Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide/Preparation"

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{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for the Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
This document will guide you through the process of installing [[Arch Linux]] using the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/ Arch Install Scripts]. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the [[FAQ]].
The community-maintained [[Main Page|ArchWiki]] is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The [[IRC Channel]] (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with [[the Arch Way]], you are encouraged to type {{ic|man ''command''}} to read the {{ic|man}} page of any command you are unfamiliar with.
== Preparation ==
{{Note|If you wish to install from an existing GNU/Linux distribution, please see [[Install from Existing Linux|this article]]. This can be useful particularly if you plan to install Arch via [[VNC]] or [[SSH]] remotely. Users seeking to perform the Arch Linux installation remotely via an [[SSH]] connection should read [[Install from SSH]] for additional tips.}}
=== System requirements ===
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 64 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take about 500 MB of disk space. If you are working with limited space, this can be trimmed down considerably, but you will have to know what you're doing.
=== Prepare the latest installation medium ===
The latest release of the installation media can be obtained from the [https://archlinux.org/download/ Download] page. Note that the single ISO image supports both 32 and 64-bit architectures. It is highly recommended to always use the latest ISO image.
* Install images are signed and it is highly recommended to verify their signature before use. Dowload the ''.sig'' file from the download page (or one of the mirrors listed there) to the same directory as the ''.iso'' file. On Arch Linux, use {{ic|pacman-key -v ''iso-file''.sig}} as root; in other environments make use, still as root, of gpg2 directly with {{ic|gpg2 --verify ''iso-file.sig''}}. The file integrity checksums md5 and sha1 are also provided.
:{{Note|The gpg2 verification will fail if you haven't downloaded the public key corresponding to the RSA key ID. See http://sparewotw.wordpress.com/2012/10/31/how-to-verify-signature-using-sig-file/ for details.}}
* Burn the ISO image on a CD or DVD with your preferred software. On Arch, that's covered in [[Optical Disc Drive#Burning]].
:{{Note|The quality of optical drives and the discs themselves varies greatly. Generally, using a slow burn speed is recommended for reliable burns. If you are experiencing unexpected behaviour from the disc, try burning at the lowest speed supported by your burner.}}
* Or you can write the ISO image to a USB stick. For detailed instructions, see [[USB Installation Media]].
==== Installing over the network ====
Instead of writing the boot media to a disc or USB stick, you may alternatively boot the ISO image over the network. This works well when you already have a server set up. Please see the [[PXE]] article for more information, and then continue to [[#Boot the installation medium|boot the installation medium]].
==== Install from an existing Linux system ====
Alternatively, it is possible to install from an already running Linux system. See [[Install from Existing Linux]].
==== Installing on a virtual machine ====
Installing on a [[Wikipedia:Virtual machine|virtual machine]] is a good way to become familiar with Arch Linux and its installation procedure without leaving your current operating system and repartitioning the storage drive. It will also let you keep this Beginners' Guide open in your browser throughout the installation. Some users may find it beneficial to have an independent Arch Linux system on a virtual drive, for testing purposes.
Examples of virtualization software are [[VirtualBox]], [[VMware]], [[QEMU]], [[Xen]], [[Varch]], [[Parallels]].
The exact procedure for preparing a virtual machine depends on the software, but will generally follow these steps:
# Create the virtual disk image that will host the operating system.
# Properly configure the virtual machine parameters.
# Boot the downloaded ISO image with a virtual CD drive.
# Continue with [[#Boot the installation medium|Boot the installation medium]].
The following articles may be helpful:
* [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux as a guest in a Virtual Machine|Arch Linux as VirtualBox guest]]
* [[VirtualBox Arch Linux Guest On Physical Drive|Arch Linux as VirtualBox guest on a physical drive]]
* [[Installing Arch Linux in VMware|Arch Linux as VMware guest]]
* [[Moving an existing install into (or out of) a virtual machine]]
==== Installing on mSATA SSD ====
Usually laptops don't support booting from mSATA, so if you want to install Arch Linux on it, you should consider to create {{ic|/boot}} partition as described below on the other storage drive, which is supported to boot from, and install GRUB/Syslinux on it.
To check if your laptop supports boot from mSATA go to BIOS boot section. If your mSATA SSD is not there, then you can't boot from it.
==== Boot the installation medium ====
Most modern systems allow you to select the boot device during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase, usually by pressing the {{ic|F12}} key while the BIOS splash screen is visible.  Select the device which contains the Arch ISO. Alternatively, you may need to change the boot order in your computer's BIOS.
To do this, press a key (usually {{ic|Delete}}, {{ic|F1}}, {{ic|F2}}, {{ic|F11}} or {{ic|F12}}) during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase. This will take you into the BIOS settings screen where you can set the order in which the system searches for devices to boot from. Set the device which contains the Arch ISO as the first device from which boot is attempted. Select "Save & Exit" (or your BIOS's equivalent) and the computer should then complete its normal boot process.
When the Arch menu appears, select "Boot Arch Linux" and press {{ic|Enter}} to enter the live environment where you will run the actual installation
(if booting from a UEFI boot disk, the option may look more like "Arch Linux archiso x86_64 UEFI").
Once you have booted into the live environment, your shell is [[Zsh]]; this will provide you advanced Tab completion, and other features as part of the [http://grml.org/zsh/ grml config].
===== Testing if you are booted into UEFI mode =====
In case you have a [[UEFI]] motherboard and UEFI Boot mode is enabled (and is preferred over BIOS/Legacy mode), the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux kernel (Kernel [[EFISTUB]] via [[Gummiboot]]). To test if you have booted into UEFI mode run:
# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars              # ignore if already mounted
# efivar -l
If efivar lists the uefi variables properly, then you have booted in UEFI mode. If not check whether all the requirements listed at [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Requirements for UEFI Variables support to work properly]] are met.
==== Troubleshooting boot problems ====
* If you are using an Intel video chipset and the screen goes blank during the boot process, the problem is likely an issue with [[Kernel Mode Setting]]. A possible workaround may be achieved by rebooting and pressing {{ic|e}} over the entry that you are trying to boot (i686 or x86_64). At the end of the string type {{ic|nomodeset}} and press {{ic|Enter}}. Alternatively, try {{ic|1=video=SVIDEO-1:d}} which, if it works, will not disable kernel mode setting. You can also try {{ic|1=i915.modeset=0}}. See the [[Intel]] article for more information.
* If the screen does ''not'' go blank and the boot process gets stuck while trying to load the kernel, press {{ic|Tab}} while hovering over the menu entry, type {{ic|1=acpi=off}} at the end of the string and press {{ic|Enter}}.<noinclude>
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 11:53, 23 August 2016