machine". Now restart the DHCP process or simply reboot your computer and you should get an IP address as usual. If it does not work, try also to reboot your FritzBox!. Once your computer gets the IP address, you can re-enable the previously disabled option. }}
 
 
 
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon starts automatically during boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection. Try to ping a server to see if a connection was established. For example, Google's webservers:
 
 
 
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
 
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
 
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
 
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
 
 
 
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
 
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
 
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms
 
}}
 
 
 
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, first check if there is an issue with your cable or wireless signal strength. If not, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below. Once a connection is established move on to [[#Prepare the storage drive]].
 
 
 
==== Wired ====
 
 
 
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
 
 
 
First, disable the dhcpcd service which was started automatically at boot:
 
 
 
# systemctl stop dhcpcd.service
 
 
 
Identify the name of your Ethernet interface.
 
 
 
{{hc|# ip link|
 
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
 
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
 
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
 
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 
}}
 
 
 
In this example, the Ethernet interface is {{ic|enp2s0f0}}. If you are unsure, your Ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w".
 
 
 
You also need to know these settings:
 
 
 
* Static IP address.
 
* Subnet mask.
 
* Gateway's IP address.
 
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
 
* Domain name (unless you are on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
 
 
 
Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. {{ic|enp2s0f0}}):
 
 
 
# ip link set enp2s0f0 up
 
 
 
Add the address:
 
 
 
# ip addr add ''ip_address''/''mask_bits'' dev ''interface_name''
 
 
 
For example:
 
 
 
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev enp2s0f0
 
 
 
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
 
 
 
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
 
 
 
# ip route add default via ''ip_address''
 
 
 
For example:
 
 
 
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
 
 
 
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
 
nameserver 61.23.173.5
 
nameserver 61.95.849.8
 
search example.com
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of three {{ic|nameserver}} lines. In order to overcome this limitation, you can use a locally caching nameserver like [[dnsmasq]].}}
 
 
 
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Network configuration]] page.
 
 
 
==== Wireless ====
 
 
 
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
 
 
 
First, identify the name of your wireless interface:
 
 
 
{{hc|# iw dev|2=
 
phy#0
 
        Interface wlp3s0
 
                ifindex 3
 
                wdev 0x1
 
                addr 00:11:22:33:44:55
 
                type managed
 
}}
 
 
 
In this example, {{ic|wlp3s0}} is the available wireless interface. If you are unsure, your wireless interface is likely to start with the letter "w", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "e".
 
 
 
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless network configuration]] for more detailed information.}}
 
 
 
Now use [[netctl]]'s {{ic|wifi-menu}} to connect to a network:
 
 
 
# wifi-menu wlp3s0
 
 
 
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, try [[#Without wifi-menu]] or check the detailed [[Wireless network configuration]] page.
 
 
 
===== Without wifi-menu =====
 
 
 
Bring the interface up with:
 
 
 
# ip link set wlp3s0 up
 
 
 
To verify that the interface is up, inspect the output of the following command:
 
 
 
{{hc|# ip link show wlp3s0|
 
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state DOWN mode DORMANT group default qlen 1000
 
    link/ether 00:11:22:33:44:55 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 
}}
 
 
 
The {{ic|UP}} in {{ic|<BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP>}} is what indicates the interface is up, not the later {{ic|state DOWN}}.
 
 
 
Most wireless chipsets require firmware in addition to a corresponding driver. The kernel tries to identify and load both automatically. If you get output like {{ic|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}, this means you will need to manually load the firmware. If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset. For example, if you have an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
 
 
 
{{hc|<nowiki># dmesg | grep firmware</nowiki>|
 
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode
 
}}
 
 
 
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
 
 
 
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless network configuration]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
 
 
 
Next, scan for available networks using {{ic|iw dev wlp3s0 scan <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep SSID}}, then connect to a network with:
 
 
 
# wpa_supplicant -B -i wlp3s0 -c <(wpa_passphrase "''ssid''" "''psk''")
 
 
 
You need to replace ''ssid'' with the name of your network (e.g. "Linksys etc...") and ''psk'' with your wireless password, '''leaving the quotes around the network name and password'''.
 
 
 
Finally, you have to give your interface an IP address. This can be set manually or using dhcp:
 
 
 
# dhcpcd wlp3s0
 
 
 
If that does not work, issue the following commands:
 
 
 
# echo 'ctrl_interface=DIR=/run/wpa_supplicant' > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
 
# wpa_passphrase ''ssid'' ''passphrase'' >> /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
 
# ip link set ''interface'' up
 
# wpa_supplicant -B -D nl80211 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -i ''interface''
 
# dhcpcd -A ''interface''
 
 
 
Setting the interface up at step 3 may not be needed, but does no harm in any case.
 
 
 
If ''wpa_supplicant'' complains about an unsupported driver at step 4, just leave out the {{ic|-D nl80211}} parameter:
 
 
 
# wpa_supplicant -B -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf -i ''interface''
 
 
 
==== Analog modem, ISDN, or PPPoE DSL ====
 
 
 
For xDSL, dial-up, and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
 
 
 
==== Behind a proxy server ====
 
 
 
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. See [[Proxy settings]] for more information.
 
 
 
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
 
 
 
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
 
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
 
{{Tip|If you want to create any stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[disk encryption]] or [[RAID]], do it now.}}
 
 
 
==== Choose a partition table type ====
 
 
 
{{Note|If Arch and Windows are dual-booting from same disk, then Arch '''should''' follow the same firmware boot mode and partitioning combination used by the installed Windows in the disk. Otherwise Windows will fail to boot. See [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot#Important information]] for details.}}
 
 
 
You have to choose between [[GUID Partition Table]] (GPT) and [[Master Boot Record]] (MBR), see also [[Partitioning#Choosing between GPT and MBR]].
 
 
 
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.
 
* Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.
 
 
 
==== Partitioning tool ====
 
 
 
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [[GParted]] is a good example, and is [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php provided as a live CD]. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and afterwards the partitions should be formatted with a [[File systems|file system]].
 
 
 
While ''gparted'' may be easier to use, if you just want to create a few partitions on a new disk you can get the job done quickly by just using one of the [[Partitioning#Partitioning tools|fdisk variants]] which are included on the install medium. In the next section short usage instructions for both [[Partitioning#Gdisk usage summary|gdisk]] and [[Partitioning#Fdisk usage summary|fdisk]] follow.
 
 
 
==== Erase partition table ====
 
 
 
If you want to start from scratch, and do not intend to keep existing partitions, erase the partition table with the following command. This simplifies creating new partitions and avoids problems with converting disks from MBR to GPT and vice versa.
 
 
 
# sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
 
 
 
==== Partition scheme ====
 
 
 
You can decide into how many partitions the disk should be split, and for which directory each partition should be used in the system. The mapping from partitions to directories (frequently called 'mount points') is the [[Partitioning#Partition scheme|Partition scheme]]. The simplest, and not a bad choice, is to make just one huge {{ic|/}} partition. Another popular choice is to have a {{ic|/}} and a {{ic|/home}} partition.
 
 
 
'''Additional required partitions:'''
 
* If you have a [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface|UEFI]] motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]].
 
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]] of size 1 or 2 MiB and {{ic|EF02}} type code. Syslinux does not need one.
 
* If you have a requirement for a [[Disk encryption]] of the system itself, this must be reflected in your partition scheme. It is unproblematic to add encrypted folders, containers or home directories after the system is installed.
 
 
 
See [[Swap]] for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or swap file. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a Btrfs filesystem.
 
 
 
If you have already created your partitions, proceed to [[#Create filesystems]]. Otherwise, see the following example.
 
 
 
==== Example ====
 
 
 
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: {{ic|fdisk}}, {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cfdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}} and {{ic|parted}}.
 
 
 
{{Tip|Use the {{ic|lsblk}} command to list the hard disks attached to your system, along with the sizes of their existing partitions. This will help you to be confident you are partitioning the right disk. {{ic|lsblk -f}} will show additional information about Labels, UUIDs and filesystem types.}}
 
 
 
The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a [[Partitioning#/home|home]] partition for the remaining space. Choose either MBR or GPT, as described above. Do not choose both!
 
 
 
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
 
 
 
===== Using cgdisk to create GPT partitions =====
 
 
 
Launch ''cgdisk'' with:
 
 
 
# cgdisk /dev/sda
 
 
 
{{Tip|If cgdisk cannot change your disk to GPT, {{pkg|parted}} can.}}
 
 
 
'''Root:'''
 
* Choose ''New'' (or press {{ic|N}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the first sector (2048) – type in {{ic|15G}} – {{ic|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{ic|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
 
 
 
'''Home:'''
 
* Press the down arrow a couple of times to move to the larger free space area.
 
* Choose ''New'' (or press {{ic|N}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the first sector – {{ic|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size; for example {{ic|30G}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{ic|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
 
 
 
Here is what it should look like:
 
 
 
Part. #    Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
 
----------------------------------------------------------------
 
            1007.0 KiB  free space
 
    1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
 
    2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem
 
 
 
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
 
 
 
If you would like to start over, you can simply select ''Quit'' (or press {{ic|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart ''cgdisk''.
 
 
 
If you are satisfied, choose ''Write'' (or press {{ic|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type {{ic|yes}} and choose ''Quit'' (or press {{ic|Q}}) to exit without making any more changes.
 
 
 
===== Using fdisk to create MBR partitions =====
 
 
 
{{Note|There is also ''cfdisk'', which is similar in UI to ''cgdisk'', but it currently does not automatically align the first partition properly. That is why the classic ''fdisk'' tool is used here.}}
 
 
 
Launch ''fdisk'' with:
 
 
 
# fdisk /dev/sda
 
 
 
Create the partition table:
 
 
 
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|o}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
 
 
Then create the first partition:
 
 
 
# {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|n}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# Partition type: {{ic|Select (default p):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|Partition number (1-4, default 1):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|First sector (2048-209715199, default 2048):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (2048-209715199....., default 209715199):}} type {{ic|+15G}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
 
 
Then create a second partition:
 
 
 
# {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|n}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# Partition type: {{ic|Select (default p):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|Partition number (1-4, default 2):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|First sector (31459328-209715199, default 31459328):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
# {{ic|Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (31459328-209715199....., default 209715199):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
 
 
 
Now preview the new partition table:
 
 
 
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|p}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
 
 
{{bc|
 
Disk /dev/sda: 107.4 GB, 107374182400 bytes, 209715200 sectors
 
Units &#61; sectors of 1 * 512 &#61; 512 bytes
 
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
 
Disk identifier: 0x5698d902
 
 
 
  Device Boot    Start        End    Blocks  Id  System
 
/dev/sda1          2048    31459327  15728640  83  Linux
 
/dev/sda2      31459328  209715199  89127936  83  Linux
 
}}
 
 
 
Then write the changes to disk:
 
 
 
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|w}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
 
 
 
If everything went well fdisk will now quit with the following message:
 
 
 
{{bc|
 
The partition table has been altered!
 
 
 
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
 
Syncing disks.
 
}}
 
 
 
In case this does not work because ''fdisk'' encountered an error, you can use the {{ic|q}} command to exit.
 
 
 
==== Create filesystems ====
 
 
 
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
 
 
 
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it is actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} and {{ic|/dev/sda2}} that you want to format. You can use {{ic|lsblk}} to help with this.}}
 
 
 
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
 
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
 
 
 
If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), do not forget to format and activate it with:
 
 
 
# mkswap /dev/sda''X''
 
# swapon /dev/sda''X''
 
 
 
For UEFI, you should format the EFI System Partition (for example /dev/sd''XY'') with:
 
 
 
# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sd''XY''
 
 
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
 
 
 
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
 
 
 
To display the current partition layout:
 
 
 
# lsblk -f
 
 
 
{{Note|Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.}}
 
 
 
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example above (yours may be different), it would be:
 
 
 
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
 
 
 
Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
 
 
 
# mkdir /mnt/home
 
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home
 
 
 
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the EFI System Partition to {{ic|/boot}}. Whilst other mountpoints are viable, using {{ic|/boot}} is recommended as explained in the [[EFISTUB]] article.
 
 
 
# mkdir /mnt/boot
 
# mount /dev/sd''XY'' /mnt/boot
 
 
 
=== Select a mirror ===
 
 
 
You may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it is worth getting it right.
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
 
##
 
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
 
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
 
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
 
##
 
 
 
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
 
...}}
 
 
 
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by deleting all other lines, but it is usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
 
 
 
{{Tip|
 
* Use the [https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, ''pacman'' has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
 
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Note|
 
* Whenever in the future you change your mirrorlist, refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}, to ensure that the package lists are updated consistently. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
 
* If you are using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
 
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent ''pacman'' from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default ''pacman'' file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve pacman performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Install the base system ===
 
 
 
The base system is installed using the ''pacstrap'' script. The {{ic|-i}} switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the {{Grp|base}} group without prompting. You may also want to include {{Grp|base-devel}}, as you will need these packages should you want to build packages from the [[AUR]] or using the [[ABS]]:
 
 
 
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
 
 
 
{{Note|
 
* If ''pacstrap'' hangs with {{ic|error: failed retrieving file 'core.db' from mirror... : Connection time-out}}, yet your mirrors are configured correctly, try setting a different [[Resolv.conf|name server]].
 
* If in the middle of the installation of base packages you get a request to import a PGP key, agree to download the key to proceed. This is likely to happen if the Arch ISO you are using is out of date.
 
* If ''pacman'' fails to verify your packages, stop the process with {{ic|Ctrl+C}} and check the system time with {{ic|cal}}. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows the year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, using the command {{ic|ntpd -qg}}, and retry running the ''pacstrap'' command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.
 
* If ''pacman'' complains that {{ic|error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)}}, run the following command:
 
# pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux
 
}}
 
 
 
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
 
 
 
=== Generate an fstab ===
 
 
 
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]]). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the {{ic|-U}} option with {{ic|-L}}:
 
 
 
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
 
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
 
 
 
{{Warning|The {{ic|fstab}} file should always be checked after generating it. If you encounter errors running ''genfstab'' or later in the install process, do '''not''' run ''genfstab'' again; just edit the {{ic|fstab}} file.}}
 
 
 
A few considerations:
 
 
 
* The last field determines the order in which partitions are checked at start up: use {{ic|1}} for the (non-Btrfs) root partition, which should be checked first; {{ic|2}} for all other partitions you want checked at start up; and {{ic|0}} means 'do not check' (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
 
* All [[Btrfs]] partitions should have {{ic|0}} for this field. Normally, you will also want your ''swap'' partition to have {{ic|0}}.
 
 
 
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
 
 
 
Next, [[Change Root|chroot]] into your newly installed system:
 
 
 
# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
 
 
 
{{Note|Leave out {{ic|/bin/bash}} to chroot into the sh shell.}}
 
 
 
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
 
 
 
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
 
 
 
==== Locale ====
 
 
 
Locales are used by {{Pkg|glibc}} and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards. There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
 
 
 
The {{ic|locale.gen}} file has everything commented out by default. To uncomment a line remove the {{ic|#}} in the front. Using {{ic|UTF-8}} is highly recommended over {{ic|ISO-8859}}:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
 
...
 
#en_SG ISO-8859-1
 
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
 
#en_US ISO-8859-1
 
...
 
}}
 
 
 
Generate the locale(s) specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}:
 
 
 
# locale-gen
 
 
 
{{Note|This will also run with every update of {{Pkg|glibc}}.}}
 
 
 
Create the {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}} file substituting your chosen locale:
 
 
 
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
 
 
 
{{Note|
 
* The locale specified in the {{ic|LANG}} variable must be uncommented in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
 
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file does not exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough as it will act as the default value for all other variables.
 
}}
 
 
 
Export substituting your chosen locale:
 
 
 
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
 
 
 
{{Tip|To use other locales for other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options and add them to {{ic|locale.conf}}. It is not recommended to set the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable. See [[Locale#Setting the locale system-wide]] for details.}}
 
 
 
==== Console font and keymap ====
 
 
 
If you changed the default console keymap and font in [[#Change the language]], you will have to edit {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}} ''accordingly'' (create it if it does not exist) to make those changes persist in the installed system, for example:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
 
KEYMAP=de-latin1
 
FONT=lat9w-16
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Warning|If you set {{ic|KEYMAP}} to a different value than the one you initially set with ''loadkeys'', and then you [[#Set the root password]], you may have problems logging into the new system after rebooting, because some keys may be mapped differently between the two layouts.}}
 
 
 
Note that these settings are only valid for your virtual consoles, not in [[Xorg]]. See [[Fonts#Console fonts]] for more information.
 
 
 
==== Time zone ====
 
 
 
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone''}} directories.
 
 
 
To view the available zones, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
 
 
 
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
 
 
 
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a subzone:
 
 
 
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
 
 
 
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your subzone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone''}} using this command:
 
 
 
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone'' /etc/localtime
 
 
 
'''Example:'''
 
 
 
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
 
 
 
{{Note|If you get {{ic|ln: failed to create symbolic link '/etc/localtime': File exists}}, check the existing file with {{ic|ls -l /etc/localtime}} and add the {{ic|-f}} option to the ''ln'' command to overwrite it.}}
 
 
 
==== Hardware clock ====
 
 
 
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
 
 
 
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
 
 
 
* '''UTC''' (recommended): {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}} {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
 
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows): {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}} {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
 
 
 
==== Kernel modules ====
 
 
 
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
 
 
 
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
 
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
 
 
 
virtio-net
 
}}
 
 
 
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Installation steps for Arch Linux guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
 
 
 
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
 
 
 
==== Hostname ====
 
 
 
Set the [[Wikipedia:Hostname|hostname]] to your liking (e.g. ''arch''):
 
 
 
# echo ''myhostname'' > /etc/hostname
 
 
 
Add the same hostname to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/hosts|
 
#
 
# /etc/hosts: static lookup table for host names
 
#
 
 
 
#<ip-address> <hostname.domain.org> <hostname>
 
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ''myhostname''
 
::1 localhost.localdomain localhost
 
 
 
# End of file
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Configure the network ===
 
 
 
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish an internet connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
 
 
 
As a first step, identify the network interface name you want to configure the connection for with {{ic|ip link}}.
 
 
 
{{Note|
 
* For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Network configuration]] and [[Wireless network configuration]].
 
* If you would like to use the old interface naming scheme (ie. eth* and wlan*) you can accomplish this by creating an empty file at {{ic|/etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-setup-link.rules}} which will mask the file of the same name located under {{ic|/usr/lib/udev/rules.d}}.
 
}}
 
 
 
==== Wired ====
 
 
 
===== Dynamic IP =====
 
 
 
; Using dhcpcd
 
 
 
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service for the interface:
 
 
 
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface_name''.service
 
 
 
; Using netctl
 
 
 
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
 
 
 
# cd /etc/netctl
 
# cp examples/ethernet-dhcp my_network
 
 
 
Edit the profile as needed (update {{ic|Interface}} from {{ic|eth0}} to the interface name of the system.
 
# nano my_network
 
 
 
Enable the {{ic|my_network}} profile:
 
 
 
# netctl enable my_network
 
 
 
{{Note|You will get the message "Running in chroot, ignoring request.". This can be ignored for now.}}
 
 
 
; Using netctl-ifplugd
 
 
 
{{Warning|You cannot use this method in conjunction with explicitly enabling profiles, such as {{ic|netctl enable ''profile''}}.}}
 
 
 
Alternatively, you can use {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks.
 
 
 
Install {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which is required for {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}:
 
 
 
# pacman -S ifplugd
 
 
 
Then enable for interface that you want:
 
 
 
# systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@''interface''.service
 
 
 
{{Tip|[[netctl]] also provides {{ic|netctl-auto}}, which can be used to handle wired profiles in conjunction with {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}.}}
 
 
 
===== Static IP =====
 
 
 
; Using netctl
 
 
 
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
 
 
 
# cd /etc/netctl
 
# cp examples/ethernet-static my_network
 
 
 
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}, {{ic|Address}}, {{ic|Gateway}} and {{ic|DNS}}):
 
 
 
# nano my_network
 
 
 
Notice the {{ic|/24}} in {{ic|Address}} which is the [[wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing#CIDR notation|CIDR notation]] of a {{ic|255.255.255.0}} netmask.
 
 
 
Enable above created profile to start it at every boot:
 
 
 
# netctl enable my_network
 
 
 
; Using systemd-networkd
 
 
 
See [[systemd-networkd]].
 
 
 
==== Wireless ====
 
 
 
{{Note|If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also in the article [[Wireless network configuration#Device driver]]), install the package containing your firmware. Most of the time, the {{Pkg|linux-firmware}} package will contain the needed firmware. Though for some devices, the required firmware might be in its own package. For example:
 
{{bc|# pacman -S zd1211-firmware}}
 
See [[Wireless network configuration#Installing driver/firmware]] for more info.}}
 
 
 
Install {{Pkg|iw}} and {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} which you will need to connect to a network:
 
 
 
# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant
 
 
 
===== Adding wireless networks =====
 
 
 
; Using wifi-menu
 
 
 
Install {{Pkg|dialog}}, which is required for {{ic|wifi-menu}}:
 
 
 
# pacman -S dialog
 
 
 
After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu ''interface_name''}} (where {{ic|''interface_name''}} is the interface of your wireless chipset).
 
 
 
# wifi-menu ''interface_name''
 
 
 
{{Warning|This must be done '''after''' your reboot when you are no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the following templates so that you do not have to worry about using {{ic|wifi-menu}} at all.}}
 
 
 
; Using manual netctl profiles
 
 
 
Copy a network profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
 
 
 
# cd /etc/netctl
 
# cp examples/wireless-wpa my-network
 
 
 
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}, {{ic|ESSID}} and {{ic|Key}}):
 
 
 
# nano my-network
 
 
 
Enable above created profile to start it at every boot:
 
 
 
# netctl enable my-network
 
 
 
===== Connect automatically to known networks =====
 
 
 
{{Warning|You cannot use this method in conjunction with explicitly enabling profiles, such as {{ic|netctl enable ''profile''}}.}}
 
 
 
Install {{Pkg|wpa_actiond}}, which is required for {{ic|netctl-auto}}:
 
 
 
# pacman -S wpa_actiond
 
 
 
Enable the {{ic|netctl-auto}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
 
 
 
# systemctl enable netctl-auto@''interface_name''.service
 
 
 
{{Tip|[[netctl]] also provides {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}, which can be used to handle wired profiles in conjunction with {{ic|netctl-auto}}.}}
 
 
 
==== Analog modem, ISDN or PPPoE DSL ====
 
 
 
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
 
 
 
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
 
 
 
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with ''pacstrap''.}}
 
 
 
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, if using a multi-device Btrfs volumes as root, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
 
 
 
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
 
 
 
# mkinitcpio -p linux
 
 
 
{{Note|Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using {{ic|virt-manager}}) may need {{ic|virtio}} modules in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}} to be able to boot.
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=
 
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"
 
}}
 
}}
 
 
 
=== Set the root password ===
 
 
 
Set the root password with:
 
 
 
# passwd
 
 
 
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
 
 
 
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
 
 
 
For BIOS systems, several boot loaders are available, see [[Boot loaders]] for a complete list. Choose one as per your convenience. Here, two of the possibilities are given as examples:
 
 
 
* [[Syslinux]] is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found in the [[Syslinux#Examples|syslinux]] article.
 
* [[GRUB]] is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to 'sh' scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
 
 
 
===== Syslinux =====
 
 
 
If you opted for a GUID partition table (GPT) for your hard drive earlier, you need to install the {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package now for the installation of ''syslinux'' to work:
 
 
 
# pacman -S gptfdisk
 
 
 
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the bootloader ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
 
 
 
# pacman -S syslinux
 
# syslinux-install_update -iam
 
 
 
After installing Syslinux, configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition (if you partitioned your drive as in [[#Prepare the storage drive|the example]], your root partition is {{ic|/dev/sda1}}).
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
 
...
 
LABEL arch
 
        ...
 
        APPEND root='''/dev/sda3''' rw
 
        ...
 
}}
 
 
 
If adding [[UUID]] rather than partition number the syntax is {{ic|1=APPEND root=UUID=''partition_uuid'' rw}}.
 
 
 
Do the same for the fallback entry.
 
 
 
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
 
 
 
===== GRUB =====
 
 
 
Install the {{Pkg|grub}} package and then run {{ic|grub-install}} to install the bootloader:
 
 
 
# pacman -S grub
 
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck '''/dev/sda'''
 
 
 
{{Note|
 
* Change {{ic|/dev/sda}} to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use {{ic|sda''X''}}).
 
* For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, you also need a "BIOS Boot Partition". See [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|GPT-specific instructions]] in the GRUB page.
 
* A sample {{ic|/boot/grub/grub.cfg}} gets installed as part of the {{Pkg|grub}} package, and subsequent {{ic|grub-*}} commands may not over-write it. Ensure that your intended changes are in {{ic|grub.cfg}}, rather than in {{ic|grub.cfg.new}} or some such file.
 
}}
 
 
 
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it is recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
 
 
 
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
 
 
 
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 
 
 
{{Note|It is possible that multiple redundant menu entries will be generated. See [[GRUB#Redundant_menu_entries]].}}
 
 
 
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
 
 
 
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
 
 
 
For UEFI systems, several boot loaders are available, see [[Boot loaders]] for a complete list. Choose one as per your convenience. Here, two of the possibilities are given as examples:
 
 
 
* [[gummiboot]] is a minimal UEFI Boot Manager which provides a menu for [[EFISTUB]] kernels and other UEFI applications.
 
* [[GRUB]] is a more complete bootloader, useful if you run into problems with Gummiboot.
 
 
 
No matter which one you choose, first install the {{Pkg|dosfstools}} package, so you can manipulate your EFI System Partition after installation:
 
 
 
# pacman -S dosfstools
 
 
 
{{Note|For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned and an [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]] (512 MiB or larger, gdisk type {{ic|EF00}}, formatted with FAT32) must be present. In the following examples, this partition is assumed to be mounted at {{ic|/boot}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you have already done all of these.}}
 
 
 
===== Gummiboot =====
 
 
 
Install the {{Pkg|gummiboot}} package and run {{ic|gummiboot install}} to install the bootloader to the EFI System Partition:
 
 
 
# pacman -S gummiboot
 
# gummiboot install
 
 
 
{{Warning|Gummiboot and the Linux Kernel will not automatically update if your EFI System Partition is not mounted at {{ic|/boot}}.}}
 
 
 
You will need to manually create a configuration file to add an entry for Arch Linux to the gummiboot manager. Create {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf}} and add the following contents, replacing {{ic|/dev/sdaX}} with your '''root''' partition, usually {{ic|/dev/sda2}}:
 
 
 
{{hc|# nano /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
 
title          Arch Linux
 
linux          /vmlinuz-linux
 
initrd        /initramfs-linux.img
 
options        root='''/dev/sdaX''' rw
 
}}
 
 
 
For more information on configuring and using gummiboot, see [[gummiboot]].
 
 
 
===== GRUB =====
 
 
 
Install the {{Pkg|grub}} and {{Pkg|efibootmgr}} packages and run {{ic|grub-install}} to install the bootloader:
 
 
 
# pacman -S grub efibootmgr
 
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
 
 
 
Next, while using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it is recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
 
 
 
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} before running the next command. However ''os-prober'' is not known to properly detect UEFI OSes.}}
 
 
 
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 
 
 
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
 
 
 
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
 
 
 
Exit from the chroot environment:
 
 
 
# exit
 
 
 
Reboot the computer:
 
 
 
# reboot
 
 
 
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}
 
 
 
== Post-installation ==
 
 
 
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now ''strongly'' advised to read [[General recommendations#System administration]] and [[General recommendations#Package management]].
 
 
 
See the rest of the [[General recommendations]] article for post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.
 
 
 
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[List of applications]].
 

Latest revision as of 11:34, 23 August 2016

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