Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide/Post-installation"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(post-installation always did sound silly. Removed a tip (else why would you be reading this section?) and changed the casing of an article)
(better redirect)
 
(117 intermediate revisions by 32 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
<noinclude>
+
#REDIRECT [[General recommendations]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:About Arch]]
 
[[es:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[hr:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Extra]]
 
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
 
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. [[Beginners' Guide|Click here]] if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
 
</noinclude>
 
== Extra ==
 
 
 
'''Congratulations, and welcome to your new Arch Linux system!'''
 
 
 
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready for customization. From here, you may build this elegant set of tools into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. Most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics: this part of the guide provides a brief overview of the procedures to acquire these extras.
 
 
 
Go ahead and login with your user account.
 
 
 
=== Package management ===
 
 
 
See [[pacman]] and [[FAQ#Package Management]] for answers regarding updating and managing packages.
 
 
 
=== Sudo ===
 
 
 
[[Sudo]] can noticeably simplify administering your system.
 
 
 
=== Sound ===
 
 
 
[[ALSA]] usually works out-of-the-box. It just needs to be unmuted. Install {{Pkg|alsa-utils}} (which contains {{ic|alsamixer}}) and follow [[Advanced_Linux_Sound_Architecture#Unmuting_the_channels|these]] instructions.
 
 
 
ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended to try it first. However, if it does not work, or if you are not satisfied with the quality, [[OSS]] is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at [[Sound]] for an overview of various articles.
 
 
 
=== '''G'''raphical '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface ===
 
 
 
==== Install X ====
 
 
 
The [[Wikipedia:X Window System|X Window System]] (commonly '''X11''', or '''X''') is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
 
 
 
To install the base [[Xorg]] packages:
 
 
 
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils
 
 
 
Install [[Wikipedia:Mesa 3D (OpenGL)|mesa]] for 3D support:
 
 
 
# pacman -S mesa
 
 
 
==== Install a video driver ====
 
 
 
{{Note|If you installed Arch as a VirtualBox guest, you don't need to install a video driver. See [[VirtualBox#Arch_Linux_guests|Arch Linux guests]] for installing and setting up Guest Additions, and jump to the [[#Configure X|configuration]] part below.}}
 
 
 
If you don't know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:
 
 
 
$ lspci | grep VGA
 
 
 
For a complete list of open-source video drivers, search the package database:
 
 
 
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
 
 
 
The {{ic|vesa}} driver is a generic mode-setting driver that will work with almost every GPU, but will not provide any 2D or 3D acceleration. If a better driver cannot be found or fails to load, Xorg will fall back to vesa. To install it:
 
 
 
# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
 
 
 
In order for video acceleration to work, and often to expose all the modes that the GPU can set, a proper video driver is required:
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable" align="center"
 
|-
 
! Brand !! Type !! Driver !! [[Multilib]] Package<br>(for 32 bit applications on Arch x86_64) !! Documentation
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" bgcolor=#f7e3e3| '''<font color=#e62c2c>AMD/ATI</font>'''
 
| Open source || {{Pkg|xf86-video-ati}} || {{Pkg|lib32-ati-dri}} || [[ATI]]
 
|-
 
| Proprietary || {{Pkg|catalyst-dkms}} || {{Pkg|lib32-catalyst-utils}} || [[AMD Catalyst]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" bgcolor=#e3ecf7| '''<font color=#2a6dc8>Intel</font>'''
 
| rowspan="2"| Open source
 
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} || {{Pkg|lib32-intel-dri}} || [[Intel]]
 
|-
 
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-i740}} || – || (legacy driver)
 
|-
 
| rowspan="3" bgcolor=#e3f7e6| '''<font color=#409044>Nvidia</font>'''
 
| rowspan="2"| Open source
 
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nouveau}}<br><font color=gray size=1>(+ {{Pkg|nouveau-dri}} for 3D support)</font> || {{Pkg|lib32-nouveau-dri}} || [[Nouveau]]
 
|-
 
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nv}} || – || (legacy driver)
 
|-
 
| Proprietary || {{Pkg|nvidia}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nvidia-utils}} || [[NVIDIA]]
 
|-
 
| bgcolor=#f7f2e3| '''<font color=#9a4e16>SiS</font>'''
 
| Open source || {{Pkg|xf86-video-sis}}<br/>{{Pkg|xf86-video-sisimedia}}<br/>{{Pkg|xf86-video-sisusb}} || – || [[SiS]]
 
|}
 
 
 
==== Install input drivers ====
 
 
 
Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems. The {{ic|evdev}} driver ({{Pkg|xf86-input-evdev}}) is the modern hot-plugging input driver for almost all devices, so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, {{ic|evdev}} has already been installed as a dependency of the {{Pkg|xorg-server}} package.
 
 
 
Laptop users (or users with a tactile screen) will need the {{Pkg|xf86-input-synaptics}} package for the touchpad/touchscreen to work:
 
 
 
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
 
 
 
For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the [[Touchpad Synaptics]] article.
 
 
 
==== Configure X ====
 
 
 
{{Warning|Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation. See [[NVIDIA]] or [[AMD Catalyst]] for details.}}
 
 
 
Xorg features auto-detection and therefore can function without an {{ic|xorg.conf}}. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the [[Xorg]] wiki page.
 
 
 
Here you may set a [[Xorg#Setting_Keyboard_Layout_With_Hot-Plugging|keyboard layout]] if you do not use a standard [[Wikipedia:File:KB_United_States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard.
 
 
 
{{Note|The {{ic|XkbLayout}} key may differ from the keymap code you used with the {{ic|loadkeys}} command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in {{ic|/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst}} (after the line beginning with {{ic|! layout}}). For instance, the layout {{ic|gb}} corresponds to "English (UK)", whereas for the console it was {{ic|loadkeys uk}}.}}
 
 
 
==== Test X ====
 
 
 
{{Tip|These steps are optional. Test only if you're installing Arch Linux for the first time, or if you're installing on new and unfamiliar hardware.}}
 
 
 
{{Note|If your input devices are not working during this test, install the needed driver from the {{Grp|xorg-drivers}} group, and try again. For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search (press {{Keypress|Q}} to exit):
 
 
 
$ pacman -Ss xf86-input <nowiki>|</nowiki> less
 
 
 
You only need {{Pkg|xf86-input-keyboard}} or {{Pkg|xf86-input-mouse}} if you plan on disabling [[Wikipedia:Hot-plugging|hot-plugging]], otherwise, {{ic|evdev}} will act as the input driver (recommended).}}
 
 
 
Install the default environment:
 
 
 
# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
 
 
 
If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template {{ic|.xinitrc}} file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or commented out. Simply deleting it will cause '''X''' to run with the default environment installed above.
 
 
 
$ rm ~/.xinitrc
 
 
 
Next, you need to make sure that '''X''' will always start on the same tty where you logged in, to preserve your session permissions. This is required for working audio, 3D acceleration, mounting, printing, power management and other common permissions:
 
 
 
$ echo 'exec /usr/bin/X -nolisten tcp vt$XDG_VTNR "$@"' > ~/.xserverrc
 
 
 
{{Note|Without creating {{ic|~/.xserverrc}}, you will need to use {{ic|startx -- vt$XDG_VTNR}} instead.}}
 
 
 
To start the (test) Xorg session, run:
 
 
 
$ startx
 
 
 
A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that '''X''' installation was a success, you may exit out of '''X''' by issuing the {{ic|exit}} command into the prompts until you return to the console.
 
 
 
$ exit
 
 
 
If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (e.g. {{Keypress|Ctrl+Alt+F2}}), and blindly log in as root. You can do this by typing "root" (press {{Keypress|Enter}} after typing it) and entering the root password (again, press {{Keypress|Enter}} after typing it).
 
 
 
You may also attempt to kill the '''X''' server with:
 
 
 
# pkill x
 
 
 
If this does not work, reboot blindly with:
 
 
 
# reboot
 
 
 
===== Troubleshooting =====
 
 
 
If a problem occurs, look for errors in {{ic|Xorg.0.log}}. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with {{ic|(EE)}} which represent errors, and also {{ic|(WW)}} which are warnings that could indicate other issues.
 
 
 
$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
 
 
 
If you are still having trouble after consulting the [[Xorg]] article and need assistance via the Arch Linux forums or the IRC channel, be sure to install and use {{Pkg|wgetpaste}} by providing the links from:
 
 
 
# pacman -S wgetpaste
 
$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
 
$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
 
$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
 
 
 
{{Note|Please provide all pertinent information (hardware, driver information, etc) when asking for assistance.}}
 
 
 
==== Fonts ====
 
 
 
At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good [[Wikipedia:Unicode|Unicode]] coverage:
 
 
 
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
 
 
 
Refer to [[Font Configuration]] for how to configure font rendering and [[Fonts]] for font suggestions and installation instructions.
 
 
 
==== Choose and install a graphical interface ====
 
 
 
The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
 
 
 
{{Note|Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for ''your'' needs. You can also build your own DE with just a WM and the applications of your choice.}}
 
 
 
* [[Window_Manager|Window Managers]] (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
 
 
 
* [[Desktop_Environment|Desktop Environments]] (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.
 
 
 
Instead of starting X manually with {{ic|xorg-xinit}}, see [[Display Manager]] for instructions on using a display manager, or see [[Start X at Login]] for using an existing virtual terminal as an equivalent to a display manager.
 
 
 
== Appendix ==
 
 
 
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[List of Applications]].
 
 
 
See [[General Recommendations]] for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.
 
 
 
<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
 

Latest revision as of 03:25, 12 April 2014