Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide (한국어)"

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(본 안내서에 대하여)
(Step 1: 최신 설치 매체 얻기)
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여러분들은 [http://archlinux.org/download/ 여기]에서 아치 공식 설치 매체를 구할수 있습니다. 가장 최근 버전은 2009.08 입니다.
 
여러분들은 [http://archlinux.org/download/ 여기]에서 아치 공식 설치 매체를 구할수 있습니다. 가장 최근 버전은 2009.08 입니다.
  
*Both the Core and the Netinstall images provide only the necessary packages to create an '''Arch Linux base system'''. ''Note that the Base System does not include a GUI. It is mainly comprised of the GNU toolchain (compiler, assembler, linker, libraries, shell, and utilities), the Linux kernel, and a few extra libraries and modules.''
+
*'''아치리눅스 기본 시스템''' 을 만들기 위해서 Core 나 Netinstall 이미지를 필요로 합니다. 베이스 시스템은 GUI를 포함하지 않습니다. 주로는 GNU 툴체인을 (컴파일러, 어셈블러, 링커, 라이브러리, 쉘 및 유틸리티)로 구성되어, 리눅스 커널, 그리고 몇 가지 추가 라이브러리 및 모듈이 포함 되어 있습니다.
*Core images facilitate both installing from CD and Net.  
+
*Core 이미지의 경우에는 CD로 설치와 네트워크 설치 모두 가능 합니다.
*Netinstall images are smaller and provide no packages themselves; the entire system is retrieved via internet.
+
*Netinstall 이미지의 경우 작은 이미지크기로 제공되며 모든 패키지가 네트워크로 설치 됩니다.
 
*The isolinux images are provided for people who experience trouble using the grub version. There are no other differences.
 
*The isolinux images are provided for people who experience trouble using the grub version. There are no other differences.
 
* [[Arch64_FAQ|The Arch64 FAQ]] can help you choose between the 32- and 64-bit versions.
 
* [[Arch64_FAQ|The Arch64 FAQ]] can help you choose between the 32- and 64-bit versions.

Revision as of 03:39, 5 February 2010

This template has only maintenance purposes. For linking to local translations please use interlanguage links, see Help:i18n#Interlanguage links.


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Contents

머리말

소개

환영합니다. 이 문서는 아치 리눅스(간결하고 빠르며 가벼운 GNU/Linux 배포판, 혹은 유닉스 유형의 운영체제를 찾던 유저들의 요구에 부합하는)의 설치 및 구성을, 과정을 통하여 여러분들을 안내할 것입니다.

  • 아치 리눅스의 설정 과정과 유사 유닉스 시스템 방법론에 대한 충분한 지식의 단계가 요구되고, 이런한 이유로 필요 이상의 설명 정보가 내포됩니다.
  • 이 안내서는 새로운 아치 유저를 목표로 하지만, 모두를 위한 강력한 참고서와 유익한 자료로써 도움이 될 것입니다.

아치 리눅스 배포판의 장점:

  • 유닉스같은 간결성있는 설계와 철학
  • 모든 패키지들은 i686과 x86_64 구조에 적합하게 컴파일
  • BSD 스타일처럼 하나의 중앙집중식 구성파일이 특징인 init 스크립트
  • mkinitcpio: 간결하고 유동적인 initramfs 제작 도구
  • 매우 적은 메모리를 사용하여, 가볍고 민첩하게 작동하는 팩맨 패키지 관리자
  • 아치 빌드 시스템(ABS): 포트와 같은 패키지 제작 체계, 소스로부터 아치 패키지들을 설치할 수 있게 제작하는 간단한 프레임워크를 제공함.
  • 아치 사용자 저장소(AUR): 많은 사람들이 만든 빌드 스크립트를 저장소로 제공
라이센스

아치 리눅스, 팩맨, 문서, 및 스크립트들은 ⓒ2002-2007 Judd Vinet, ⓒ2007-2009 Aaron Griffin 에 저작권이 보호되며, GNU General Public License Version 2의 아래에 라이센스가 있습니다.

염려하지 마십시오!

아치 리눅스 시스템은 기본적인 명령줄 도구를 사용하여 쉘에서 사용자에 의해서 설치됩니다. 다른 배포판의 융통성 없는 설치프로그램 구조와는 다르게, 정해져 있는 기본 환경이 없고 또한 당신을 위해 선택되어진 설정도 없습니다. 명령줄에서, 인터넷 연결을 통한 팩맨 패키지관리자를 사용하여 아치 저장소들로부터 패키지들을 추가할 것 입니다. 그리고 시스템이 당신의 요구사항에 최적화 될 때까지 텍스트 파일을 수정하여 설치를 수동적으로 구성하게 할 것입니다. 당신은 또한 non-root 사용자를 수동적으로 추가하고, 그룹과 권한을 관리할 것 입니다. 이 방법은 최대한의 유연성과 선택의 자유로움 그리고 시스템 리소스를 기본에서부터 고수준까지 관리하게 합니다.

아치 리눅스는 'do-it-yourself'에 근접하기를 원하며 또한 그런 능력이 있는 사용자들을 지향하는 배포판입니다.

아치리눅스가 추구하는 것

아치에 내포된 설계 원칙은 아치를 간결하게 유지하는게 목적입니다.

이 문맥에서 '간결'이라 함은 '불필요한 추가, 변형 혹은 귀찮은 문제점 없는것'. 간추리면 격조높은, 미니멀리스트에 근접함을 의미하는 것이 아닐까요.

당신이 간결함을 고려할 때, 유념해봐야 할 것들 :

  • " '간결함'이란 유용성 관점이 아니라 기술적인 관점에서 정의된다. 사용하며 기술적으로 쉬운것보다 더 높은 학습 곡선의 기술적인 우아함이 낫다. [inferior]" -Aaron Griffin
  • Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem 또는"개념들은 불필요하게 증식되어서는 안된다." - Occam's razor. Razor의 말은 간단한 설명과 방식 혹은 이론에 도달하기 위해 불필요한 분쟁요인들을 군더더기 없게 함을 나타낸다.
  • "[my method]의 남다른 부분은 단순함에서 나왔다. 수련의 절정은 항상 단순함으로 향한다." - Bruce Lee
본 안내서에 대하여

아치 위키는 훌륭한 자원이며, 문제점들에 대해 먼저 참고해야 합니다. 만약 다른 곳에서 답을 찾을 수 없다면 IRC방(at freenode #archlinux)과 포럼에서 찾을 수 있습니다. -한국(at HanIRC #arch), 한국포럼

Note: 이 안내서를 착실히 따라는 것이 올바르게 구성되어진 아치 리눅스 시스템을 성공적으로 설치하기 위해 필수적입니다. 그러므로, 세밀하게 읽어보시기를 바랍니다. 이 안내서는 작업들을 수행하기 전에 각 섹션을 완벽하게 읽기를 강력하게 권장합니다.

GNU/Linux 배포판들이 설계에 의하여 본질적인 세분화임으로 본 안내서는 유닉스 유형 데스크탑의 4개 주요 요소로 논리적인 분할을 하였습니다.

Part I: 기본 시스템 설치

Part II: 새로운 아치 리눅스 기본 시스템 구성 및 업데이트

Part III: X 설치 와 ALSA 구성

Part IV: 데스크탑 환경 설치와 설정

Part I: 기본 시스템 설치

Step 1: 최신 설치 매체 얻기

여러분들은 여기에서 아치 공식 설치 매체를 구할수 있습니다. 가장 최근 버전은 2009.08 입니다.

  • 아치리눅스 기본 시스템 을 만들기 위해서 Core 나 Netinstall 이미지를 필요로 합니다. 베이스 시스템은 GUI를 포함하지 않습니다. 주로는 GNU 툴체인을 (컴파일러, 어셈블러, 링커, 라이브러리, 쉘 및 유틸리티)로 구성되어, 리눅스 커널, 그리고 몇 가지 추가 라이브러리 및 모듈이 포함 되어 있습니다.
  • Core 이미지의 경우에는 CD로 설치와 네트워크 설치 모두 가능 합니다.
  • Netinstall 이미지의 경우 작은 이미지크기로 제공되며 모든 패키지가 네트워크로 설치 됩니다.
  • The isolinux images are provided for people who experience trouble using the grub version. There are no other differences.
  • The Arch64 FAQ can help you choose between the 32- and 64-bit versions.

CD 설치

Burn the .iso image file to a CD with your preferred CD burner drive and software, and continue with Step 2: Boot Arch Linux Installer

Note: The quality of optical drives, as well as the CD media itself, vary greatly. Generally, using a slow burn speed is recommended for reliable burns; Some users recommend speeds as low as 4x or 2x. If you are experiencing unexpected behavior from the CD, try burning at the minimum speed supported by your system.

USB 스틱

Warning: 여러분의 USB 스틱내의 모든 데이터를 회복 할수 없게 됩니다!

유닉스 방법:

비어 있거나 확장 가능한 USB 스틱을 넣은후, 경로를 결정 하고 .img 이미지를 USB 스틱에 /bin/dd 풀그램으로 저장하세요:

dd if=archlinux-2009.08-{core|netinstall}-{i686|x86_64}.img of=/dev/sdx

if=에는 img 화일의 경로 그리고 of=에는 USB 장치. 반드시 Template:Filename가 아니라 Template:Filename를 사용하여야 합니다.

md5sum 확인 (선택사항):

Make a note of the number of records (blocks) read in and written out, then perform the following check:

dd if=/dev/sdx count=number_of_records status=noxfer | md5sum

The md5sum returned should match the md5sum of the downloaded archlinux image file; they both should match the md5sum of the image as listed in the md5sums file in the mirror distribution site.

윈도우즈 방법:

Download Disk Imager from https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/+download. Insert flash media. Start the Disk Imager and select the image file. Select the Drive letter associated with the flash drive. Click "write".

Continue with Step 2: Boot Arch Linux Installer

Step 2: Boot Arch Linux Installer

Insert the CD or USB stick and boot from it. You may have to change the boot order in your computer BIOS or press a key (usually DEL, F1, F2, F11 or F12) during the BIOS POST (Power On Self-Test) phase.

Tip: 기본 설치를 위한 메모리 요구사항:
  • Core : 128 MB 램 x86_64/i686 (스왑 파티션과 모든 패키지 선택)
  • Netinstall : 128 MB 램 x86_64/i686 (스왑 파티션과 모든 패키지 선택)

The main menu should be displayed at this point. Select the preferred choice by using the arrow keys to highlight your choice, and then by pressing Enter.

Usually, the first item, Boot Archlive, is the preferred selection. However, choose Boot Archlive [legacy IDE] if you have trouble with libata/PATA, or have no SATA (Serial ATA) drives.

To change GRUB boot options, press e. Many users may wish to change the resolution of the framebuffer, for more readable console output. Append:

vga=773

to the kernel line, followed by <ENTER>, for a 1024x768 framebuffer. When done, press b to boot into that selection.

The system will now boot and present a login prompt. Login as 'root', without the quotes.

If your system has errors trying to boot from the live CD or there are other hardware errors, refer to the Installation Troubleshooting wiki page.

keymap 바꾸기

If you have a non-US keyboard layout you can interactively choose your keymap/console font with the command:

# km

or use the loadkeys command:

# loadkeys layout

(replace layout with your keyboard layout such as "fr" or "be-latin1")

Documentation

The official install guide is conveniently available right on the live system! To access it, change to vc/2 (virtual console #2) with <ALT>+F2, and then invoke /usr/bin/less by typing in the following at the # prompt:

# less /arch/docs/official_installation_guide_en

less will allow you to page through the document. Change back to vc/1 with <ALT>+F1 to follow the rest of the install process.

Change back to vc/2 at any time if you need to reference the Official Guide as you go thru the installation process.

Tip: 공식 안내서는 기본 시스템 설치와 설정에 적용됨을 주의하세요. 설치가 된 이후에는, 더 많은 후설치와 다른 관계된 이슈들을 찾기 위해 여기 위키로 되돌아 올것을 강력히 권고 합니다.

Step 3: Start the Installation

As root, run the installer script from vc/1:

# /arch/setup

A: Select an installation source

After a welcome screen, you will be prompted for an installation source. Choose the appropriate source for the installer you are using.

  • If you chose the CORE installer, continue below with B: Set Clock.
  • Netinstall only: You shall be prompted to load ethernet drivers manually, if desired. Udev is quite effective at loading the required modules, so you may assume it has already done so. You may verify this by invoking ifconfig -a from vc/3. (Select OK to continue.)

Configure Network (Netinstall)

Available Interfaces will be presented. If an interface and HWaddr (HardWare address) is listed, then your module has already been loaded. If your interface is not listed, you may probe it from the installer, or manually do so from another virtual console.

The following screen will prompt you to Select the interface, Probe, or Cancel. Choose the appropriate interface and continue.

The installer will then ask if you wish to use DHCP. Choosing Yes will run dhcpcd to discover an available gateway and request an IP address; Choosing No will prompt you for your static IP, netmask, broadcast, gateway DNS IP, HTTP proxy, and FTP proxy. Lastly, you will be presented with an overview to ensure your entries are correct.

(A)DSL Quickstart for the Live Environment (If you have a pure modem (or router in bridge mode) to connect to your ISP)

Switch to another virtual console (<Alt> + F2), login as root and invoke

# pppoe-setup

If everything is well configured in the end you can connect to your ISP with

# pppoe-start

Return to first virtual console with <ALT>+F1. Continue with B: Set Clock

Wireless Quickstart For the Live Environment (If you need wireless connectivity during the installation process)

The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quickstart procedure executed at this point in the installation will initialize your wireless hardware for use in the live environment. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it.

Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.

The basic procedure will be:

  • Switch to a free virtual console, e.g.: <ALT>+F3
  • (Optional) Identify the wireless interface and driver module:
# lsmod | grep -i net
  • Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with /usr/sbin/iwconfig:
# iwconfig

Example output:

lo no wireless extensions.
eth0 no wireless extensions.
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
         Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated   
         Bit Rate:0 kb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   Sensitivity=8/0  
         Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
         Power Management:off
         Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
         Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
         Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0

wlan0 is the available wireless interface in the example.

  • Bring the interface up with /sbin/ifconfig <interface> up.

An example using the wlan0 interface:

# ifconfig wlan0 up

(Remember, your interface may be named something else, depending on your module (driver) and chipset: wlan0, eth1, etc.)

  • If the essid has been forgotten or is unknown, use /sbin/iwlist <interface> scan to scan for nearby networks.
# iwlist wlan0 scan
  • Specify the id of the chosen wireless network with iwconfig <interface> essid "<youressid>" key <your_wep_key> (give the essid (the 'network name') of the network in quotes).
  • An example using WEP and a hexadecimal key:
# iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key 0241baf34c
  • An example using WEP and an ASCII passphrase:
# iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key s:pass1
  • An example using an unsecured network:
# iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"
  • Request an IP address with /sbin/dhcpcd <interface> . e.g.:
# dhcpcd wlan0
  • Ensure you can route using /bin/ping:
# ping -c 3 www.google.com

Done.

  • For connecting to a network using WPA, consult the WPA Supplicant article, and continue below.
Does the Wireless Chipset require Firmware?

A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If unsure, invoke /usr/bin/dmesg to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset:

# dmesg | grep firmware

Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:

firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode

If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.

Note: Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under /lib/firmware in the live environment, (on CD/USB stick) but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it! Package selection and installation is covered below. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware during the package selection step! See Wireless Setup if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset. This is a very common error.

After the initial Arch installation is complete, you may wish to refer to Wireless Setup to ensure a permanent configuration solution for your installed system.

Return to vc/1 with <ALT>+F1. Continue with B: Set Clock

B: Set Clock

  • UTC - Choose UTC if running only UNIX-like operating system(s).
  • localtime - Choose local if multi-booting with a Microsoft Windows OS.

C: 하드 드라이브 준비

Warning: 하드 드라이브 분할 작업은 데이터가 유실 될수 있습니다. 필요하다면, 중요한 데이터는 백업 해둘것을 강력하게 권고하며 주의를 요합니다.
Note: 분할 작업은 may be performed before initiating the Arch installation if desired, by utilizing GParted or other available tools. If the installation drive has already been partitioned to the required specifications, continue with Set Filesystem Mountpoints

Verify current disk identities and layout by invoking /sbin/fdisk with the -l (lower-case L) switch.

Open another virtual console (<ALT>+F3) and enter:

# fdisk -l

Take note of the disk(s)/partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation.

Switch back to the installation script with <ALT>+F1

Select the first menu entry "Prepare Hard Drive".

  • Option 1: Auto Prepare

Auto-Prepare divides the disk into the following configuration:

  • ext2 /boot partition, default size 32MB. You will be prompted to modify the size to your requirement.
  • swap partition, default size 256MB. You will be prompted to modify the size to your requirement.
  • A Separate / and /home partition, (sizes can also be specified). Available filesystems include ext2, ext3, ext4, reiserfs, xfs and jfs, but note that both / and /home shall share the same fs type if choosing the Auto Prepare option.

Be warned that Auto-prepare will completely erase the chosen hard drive. Read the warning presented by the installer very carefully, and make sure the correct device is about to be partitioned.

  • Option 2: (Recommended) Partition Hard Drives (with cfdisk)

This option will allow for the most robust and customized partitioning solution for your personal needs.

At this point, more advanced GNU/Linux users who are familiar and comfortable with manually partitioning may wish to skip down to D: Select Packages below.

Note: If you are installing to a USB flash key, see "Installing Arch Linux on a USB key".

Partition Hard Drives

Partition Info

Partitioning a hard disk drive defines specific areas (the partitions) within the disk, that will each appear and behave as a separate disk and upon which a filesystem may be created (formatted).

  • There are 3 types of disk partitions:
  1. Primary
  2. Extended
  3. Logical

Primary partitions can be bootable, and are limited to 4 partitions per disk or raid volume. If a partitioning scheme requires more than 4 partitions, an extended partition which will contain logical partitions will be required.

Extended partitions are not usable by themselves; they are merely a "container" for logical partitions. If required, a hard disk shall contain only one extended partition; which shall then be sub-divided into logical partitions.

When partitioning a disk, one can observe this numbering scheme by creating primary partitions sda1 through sda3 followed by creating an extended partition, sda4, and subsequently creating logical partition(s) within the extended partition; sda5, sda6, and so on.

Swap Partition

A swap partition is a place on the drive where virtual ram resides, allowing the kernel to easily use disk storage for data that does not fit into physical RAM.

Historically, the general rule for swap partition size was 2x the amount of physical RAM. Over time, as computers have gained ever larger memory capacities, this rule has become increasingly deprecated. Generally, on machines with up to 512MB RAM, the 2x rule is usually quite sufficient. On machines with 1GB RAM, generally a 1x rule is adequate. If the installation machine provides gratuitous amounts of RAM (more than 1024 MB) it may be possible to completely forget a swap partition altogether, though this is not recommended (see note below). A 1 GB swap partition will be used in this example.

Note: If using suspend-to-disk, (hibernate) a swap partition at least equal in size to the amount of physical RAM is required. Some Arch users even recommend oversizing it beyond the amount of physical RAM by 10-15%, to allow for possible bad sectors.
Partition Scheme

A disk partitioning scheme is a very personalized preference. Each user's choices will be unique to their own computing habits and requirements. If you would like to dual boot Arch Linux and a Windows operating systems please see Windows and Arch Dual Boot.

Filesystem candidates for separate partitions include:

/ (root) The root filesystem is the primary filesystem from which all other filesystems stem; the top of the hierarchy. All files and directories appear under the root directory "/", even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under / are not themselves candidates for separate partitions. (See warning below).

/boot This directory contains the kernel and ramdisk images as well as the bootloader configuration file, and bootloader stages. /boot also stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing userspace programs. This may include saved master boot sectors and sector map files. /boot is essential for booting, but is unique in that it may still be kept on its own separate partition (if required).

/home User data and user specific configuration files for applications are stored in each user's home directory in a file that starts with the '.' character (a "dot file").

/usr While root is the primary filesystem, /usr is the secondary hierarchy, for user data, containing the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications. /usr is shareable, read-only data. This means that /usr shall be shareable between various hosts and must not be written to, except in the case of system update/upgrade. Any information that is host-specific or varies with time is stored elsewhere.

/tmp directory for programs that require temporary files

/var contains variable data; spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, pacman's cache, the ABS tree, etc.

Warning: Besides /boot, directories essential for booting are: '/bin', '/dev', '/etc', '/lib', '/proc' and '/sbin'. Therefore, they must not reside on a separate partition from /.

There are several advantages for using discrete filesystems, rather than combining all into one partition:

  • Security: Each filesystem may be configured in /etc/fstab as 'nosuid', 'nodev', 'noexec', 'readonly', etc.
  • Stability: A user, or malfunctioning program can completely fill a filesystem with garbage if they have write permissions for it. Critical programs, which reside on a different filesystem remain unaffected.
  • Speed: A filesystem which gets written to frequently may become somewhat fragmented. (An effective method of avoiding fragmentation is to ensure that each filesystem is never in danger of filling up completely.) Separate filesystems remain unaffected, and each can be defragmented separately as well.
  • Integrity: If one filesystem becomes corrupted, separate filesystems remain unaffected.
  • Versatility: Sharing data across several systems becomes more expedient when independent filesystems are used. Separate filesystem types may also be chosen based upon the nature of data and usage.

In this example, we shall use separate partitions for /, /var, /home, and a swap partition.

Note: /var contains many small files. This should be taken into consideration when choosing a filesystem type for it, (if creating its own separate partition).
How big should my partitions be?

This question is best answered based upon individual needs. You may wish to simply create one partition for root and one partition for swap or only one root partition without swap or refer to the following examples and consider these guidelines to provide a frame of reference:

  • The root filesystem (/) in the example will contain the /usr directory, which can become moderately large, depending upon how much software is installed. 15-20 GB should be sufficient for most users.
  • The /var filesystem will contain, among other data, the ABS tree and the pacman cache. Keeping cached packages is useful and versatile; it provides the ability to downgrade packages if needed. /var tends to grow in size; the pacman cache can grow large over long periods of time, but can be safely cleared if needed. If you are using an SSD, you may wish to locate your /var on an HDD and keep the / and /home partitions on your SSD to avoid needless read/writes to the SSD. 6-8 Gigs on a desktop system should be sufficient for /var. Servers tend to have extremely large /var filesystems.
  • The /home filesystem is typically where user data, downloads, and multimedia reside. On a desktop system, /home is typically the largest filesystem on the drive by a large margin. Remember that if you chose to reinstall Arch, all the data on your /home partition will be untouched (so long as you have a separate /home partition).
  • An extra 25% of space added to each filesystem will provide a cushion for unforeseen occurrence, expansion, and serve as a preventive against fragmentation.

From the guidelines above, the example system shall contain a ~15GB root (/) partition, ~7GB /var, 1GB swap, and a /home containing the remaining disk space.

Create Partition:cfdisk

Start by creating the primary partition that will contain the root, (/) filesystem.

Choose New -> Primary and enter the desired size for root (/). Put the partition at the beginning of the disk.

Also choose the Type by designating it as '83 Linux'. The created / partition shall appear as sda1 in our example.

Now create a primary partition for /var, designating it as Type 83 Linux. The created /var partition shall appear as sda2

Next, create a partition for swap. Select an appropriate size and specify the Type as 82 (Linux swap / Solaris). The created swap partition shall appear as sda3.

Lastly, create a partition for your /home directory. Choose another primary partition and set the desired size.

Likewise, select the Type as 83 Linux. The created /home partition shall appear as sda4.

Example:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type           [Label]         Size (MB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1               Primary     Linux                             15440 #root
sda2               Primary     Linux                             6256  #/var
sda3               Primary     Linux swap / Solaris              1024  #swap
sda4               Primary     Linux                             140480 #/home

Choose Write and type 'yes'. Beware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose Quit to leave the partitioner. Choose Done to leave this menu and continue with "Set Filesystem Mountpoints".

Note: Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sdx naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.

Set Filesystem Mountpoints

First you will be asked for your swap partition. Choose the appropriate partition (sda3 in this example). You will be asked if you want to create a swap filesystem; select yes. Next, choose where to mount the / (root) directory (sda1 in the example). At this time, you will be asked to specify the filesystem type.

Filesystem Types

Again, a filesystem type is a very subjective matter which comes down to personal preference. Each has its own advantages, disadvantages, and unique idiosyncrasies. Here is a very brief overview of supported filesystems:

1. ext2 Second Extended Filesystem- Old, reliable GNU/Linux filesystem. Very stable, but without journaling support. May be inconvenient for root (/) and /home, due to very long fsck's. An ext2 filesystem can easily be converted to ext3. Generally regarded as a good choice for /boot/.

2. ext3 Third Extended Filesystem- Essentially the ext2 system, but with journaling support. ext3 is completely compatible with ext2. Extremely stable, mature, and by far the most widely used, supported and developed GNU/Linux FS.

High Performance Filesystems:

3. ext4 Fourth Extended Filesystem- Backward compatible with ext2 and ext3, Introduces support for volumes with sizes up to 1 exabyte and files with sizes up to 16 terabyte. Increases the 32,000 subdirectory limit in ext3 to 64,000. Offers online defragmentation ability.

Note: ext4 is a new filesystem and may have some bugs.

4. ReiserFS (V3)- Hans Reiser's high-performance journaling FS uses a very interesting method of data throughput based on an unconventional and creative algorithm. ReiserFS is touted as very fast, especially when dealing with many small files. ReiserFS is fast at formatting, yet comparatively slow at mounting. Quite mature and stable. ReiserFS is not actively developed at this time (Reiser4 is the new Reiser filesystem). Generally regarded as a good choice for /var/.

5. JFS - IBM's Journaled FileSystem- The first filesystem to offer journaling. JFS had many years of use in the IBM AIX® OS before being ported to Linux. JFS currently uses the least CPU resources of any GNU/Linux filesystem. Very fast at formatting, mounting and fsck's, and very good all-around performance, especially in conjunction with the deadline I/O scheduler. (See JFS.) Not as widely supported as ext or ReiserFS, but very mature and stable.

6. XFS - Another early journaling filesystem originally developed by Silicon Graphics for the IRIX OS and ported to Linux. XFS offers very fast throughput on large files and large filesystems. Very fast at formatting and mounting. Generally benchmarked as slower with many small files, in comparison to other filesystems. XFS is very mature and offers online defragmentation ability.

  • JFS and XFS filesystems cannot be shrunk by disk utilities (such as gparted or parted magic)
A note on Journaling

All above filesystems, except ext2, utilize journaling. Journaling file systems are fault-resilient file systems that use a journal to log changes before they are committed to the file system to avoid metadata corruption in the event of a crash. Note that not all journaling techniques are alike; specifically, only ext3 and ext4 offer data-mode journaling, (though, not by default), which journals both data and meta-data (but with a significant speed penalty). The others only offer ordered-mode journaling, which journals meta-data only. While all will return your filesystem to a valid state after recovering from a crash, data-mode journaling offers the greatest protection against file system corruption and data loss but can suffer from performance degradation, as all data is written twice (first to the journal, then to the disk). Depending upon how important your data is, this may be a consideration in choosing your filesystem type.

Moving on...

Choose and create the filesystem (format the partition) for / by selecting yes. You will now be prompted to add any additional partitions. In our example, sda2 and sda4 remain. For sda2, choose a filesystem type and mount it as /var. Finally, choose the filesystem type for sda4, and mount it as /home. Template:Box Note Return to the main menu.

D: Select Packages

  • Core ISO: Choose CD as source and select the appropriate CD drive if more than one exist on the installation machine.
  • Netinstall: Select an FTP/HTTP mirror. Note that archlinux.org is throttled to 50KB/s.

Package selection is split into two stages. First, select the package category:

Note: For expedience, all packages in base are selected by default. Use the space-bar to select and de-select packages.
  • Base: The minimal base environment. Always select it and only remove packages that will not be used.
  • Base-devel: Extra tools such as make, automake and wireless-tools as well as wireless firmwares. Most beginners should choose to install it, and will probably need it later.

After category selection, you will be presented with the full lists of packages, allowing you to fine-tune your selections. Use the space bar to select and unselect.

Note: If you are going to require connection to a wireless network with WPA encryption, consider installing netcfg2 (as well as wireless_tools), which will enable you to do so.

Adter selecting the needed packages, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step, Install Packages.

E: Install Packages

Next, choose 'Install Packages'. You will be asked if you wish to keep the packages in the pacman cache. If you choose 'yes', you will have the flexibility to downgrade to previous package versions in the future, so this is recommended (you can always clear the cache in the future). The installer script will now install the selected packages, as well as the default Arch 2.6 kernel, to your system.

  • Netinstall: The Pacman package manager will now download and install your selected packages. (See vc/5 for output, vc/1 to return to the installer)
  • Core image: The packages will be installed from the CD/USB stick.

F: Configure the System

Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

  • At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.
  • Previous versions of the installer included hwdetect to gather information for your configuration. This has been deprecated, and udev should handle most module loading automatically at boot.

Now you will be asked which text editor you want to use; choose nano, joe or vi, (nano is generally considered easiest of the 3). You will be presented with a menu including the main configuration files for your system.

Note: It is very important at this point to edit, or at least verify by opening, every configuration file. The installer script relies on your input to create these files on your installation. A common error is to skip over these critical steps of configuration.
Can the installer handle this more automatically?

Hiding the process of system configuration is in direct opposition to The Arch Way. While it is true that recent versions of the kernel and hardware probing tools offer excellent hardware support and auto-configuration, Arch presents the user all pertinent configuration files during installation for the purposes of transparency and system resource control. By the time you have finished modifying these files to your specifications, you will have learned the simple method of manual Arch Linux system configuration and become more familiar with the base structure, leaving you better prepared to use and maintain your new installation productively.

Moving on...

/etc/rc.conf

Arch Linux uses the file /etc/rc.conf as the principal location for system configuration. This one file contains a wide range of configuration information, principally used at system startup. As its name directly implies, it also contains settings for and invokes the /etc/rc* files, and is, of course, sourced by these files.

LOCALIZATION section
  • LOCALE=: This sets your system locale, which will be used by all i18n-aware applications and utilities. You can get a list of the available locales by running Template:Codeline from the command line. This setting's default is fine for US English users.
  • HARDWARECLOCK=: Specifies whether the hardware clock, which is synchronized on boot and on shutdown, stores UTC time, or localtime. UTC makes sense because it greatly simplifies changing timezones and daylight savings time. localtime is necessary if you dual boot with an operating system such as Windows, that only stores localtime to the hardware clock.
  • USEDIRECTISA=: Use direct I/O request instead of Template:Filename for hwclock
  • TIMEZONE=: Specify your TIMEZONE. (All available zones are under Template:Filename).
  • KEYMAP=: The available keymaps are in Template:Filename. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X.
  • CONSOLEFONT=: Available console fonts reside under Template:Filename if you must change. The default (blank) is safe.
  • CONSOLEMAP=: Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in Template:Filename, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
  • USECOLOR=: Select "yes" if you have a color monitor and wish to have colors in your consoles.
LOCALE="en_US.utf8"
HARDWARECLOCK="localtime"
USEDIRECTISA="no"
TIMEZONE="US/Eastern"
KEYMAP="us"
CONSOLEFONT=
CONSOLEMAP=
USECOLOR="yes"
HARDWARE Section
  • MOD_AUTOLOAD=: Setting this to "yes" will use udev to automatically probe hardware and load the appropriate modules during boot, (convenient with the default modular kernel). Setting this to "no" will rely on the user's ability to specify this information manually, or compile their own custom kernel and modules, etc.
  • MOD_BLACKLIST=: This has become deprecated in favor of adding blacklisted modules directly to the MODULES= line below.
  • MODULES=: Specify additional MODULES if you know that an important module is missing. If your system has any floppy drives, add "floppy". If you will be using loopback filesystems, add "loop". Also specify any blacklisted modules by prefixing them with a bang (!). Udev will be forced NOT to load blacklisted modules. In the example, the IPv6 module as well as the annoying pcspeaker are blacklisted.
# Scan hardware and load required modules at boot
MOD_AUTOLOAD="yes"
# Module Blacklist - Deprecated
MOD_BLACKLIST=()
#
MODULES=(!net-pf-10 !snd_pcsp !pcspkr loop)
NETWORKING Section
  • HOSTNAME=:Set your HOSTNAME to your liking.
  • eth0=: 'Ethernet, card 0'. Adjust the interface IP address, netmask and broadcast address if you are using static IP. Set eth0="dhcp" if you want to use DHCP
  • INTERFACES=: Specify all interfaces here.
  • gateway=: If you are using static IP, set the gateway address. If using DHCP, you can usually ignore this variable, though some users have reported the need to define it.
  • ROUTES=: If you are using static IP, remove the ! in front of 'gateway'. If using DHCP, you can usually leave this variable commented out with the bang (!), but again, some users require the gateway and ROUTES defined. If you experience networking issues with pacman, for instance, you may want to return to these variables.
Example, using a dynamically assigned IP address (DHCP)
HOSTNAME="arch"
#eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
eth0="dhcp"
INTERFACES=(eth0)
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
ROUTES=(!gateway)
Example, using a static IP address
HOSTNAME="arch"
eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
INTERFACES=(eth0)
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
ROUTES=(gateway)

Modify Template:Filename to contain the DNS servers of choice. Example:

search my.isp.net.
nameserver 4.2.2.1
nameserver 4.2.2.2
nameserver 4.2.2.3

Various processes can overwrite the contents of Template:Filename. For example, by default Arch Linux uses the dhcpcd DHCP client, which will overwrite the file when it starts. Various methods may be used to preserve the nameserver settings in Template:Filename. For example, dhcpcd's configurations file may be edited to prevent the dhcpcd daemon from overwriting the file. To do this, you will need to modify the Template:Filename configuration:

# Arguments to be passed to the DHCP client daemon
# DHCPCD_ARGS="-q"
DHCPCD_ARGS="-C resolv.conf -q"
Tip: If using a non-standard MTU size (a.k.a. jumbo frames) is desired AND the installation machine hardware supports them, see the Jumbo Frames wiki article for further configuration.
DAEMONS Section

This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot.

DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  • If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
  • If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example "mpd" depends on "network", therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
  • Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
Note: This 'BSD-style' init, is the Arch way of handling what other distributions handle with various symlinks to an /etc/init.d directory.
About DAEMONS

The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide. A daemon is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a webserver that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.:httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.:sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), a daemon which lowers the CPU frequency if the system has nothing to do (e.g.:cpufreq), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm). All these programs can be added to the daemons line and will be started when the system boots. Useful daemons will be presented during this guide.

Historically, the term daemon was coined by the programmers of MIT's Project MAC. They took the name from Maxwell's demon, an imaginary being from a famous thought experiment that constantly works in the background, sorting molecules. UNIX systems inherited this terminology and created the backronym disk and execution monitor.

Tip: All Arch daemons reside under /etc/rc.d/

/etc/fstab

The fstab (for file systems table) is part of the system configuration listing all available disks and disk partitions, and indicating how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's filesystem. The /etc/fstab file is most commonly used by the mount command. The mount command takes a filesystem on a device, and adds it to the main system hierarchy that you see when you use your system. mount -a is called from /etc/rc.sysinit, about 3/4 of the way through the boot process, and reads /etc/fstab to determine which options should be used when mounting the specified devices therein. If noauto is appended to a filesystem in /etc/fstab, mount -a will not mount it at boot.

An example /etc/fstab
# <file system>        <dir>        <type>        <options>                 <dump>    <pass>
none                   /dev/pts     devpts        defaults                       0         0
none                   /dev/shm     tmpfs         defaults                       0         0
#/dev/cdrom            /media/cdrom   auto        ro,user,noauto,unhide          0         0
#/dev/dvd              /media/dvd     auto        ro,user,noauto,unhide          0         0
#/dev/fd0              /media/fl      auto        user,noauto                    0         0
/dev/sda1                   /          jfs        defaults,noatime               0         1
/dev/sda2                   /var     reiserfs     defaults,noatime,notail        0         2
/dev/sda3                    swap     swap        defaults                       0         0
/dev/sda4                   /home      jfs        defaults,noatime               0         2
Note: The 'noatime' option disables writing read access times to the metadata of files and may safely be appended to / and /home regardless of your specified filesystem type for increased speed, performance, and power efficiency (see here for more). 'notail' disables the ReiserFS tailpacking feature, for added performance at the cost of slightly less efficient disk usage.
  • <file system>: describes the block device or remote filesystem to be mounted. For regular mounts, this field will contain a link to a block device node (as created by mknod which is called by udev at boot) for the device to be mounted; for instance, '/dev/cdrom' or '/dev/sda1'.
Note: Rather than the sdx naming scheme, you may choose to use UUID, or other persistent block device naming schemes for consistent device mapping. Due to active developments in the kernel and also udev, the ordering in which drivers for storage controllers are loaded may change randomly, yielding an unbootable system/kernel panic. Nearly every motherboard has several controllers (onboard SATA, onboard IDE), and due to the aforementioned development updates, /dev/sda may become /dev/sdb on the next reboot. (See this wiki article for more information on persistent block device naming. )
  • <dir>: describes the mount point for the filesystem. For swap partitions, this field should be specified as 'swap'; (Swap partitions are not actually mounted.)
  • <type>: describes the type of the filesystem. The Linux kernel supports many filesystem types. (For the filesystems currently supported by the running kernel, see /proc/filesystems). An entry 'swap' denotes a file or partition to be used for swapping. An entry 'ignore' causes the line to be ignored. This is useful to show disk partitions which are currently unused.
  • <options>: describes the mount options associated with the filesystem. It is formatted as a comma separated list of options with no intervening spaces. It contains at least the type of mount plus any additional options appropriate to the filesystem type. For documentation on the available options for non-nfs file systems, see mount(8).
  • <dump>: used by the dump(8) command to determine which filesystems are to be dumped. dump is a backup utility. If the fifth field is not present, a value of zero is returned and dump will assume that the filesystem does not need to be backed up. Note that dump is not installed by default.
  • <pass>: used by the fsck(8) program to determine the order in which filesystem checks are done at boot time. The root filesystem should be specified with a <pass> of 1, and other filesystems should have a <pass> of 2 or 0. Filesystems within a drive will be checked sequentially, but filesystems on different drives will be checked at the same time to utilize parallelism available in the hardware. If the sixth field is not present or zero, a value of zero is returned and fsck will assume that the filesystem does not need to be checked.
  • If you plan on using hal to automount media such as DVDs, you may wish to comment out the cdrom and dvd entries in preparation for hal, which will be installed later in this guide.

Expanded information available in the Fstab wiki entry.

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf

Most users will not need to modify this file at this time, but please read the following explanatory information.

This file allows further fine-tuning of the initial ram filesystem, or initramfs, (also historically referred to as the initial ramdisk or "initrd") for your system. The initramfs is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during boot. The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting from a USB/FW drive). Once the initrramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and your boot continues. For this reason, the initramfs only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of common kernel modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.

mkinitcpio is the next generation of initramfs creation. It has many advantages over the old mkinitrd and mkinitramfs scripts.

  • It uses klibc and kinit which are developed by Linux kernel devs to provide a small and lightweight base for early userspace.
  • It can use udev for hardware autodetection at runtime, thus prevents you from having tons of unnecessary modules loaded.
  • Its hook-based init script is easily extendable with custom hooks, which can easily be included in pacman packages without having to modifiy mkinitcpio itself.
  • It already supports lvm2, dm-crypt for both legacy and luks volumes, raid, swsusp and suspend2 resuming and booting from usb mass storage devices.
  • Many features can be configured from the kernel command line without having to rebuild the image.
  • The mkinitcpio script makes it possible to include the image in a kernel, thus making a self-contained kernel image is possible.
  • Its flexibility makes recompiling a kernel unnecessary in many cases.

If using RAID or LVM on the root filesystem, the appropriate HOOKS must be configured. See the wiki pages for RAID and /etc/mkinitcpio for more info. If using a non-US keyboard. add the "keymap" hook to load your local keymap during boot. Add the "usbinput" hook if using a USB keyboard, e.g.:

HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata filesystems keymap usbinput"

(Otherwise, if boot fails for some reason you will be asked to enter root's password for system maintenance but will be unable to do so.)

If you need support for booting from USB devices, FireWire devices, PCMCIA devices, NFS shares, software RAID arrays, LVM2 volumes, encrypted volumes, or DSDT support, configure your HOOKS accordingly.

If doing a CF or SD card install, you may need to add the usbinput HOOK for your system to boot properly.

If you are using a US keyboard, and have no need for any of the above HOOKS, editing this configuration should be unnecessary at this point.

mkinitcpio is an Arch innovation developed by Aaron Griffin and Tobias Powalowski with some help from the community.

/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf

This file can be used to set special configuration options for the kernel modules. It is unnecessary to configure this file at this time.

/etc/resolv.conf (for Static IP)

The resolver is a set of routines in the C library that provide access to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). One of the main functions of DNS is to translate domain names into IP addresses, to make the Web a friendlier place. The resolver configuration file, or /etc/resolv.conf, contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process.

  • If you are using DHCP, you may safely ignore this file, as by default, it will be dynamically created and destroyed by the dhcpcd daemon. You may change this default behavior if you wish. (See Network]).

If you use a static IP, set your DNS servers in /etc/resolv.conf (nameserver <ip-address>). You may have as many as you wish. An example, using OpenDNS:

nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220

If you are using a router, you will probably want to specify your DNS servers in the router itself, and merely point to it from your /etc/resolv.conf, using your router's IP (which is also your gateway from /etc/rc.conf), e.g.:

nameserver 192.168.1.1

If using DHCP, you may also specify your DNS servers in the router, or allow automatic assignment from your ISP, if your ISP is so equipped.

/etc/hosts

This file associates IP addresses with hostnames and aliases, one line per IP address. For each host a single line should be present with the following information:

<IP-address> <hostname> [aliases...]

Add your hostname, coinciding with the one specified in /etc/rc.conf, as an alias, so that it looks like this:

127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost yourhostname
Note: This format, including the 'localhost' and your actual host name, is required for program compatibility! So, if you have named your computer Archhost, then that line above should look like this:
127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost Archhost
Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.

If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:

192.168.1.100 yourhostname.domain.org  yourhostname
Tip: For convenience, you may also use /etc/hosts aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
64.233.169.103   www.google.com   g
192.168.1.90   media
192.168.1.88   data
The above example would allow you to access google simply by typing 'g' into your browser, and access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.

/etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow

Modify these configurations according to your needs if you plan on using the ssh daemon. The default configuration will reject all incoming connections, not only ssh connections. Edit your /etc/hosts.allow file and add the appropriate parameters:

  • let everyone connect to you
sshd: ALL
  • restrict it to a certain ip
sshd: 192.168.0.1
  • restrict it to your local LAN network (range 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.0.255)
sshd: 192.168.0.
  • OR restrict for an IP range
sshd: 10.0.0.0/255.255.255.0

If you do not plan on using the ssh daemon, leave this file at the default, (empty), for added security.

/etc/locale.gen

The /usr/sbin/locale-gen command reads from /etc/locale.gen to generate specific locales. They can then be used by glibc and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards. The ability to setup a default locale is a great built-in privilege of using a UNIX-like operating system.

By default /etc/locale.gen is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. locale-gen runs on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in /etc/locale.gen.

Choose the locale(s) you need (remove the # in front of the lines you want), e.g.:

en_US ISO-8859-1
en_US.UTF-8	

The installer will now run the locale-gen script, which will generate the locales you specified. You may change your locale in the future by editing /etc/locale.gen and subsequently running 'locale-gen' as root.

Note: If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users, and also leads to the most commonly asked questions on the forum.

Pacman-Mirror

Choose a mirror repository for pacman.

  • archlinux.org is throttled, limiting downloads to 50KB/s

Root password

Finally, set a root password and make sure that you remember it later. Return to the main menu and continue with installing bootloader.

G: Install Bootloader

Because we have no secondary operating system in our example, we will need a bootloader. GNU GRUB is the recommended bootloader. Alternatively, you may choose LILO.

GRUB

The provided GRUB configuration (/boot/grub/menu.lst) should be sufficient, but verify its contents to ensure accuracy (specifically, ensure that the root (/) partition is specified by UUID on line 3). You may want to alter the resolution of the console by adding a vga=<number> kernel argument corresponding to your desired virtual console resolution. (A table of resolutions and the corresponding numbers is printed in the menu.lst.)

Example:

title  Arch Linux (Main)
root   (hd0,0) 
kernel /boot/vmlinuz26 root=/dev/sda1 ro vga=773
initrd /boot/kernel26.img
Note: The linux kernel, 'vmlinuz', is so named because it incorporated virtual memory capability early in its development. The z denotes a zipped (compressed) image.

Explanation:

Line 1: title: A printed menu selection. "Arch Linux (Main)" will be printed on the screen as a menu selection.

Line 2: root: GRUB's root; the drive and partition where the kernel (/boot) resides, according to system BIOS. (More accurately, where GRUB's stage2 file resides). NOT necessarily the root (/) file system, as they can reside on separate partitions. GRUB's numbering scheme starts at 0, and uses an hdx,x format regardless of IDE or SATA, and enclosed within parentheses.

The example indicates that /boot is on the first partition of the first drive, according to BIOS, or, (hd0,0).

Line 3: kernel: This line specifies:

  • The path and filename of the kernel relative to GRUB's root.

In the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and vmlinuz26 is the kernel filename; /boot/vmlinuz26. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply /vmlinuz26, being relative to GRUB's root.

  • The root= argument to the kernel statement specifies the partition containing the root (/) directory in the booted system, (more accurately, the partition containing /sbin/init).
  • An easy way to distinguish the 2 appearances of 'root' in /boot/grub/menu.lst is to remember that the first root statement informs GRUB where the kernel resides, whereas the second root= kernel argument tells the kernel where the root filesystem (/) resides.
  • Kernel options.

In our example, ro mounts the filesystem as read only during startup, (usually a safe default; you may wish to change this in case it causes problems booting) and the "vga=773" argument will give a 1024x768 framebuffer with 256 color depth.

Line 4: initrd: (For Initial RAM disk) The path and filename of the initial RAM filesystem relative to GRUB's root. Again, in the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and kernel26.img is the initrd filename; /boot/kernel26.img. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply /kernel26.img, being relative to GRUB's root.

Install the GRUB bootloader (to the master boot record, sda in our example).

Tip: For more details, see the GRUB wiki page.

H: Reboot

That's it; You have configured and installed your Arch Linux base system. Exit the install, and reboot:

# reboot

(Be sure to remove the installer CD)

Part II: 새로운 아치 리눅스 기본 시스템 구성 및 업데이트

여러분의 새로운 아치 리눅스 시스템에서 부팅 완료 후에는 로그인 프롬프트가 완료 됩니다. (만약 부팅 하드디스크 순서를 변경하시려면 BIOS 에서 변경 가능합니다).

축하합니다, 그리고 당신의 새 아치 리눅스 기반 시스템에 오신 것을 환영합니다!

당신의 새 아치 리눅스 시스템은 이제 GNU / 리눅스 기반으로 환경을 만들 수 있는 기본 준비가되었습니다. 여기에서, 여러분이 무엇을 원하든 그 목적에 맞게 만들수 있습니다.

root 계정으로 로그인을 합니다. 우리는 루트 계정으로 pacman 을 실행해서 시스템을 업데이트 시키고 일반 사용자를 추가할 것입니다. ((참고 | 가상 콘솔 1-6 을 사용할 수 있습니다. 가상 콘솔을 전환하려면 ALT + F1을 ... F6 키를 누르세요))

Step 1: 네트워크 구성 (필요시)

  • 이 섹션은 네트워크 구성이 되지 않은 경우 거의 모든 네트워크를 작동시키는데 도움을 줄것입니다.

여러분의 시스템을 올바르게 구성하려면 네트워크가 작동 해야합니다. 이것을 확인하려면 www.google.com에 ping을 사용해보십시오.

# ping -c 3 www.google.com


만약 네트워크가 올바르게 작동을 한다면 Update, Sync and Upgrade the system with pacman 문서를 계속 보시면 됩니다.

만약에 ping www.google.com 명령 후, 알수 없는 호스트 메시지가 나온다면 여러분의 네트워크가 제대로 설정되지 않은 것입니다. 다음 파일의 무결성, 적당한 옵션인지 확인 해주세요.:

/etc/rc.conf # 특히 당신의 HOSTNAME= 와 NETWORKING 섹션 타입의 오류 확인.

/etc/hosts # 두가지 확인 사항. (위에 참고.)

/etc/resolv.conf # 수동 IP설정인경우. 당신이 DHCP설정을 사용한다면 이 파일은 기본적으로 자동으로 생성 / 파기 됩니다. 하지만 수동으로 설정이 가능합니다. (Network 참고)

Tip: 자세한 네트워크 구성에 대한 문서는 Network 를 참고 해주세요.

유선랜

당신의 이더넷 인터페이스 확인

# ifconfig -a

모든 인터페이스가 리스트로 보여집니다. 당신의 eth0 혹은 eth1 항목이 보여지게 될것입니다.

  • 고정 IP (Static IP)

필요한 경우, 새로운 고정 IP를 설정할 수 있습니다:

# ifconfig eth0 <IP주소> netmask <넷마스크> up 

그리고 기본 게이트웨이 주소를 설정

# route add default gw <ip address of the gateway>

/etc/resolv.conf 파일을 확인해서 DNS 서버가 누락되어잇으면 추가 합니다. 다시 ping www.google.com으로 네트워크가 작동하는지 확인 합니다.

  • DHCP

DHCP 서버/라우터를 사용중이라면(공유기나 일반 가정용 인터넷서비스):

# dhcpcd eth0

성공적으로 완료시 dhcp서버로 붙어 IP를 할당 받아옵니다.

무선랜

  • 무선랜 드라이버가 인터페이스를 생성하였는지 확인:
# iwconfig
  • 무선랜 인터페이스를 활성화 ifconfig <interface> up
# ifconfig wlan0 up
  • (선택사항) 사용 가능한 엑서스 포인트(AP) 검색:
# iwlist wlan0 scan | less
  • 특정 엑서스 포인트(AP)를 사용하려면 iwconfig <인터페이스> essid <ssid>. 혹은, WEP 사용시 iwconfig <인터페이스> essid <ssid> key <wep키>
# iwconfig wlan0 essid linksys key ABCDEF01234
  • dhcp서버로부터 IP 주소 요청 dhcpcd <interface>
# dhcpcd wlan0
  • 정상 연결인지 확인:
$ ping -c 3 www.google.com

Done.

자세한 가이드는 Wireless Setup 를 참고해주세요.

아날로그 모뎀

헤이즈-호환, 외장, 아날로그 모뎀을 사용하려면 ppp 패키지 설치를 필요로 합니다. man pppd를 참고하여서 /etc/ppp/options 설정의 수정이 필요합니다. 또한 ISP에 맞는 접속 스크립트(ID와 암호) 생성을 필요로 합니다. 자세한 사항은 Dialup without a dialer HOWTO 을 참고해주세요.

pppd를 보다 편하게 이용하기 위해서 wvdial이나 시뮬레이터 툴을 설치 사용 가능합니다. 혹시 여러분의 모뎀이 윈모뎀이라 부르는 소프트웨어 방식을 사용중이라면 LinModem 홈페이지를 참고해주세요.

ISDN

IDSN 설정을 위한 3단계:

  1. 하드웨어 설치 및 설정
  2. ISDN 유틸리티 설치 및 설정
  3. 사용중인 ISP 설정 추가

현재 아치 리눅스 커널에는 ISDN 모듈이 포함 되어 있습니다. 더이상 ISDN 사용을 위해서 커널 컴파일을 하지 않아도 됩니다. ISDN 카드나 USB ISDN박스를 설치 후 modprobe를 이용해서 모듈을 로딩 가능합니다. 거의 모든 ISDN PCI 카드는 hisax 모듈에 의해 처리됩니다, 두가지 매개변수 필요 : 타입과 프로토콜. 만약 여러분의 국가가 1TR6 표준을 사용한다면 프로토콜 '1', EuroISDN (EDSS1)을 사용한다면 '2', D체널이 없는 소위 임대라인을 사용시 '3', US NT1은 '4'.

세부사항을 설정하는 방법은 커널 문서에 있으며 더 구체적인 사항은 ISDN 하위 디렉토리에 포함되어 잇으며 온라인으로도 제공됩니다. 매개변수는 여러분의 카드에 따라 달라집니다. 사용 가능한 모든 목록은 READM.HiSax 커널문서에서 찾을수 있습니다. 아래 예를 보고 여러분에 맡는 모듈명, 옵션을 사용하세요.

# modprobe hisax type=18 protocol=2

위의 명령은 ELSA 퀵스텝 1000PCI, 독일 EDSS1 프로토콜을 사용하는 것에 대한 hisax 모듈을 로드한 것입니다. 여러분의 카드정보는 /var/log/everything.log파일 확인 하시면 됩니다. 만약 외장 USB ISDN 을 사용중이시라면 USB 모듈을 먼저 필요하는것을 잊지 마세요.

먼저 당신이 특정 설정을 사용하여 카드를 작동 시켰다면, 당신은 /etc/modprobe.conf에 모듈 옵션을 추가할수 있습니다 :

alias ippp0 hisax
options hisax type=18 protocol=2

여기에서는 옵션만 추가 하였습니다. 실제 hisax 모듈을 로드하는 부분은 rc.conf파일에 추가 할수 있습니다.

이제 당신은 실제로 사용하는 기본 유틸리티가 필요 합니다.

isdn4k-utils 패키지를 설치, 그리고 isdnctrl 맨페이지를 읽어보세요; 여러분이 isdn을 사용하는데 도움이 될것입니다. isdnctrl 맨페이지에는 구성파일뿐 아니라, 몇 가지 유용한 예제를 만들고 설치하는 방법에 대한 설명이 있습니다.

이후 isdnctrl 구성 유틸리티를 사용하여 여러분의 ISDN을 카드로 당신이 PHONE_OUT 매개 변수에 지정된 컴퓨터에 접속시킬 수 있어야하지만, 사용자이름과 비밀번호 인증이 실패 할경우 이것은 /etc/ppp/pap-secrets 와 /etc/ppp/chap-secrets 파일에 사용자이름과 비밀번호 만들지 않아서 입니다. 일반적이라면 PPP 프로토콜을 이용해서 ISP인증을 사용합니다.

만약 당신이 모든 걸 제대로 설정 하였다면, 지금 전화 접속 연결을 설정할 수있을 것입니다

# isdnctrl dial ippp0

만약 당신이 어떤 문제가 발생한다면 루트로 로그 파일을 확인할 것을 기억하자!

DSL (PPPoE)

먼저 DSL이 인터넷에 연결 되어 있어야합니다, 또한 DSL과 네트워크 카드가 연결 되어야 할 것입니다. 그리고 새로 설치한 네트워크 카드 모듈명을 modules.conf/modprobe.conf 혹은 /etc/rc.conf의 MODULES 영역에 추가합니다. rp-pppoe 패키지와 pppoe-setup 환경설정 스크립트 실행도 필요로 합니다. 이 후에는 접속, 해제를 다음과 같은 명령으로 쉽게 사용 가능합니다.

# /etc/rc.d/adsl start

그리고

# /etc/rc.d/adsl stop

설치는 간단하지만, 한번정도는 man 페이지 읽어 주시길 권장합니다. 만약 부팅시 자동으로 '접속하려면' /etc/rc.conf 데몬영역에 adsl을 추가 해주시면 됩니다. 그리고 network 데몬에는 !를 추가, 네트워크가 adsl에 의해 처리 되게 합니다.

Step 2: pacman을 이용한 시스템 업데이트, 싱크, 업그레이드

pacman 을 이용하면 시스템 업데이트를 할 수 있습니다.

팩맨이 무엇인가요?

Pacmanpackage 와 manager의 줄임말입니다. 팩맨 C로 작성 되어진 가볍고 적은 메모리 사용, 다재다능한 패키지 관리자입니다. 이 관리자는 여러분의 전체 패키지 관리, 설치, 제거, 패키지 다운로드(캐시), 커스텀 패키지, 자동 의존성 처리, 리모트와 로컬 검색등을 제공합니다. 아치는 .tar.gz 포멧의 패키지를 사용하며 이는 gzip형식으로 간단히 압축한것으로 Bzip 압축포멧보다 용량이 크지만 팩맨이 보다 더 빠르게 작동하고 기타 편의성을 제공합니다.

우리는 원격 저장소에서 소프트웨어를 팩맨을 사용하여 패키지를 다운로드 시스템에 설치해야합니다.

팩맨은 당신이 원하는 베이스 시스템을 구축하는데 아치 리눅스 프로그램 중에서 가장 중요한 도구입니다.

패키지 저장소(Repositories)와 /etc/pacman.conf

아치는 현재 다음과 같은 4가지 팩맨 저장소를 통해 쉽게 액세스할 수있습니다 :

[core]

[core] 저장소는 기본 아치 리눅스 시스템에 대한 각에 필요한 도구를 제공하는 것입니다; GNU 툴체인, 리눅스 커널, 편집기, 커맨드 라인 브라우저, 기타. (보통 하나의 종류의 프로그램만 제공하지만 편집기의 경우 vi와 nano 두가지가 제공되는 예외도 있습니다. 사용자가 하나 또는 둘 모두를 선택할 수 있도록 제공됩니다) 그것은 시스템을 기본적으로 사용하기 위한 모든 패키지가 포함되어있습니다. 이 패키지들은 아래와 같은 중요한 시스템 패키지를 포함하지 않습니다.

  • 아치 개발자가 관리
  • 모든 패키지가 바이너리로 제공
  • 팩맨으로 접근 가능
  • 코어 설치 미디어를 설치할 간단한 설치 스크립트가 포함되어있습니다, 릴리스의 시간에 핵심적인 저장소의 스냅샷입니다.

[extra]

[extra] 저장소는 core 아치 저장소에 포함되지 않은 모든 패키지가 포함되어 있어서 완벽한 아치 시스템 구축에 도움이 됩니다. 예를 들면 X, KDE, 아파치 웹서버를 여기에서 찾을수 있습니다.

  • 아치 개발자가 관리
  • 모든 패키지가 바이너리로 제공
  • 팩맨으로 접근 가능

[testing]

[testing] 저장소는 core와 extra 저장소에 포함된 테스팅 패키지가 포함됩니다. 새로운 패키지의 테스팅이 필요할 경우 :

  • 아치 개발자가 관리
  • 모든 패키지가 바이너리로 제공
  • 팩맨으로 접근 가능

* 업데이트에 문제가 생길 것으로 예상이 되면 첫번째 테스트로 testing 저장소를 활용합니다.

* testing 저장소에서 패키지가 문제 없음이 확인 되면 다른 저장소로 이동되는 방식으로 운영됩니다.

Note: * [testing] 는 다른 저장소와 패키지 이름이 충돌 하는 저장소입니다. 따라서 testing저장소를 사용하시려면 [testing] 저장소 리스트가 pacman.conf의 제일 상단에 위치해야합니다.
Warning: [testing] 저장소는 문제가 발생할 수 있으니 숙련자만 사용하세요.

[community]

[community] 저장소는 아치 사용자 저장소 (Arch User Repository) (AUR) 로 부터 신뢰를 받은 사용자(TUs)가 관리하는 패키지의 모음입니다. 이것은 사용자들이 올린 AUR 저장소의 PKGBUILDs로 부터 투표를 통해 신뢰 할수 있는 사용자를 선별하게 됩니다. [community] 저장소는 기타 공식 저장소와 마찬가지로 팩맨을 통한 접근, 설치가 가능합니다.

  • 신뢰 할수 있는 사용자가 관리
  • 모든 패키지가 바이너리로 제공
  • 팩맨으로 접근 가능

AUR (비공식 저장소)

AUR공식으로 지원하지 않는 패키지를 포함하고 있습니다, 또한 pacman을 통한 직접 접근이 불가능합니다. AUR [unsupported] 은 바이너리 패키지를 제공하지 않습니다. 하지만 제공되는 16,000 이상의 PKGBUILD 스크립트를 제공하여 소스로부터 패키지를 구축 할 수있습니다. AUR 패키지는 웹페이지의 인기 투표 시스템을 통해서 [community] 바이너리 저장소로 이동 될 수 있습니다.

  • 모두 PKGBUILD bash 빌드 스크립트로 제공
  • 팩맨 접근 불가능

* pacman wrappers (AUR Helpers) AUR을 편하게 이용 가능하게 해주는 프로그램

/etc/pacman.conf

팩맨은 실행시 마다 /etc/pacman.conf 정보를 불러옵니다. 이 파일의 구성은 환경설정과 저장소로 나뉘어집니다. 저장소 부분은 패키지 검색 시 사용하는 repository 정보로 이루어집니다. 그 외 환경설정 부분은 세부설정, 전체 설정으로 이루어집니다.

이 설정은 대부분 기본값으로 사용하므로 수정 시 주의를 요합니다. 추가 정보는 Mirrors 문서를 확인 해주세요

# nano /etc/pacman.conf

예제:

#
# /etc/pacman.conf
#
# See the pacman.conf(5) manpage for option and repository directives

#
# GENERAL OPTIONS
#
[options]
# The following paths are commented out with their default values listed.
# If you wish to use different paths, uncomment and update the paths.
#RootDir     = /
#DBPath      = /var/lib/pacman/
#CacheDir    = /var/cache/pacman/pkg/
#LogFile     = /var/log/pacman.log
HoldPkg     = pacman glibc
# If upgrades are available for these packages they will be asked for first
SyncFirst   = pacman
#XferCommand = /usr/bin/wget --passive-ftp -c -O %o %u
#XferCommand = /usr/bin/curl %u > %o

# Pacman won't upgrade packages listed in IgnorePkg and members of IgnoreGroup
#IgnorePkg   =
#IgnoreGroup =

#NoUpgrade   =
#NoExtract   =

# Misc options (all disabled by default)
#NoPassiveFtp
#UseSyslog
#ShowSize
#UseDelta
#TotalDownload
#
# REPOSITORIES
#   - can be defined here or included from another file
#   - pacman will search repositories in the order defined here
#   - local/custom mirrors can be added here or in separate files
#   - repositories listed first will take precedence when packages
#     have identical names, regardless of version number
#   - URLs will have $repo replaced by the name of the current repo
#
# Repository entries are of the format:
#       [repo-name]
#       Server = ServerName
#       Include = IncludePath
#
# The header [repo-name] is crucial - it must be present and
# uncommented to enable the repo.
# 

# Testing is disabled by default.  To enable, uncomment the following
# two lines.  You can add preferred servers immediately after the header,
# and they will be used before the default mirrors.
#[testing]
#Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

[core]
# Add your preferred servers here, they will be used first
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

[extra]
# Add your preferred servers here, they will be used first
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist 

[community]
# Add your preferred servers here, they will be used first
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

# An example of a custom package repository.  See the pacman manpage for
# tips on creating your own repositories.
#[custom]
#Server = file:///home/custompkgs

원하는 모든 저장소를 활성화 ('Include =' 라인과 '[저장소이름]' 라인의 #을 제거합니다).


  • 저장소를 선택할 때는 주석을 저장소 이름의 [브라켓] 제거와 'Include =' 라인 두개를 제거해야합니다. 그렇지 않으면 선택한 저장소에서 결과가 생략되는 것입니다! 이것은 매우 일반적인 오류입니다.

/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

팩맨 미러 저장소와 우선 순위를 정의합니다.

rankmirrors 스크립트를 이용한 미러 저장소 우선순위 만들기

어떤 이는 설치를 기계에 지정된 거울을 기반으로 가장 가까운 미러를 감지하려고 시도합니다 Python 스크립트입니다은 / etc / pacman.d / mirrorlist. /usr/bin/rankmirrors 은 /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist에 정의된 미러리스트 중 현재 시스템에서 가장 가까운 미러를 감지 하는 파이썬 스크립트입니다. 이는 팩맨의 동작 속도를 향상 시키는데 도움이 됩니다.(패키지 다운로드가 빨라집니다)

처음으로 해야할 일은 팩맨을 이용해서 파이썬을 설치합니다:

# pacman -S python 

cd 명령을 이용해 /etc/pacman.d/ 디렉토리로 이동:

# cd /etc/pacman.d

/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist 백업:

# cp mirrorlist mirrorlist.backup

mirrorlist.backup을 편집기로 열어서 같은 나라의 서버나 가까운 나라의 미러서버의 주석을 제거합니다.

# nano mirrorlist.backup

스크립트를 실행해서 mirrorlist.backup 파일에서 가장 빠른 미러를 골라서 mirrorlist파일에 출력 합니다. (-n 옵션 사용)

# rankmirrors -n 6 mirrorlist.backup > mirrorlist

-n 6: 6개의 가장 빠른 미러를 고릅니다

팩맨 패키지 목록을 새로 고침

/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist 파일을 생성하거나 수정하면, (수동이나 /usr/bin/rankmirrors으로 생성시) 아래 명령을 실행해줍니다:

# pacman -Syy

--refresh 나 -y 플래그를 두번 쓰면 팩맨은 업데이트 되지 않은 패키지 리스트도 모두 새로 갱신시킵니다. pacman -Syy 실행시 어디 미러가 변경 되었는지, 걱정하지 않아도 됩니다.

최신 패키지를 위한 미러체크(Mirrorcheck)

일부 공식 미러는 구버전인 패키지 미러를 포함할 수있습니다. ArchLinux Mirrorcheck 미러에 대한 패키지 버전, 네트워크 문제, 데이터 수집 문제등 다양한 측면에 대한 리포트를 제공합니다.

패키지 업그레이드 무시(Ignoring packages)

"pacman -Syu" 명령을 실행하면, 전체 시스템을 업데이트 합니다. 이 때 원하는 패키지만 업데이트에서 제외가 가능합니다. 예를 들면 한글 로케일 패치가 된 unzip과 사용자 컴파일된 패키지등이 있을수 있습니다. 두가지 옵션을 사용할수 있는데; pacman 커맨드라인에 --ignore 옵션을 사용 (pacman -S --help 으로 자세한 옵션 확인하세요) 하거나 영구적으로 무시할 패키지들은 /etc/pacman.conf 파일의 IgnorePkg 영역에 적어주시면 됩니다. wine패키지를 업데이트 무시할때의 예 :

IgnorePkg = wine  

이 방법은 팩맨을 사용하는 아치 패키지 설치할때 해당됩니다, 특별한 경우 ABS 를 사용할수 있습니다.

파워유저가 아니라면 선택적인 패키지 업그레이드가 아닌 pacman -Syu을 통한 전체 시스템 업데이트를 권장합니다. 기존 패키지에 버그, 시스템 취약성등이 발생으로 인한 문제가 발생시 여러분의 시스템을 망가트릴수 있습니다. 대부분의 선택적 업그레이드를 할 때, 비정상적인 또는 부적절한 편집 소프트웨어를 설치하는 일이 수행됩니다.

환경설정의 업그레이드 무시(Ignoring Configuration Files)

당신은 "pacman -Su" 로 인한 환경설정/시스템 파일의 덮어씌기를 "보호" 할수 있습니다. (이 옵션은 /etc/pacman.conf에서 설정)

NoUpgrade = etc/lilo.conf boot/grub/menu.lst

팩맨과 친해지기

팩맨은 아치유저들의 가장 친한 도구입니다. 팩맨에 대해서 알고 싶으시면 해당 맨페이지를 살펴보시는것을 추천합니다. 아래 명령으로 확인하세요:

$ man pacman

더 자세한 정보를 보시려면 pacman 위키 페이지를 확인하세요.

Powerpill, 팩맨의 부가 스크립트

Xyne's powerpill는 외부 다운로드 핼퍼를 사용해서 패키지 검색/다운 속도를 향상시키는 팩맨 래퍼 스크립트입니다. (지금은 [community] 저장소에 포함 되어있습니다) powerpill은 병렬로 효과적인 패키지 다운로드 속도를 제공합니다. 이것은 특히 새로운 수백개의 패키지를 설치하는데 유리합니다.

# pacman -S powerpill

당신이 패키지 설치 시 powerpill을 팩맨처럼 취급 가능합니다. 예를 들어, 다음과 같이 시스템을 업데이트를 시킬수 있습니다. :

# powerpill -Syu

자세한 사항은 Powerpill 위키 문서를 참고하세요.

Step 3: 시스템 업데이트

이제 귀하의 전체 시스템을 업그레이드할 준비가 되었습니다. 그전에 뉴스 (그리고 메일링 리스트 announce 메일링 리스트)을 읽어주세요. 종종 개발자는 필요한 구성 및 알려진 문제에 대한 수정 사항에 대한 중요한 정보를 제공할 것입니다. 전체 업그레이드 전에 관련 페이지를 참고 하시길 권장합니다.

전체 시스템 싱크, 리프레시, 업그레이드 :

# pacman -Syu

혹은:

# pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade

팩맨은 이제 pacman.conf(5)에 정의된 모든 서버에서 마스터 패키지 목록을 다운로드합니다. (이 시점에서 팩맨 자체를 업그레이드 하라는 메시지가 있을 수 있습니다.그러면 yes 후 다시 pacman -Syu 명령으로 업그레이드를 재시도 하면 됩니다.)

커널 업그레이드 시 재부팅을 요구할 수 있습니다. 때때로, 구성 변경 사항을 업데이 트하는 동안 사용자 작업이 필요한 장소 걸릴 수있습니다

Note: 때로는, 구성 변경 사항을 업데이트 하는 동안 사용자 작업이 필요한 곳이 있을수 있습니다; 모든 팩맨의 관련 출력 정보를 읽어보세요.

팩맨의 로그는 /var/log/pacman.log 에 저장됩니다.

패키지와 관련 자주 묻는 질문, 업데이트 및 패키지 관리에 관한 답변은 Package Management FAQs 참고 해주세요.

아치는 롤링 릴리즈 모델

아치는 rolling release 리눅스 배포판인 것을 명심하세요. 이것은 시스템을 다시 설치하거나 최신 버전으로 업그레이드하는 작업을 수행할 이유가 없다는 것을 의미합니다. 단지 pacman -Syu 정기적으로 업그레이드를 실행 해주면 항상 시스템을 최신버전으로 유지 가능합니다. 이 업그레이드가 끝이 나면 시스템은 최신버전으로 다시 설치한 것과 동일합니다. 리부팅 은 커널 업그레이드가 발생 한 경우 해주면 됩니다.

시간 동기화 (Network Time Protocol)

당신은 시스템 시간을 원격으로 NTP 서버에 OpenNTPD를 사용하여 동기화 설정 하실수 있습니다. 시스템 시작시 자동 실행을 원한다면 OpenNTPD 을 /etc/rc.conf파일의 DAEMONS= 영역에 추가 시켜 주시면 됩니다.(좀 더 자세한 사항은 Network Time Protocol 문서를 참고해주세요.)

Step 4: 사용자 추가 및 그룹 설정

UNIX 는 멀티-유저 os입니다. 당신은 루트 계정을 사용하여 일상적인 작업을 할 수 없습니다.(해서는 안 됩니다) 루트로 일반 작업을 하는것은 매우 위험한 일입니다. 루트 계정은 관리 작업을 위한 것입니다. 대신, 루트가 아닌 일반 사용자 계정을 /usr/sbin/useradd 을 이용해서 추가:

# useradd -m -G [그룹명] -s [로그인_쉘] [계정명] 
  • -m /home/사용자명에 사용자 홈 디렉토리를 생성. 자신의 홈 디렉토리 내에서 사용자는 문서작성, 프로그램 설치, 삭제등을 할 수있습니다. 사용자의 홈 디렉토리는 자신의 데이터와 개인 구성 파일을 포함한다 '점이 붙은 파일'(점이 붙은 파일은 보호파일), 이것은 '숨김' 형식. (숨김 형식의 파일을 보기 위해서는 여러분의 파일 브라우저 옵션에서 숨김파일 보기를 선택하거나 ls에서 -a 스위치를 사용합니다.) 만약 글로벌 설정파일(/etc/ 디렉토리 밑에 위치)과 사용자 설정파일(/home/계정명 디렉토리 밑에 위치)와 출돌시 대부분 사용자 설정파일이 우선 적용 됩니다.

숨김파일은 최종 사용자에 의해 변경 될 가능성이 포함됩니다. 그 예로 xinitrc 및. bashrc 파일입니다. 이것은 각각 xinit 와 배시쉘 설정파일입니다. 이 파일들은 창 관리자를 변경하거나 로그인 별칭, 사용자 로그인 명령, 환경변수등을 지정하실 수있습니다. 이 파일들은 /etc/skel 디렉토리에 원본이 존재하며 사용자 생성시 사용자 홈 디렉토리로 복사 됩니다.

  • -G 이는 사용자가 속한 그룹을 지정합니다. 각 그룹은 쉼표로, 혹은 공백으로 구분합니다. 기본적으로 사용자에 대한 초기 그룹은 (users)에게만 속합니다.
  • -s 사용자의 기본 로그인쉘의 위치를 지정합니다.

루트유저가 아닌 부가적인 권한 그룹:

  • audio - 사운드카드와 관련 작업 / 소프트웨어
  • floppy - 플로피디스크 접근 권한
  • lp - 인쇄 작업 관리
  • optical - 광학 드라이브(CD, DVD) 관련 작업
  • storage - 스토리지(하드디스크) 관련 작업
  • video - 비디오 작업 및 하드웨어 가속
  • wheel - sudo 사용
  • power - 전원 사용 옵션 (예: 시스템 종료, 전원버튼)

일반적인 데스크탑 사용자 "archie" 추가 예제 (로그인 쉘 bash):

# useradd -m -G users,audio,lp,optical,storage,video,wheel,power -s /bin/bash archie

사용자 추가 후 새로운 로그인 암호 지정 /usr/bin/passwd.

'archie' 사용자의 암호 지정 예제:

# passwd archie

(새로운 UNIX password를 물어보는 화면이 나타납니다.)

루트가 아닌 여러분의 새로운 사용자 계정이 지금은 홈 디렉터리, 로그인 비밀번호가 만들어졌습니다.

이와 유사항 방법으로 /usr/sbin/adduser을 사용하셔도 됩니다:

adduser을 사용하는 경우, 대화형으로 위의 데이터에 대한 메시지를 표시합니다 (초보자들이 useradd보다 쉽게 사용 가능합니다):

# adduser

사용자 계정 삭제:

오류나 사용자 계정이 필요 없어진, 기타 이유로 계정을 삭제해야할때는 /usr/sbin/userdel을 이용하시면 됩니다:

# userdel -r [계정명]
  • -r 사용자의 홈 디렉토리 파일과 홈 디렉터리 자체, 사용자의 메일 스풀 함께 삭제됩니다.

사용자 또는 기존 사용자의 이름을 변경하고 싶다면 Change username, GroupsUser Management 문서를 참고 해주세요. 맨페이지를 보고 싶다면 usermod(8)gpasswd(8)를 참고 하시면 됩니다.

Step 5: Sudo 설치 및 설정 (옵션)

최신 설치 미디어 (2009.08) 이후 vi의 패키지를 업데이트 되었습니다. 따라서 sudo를 설치하기 전에 호환되지 않는 파일을 제거하려면 다음 명령을 사용하여 주세요:

# rm /usr/bin/{view,rview}

Sudo 와 vim 설치:

# pacman -S sudo vim

sudo는 사용할 사용자를 추가하려면 (a "sudoer"), visudo 명령을 루트로 실행해야합니다. 만약 당신이 vi가 아닌 다른 편집기를 사용한다면 visudo 실행전 아래 변수를 입력해주세요. nano편집기 사용시 예:

# EDITOR=nano visudo

이제 visudo 명령 시에 vi가 아닌 nano편집기가 실행 될것입니다:

# visudo

이것은 vi의 특별 세션에서 /etc/sudoers 파일을 읽어옵니다. 임시 파일을 수정 한후 파일이 이상 없다면 임시파일을 원본을 덮어 씁니다.

Warning: /etc/sudoers 를 직접 편집기로 수정 하지 마세요.구문 오류가 발생시 루트 계정을 사용할 수 없게 되는 문제가 발생 할수 있습니다. 반드시 visudo 명령을 이용해서 /etc/sudoers 파일을 수정하세요.

"sudo"명령을 이용해서 루트권한을 이용할 수 있습니다. 특정 사용자에게 전체 루트 권한을 부여하려면 visudo로 아래 설정을 추가합니다:

계정명   ALL=(ALL) ALL

여기서 계정명은 하나의 사용자 계정이름입니다.

좀 더 자세한 사항은 Sudo 문서를 참고 해주세요.

Part III: X 설치 와 ALSA 구성

Step 1: Configure sound with alsamixer

The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (known by the acronym ALSA) is a Linux kernel component intended to replace the original Open Sound System (OSS) for providing device drivers for sound cards. Besides the sound device drivers, ALSA also bundles a user space library for application developers who want to use driver features with a higher level API than direct interaction with the kernel drivers.

Note: Alsa is included in the Arch mainline kernel and udev will automatically probe your hardware at boot, loading the corresponding kernel module for your audio card. Therefore, your sound should already be working, but upstream sources mute all channels by default.
Note: OSS4.1 has been released under a free license and is generally considered a significant improvement over older OSS versions. If you have issues with ALSA, or simply wish to explore another option, you may choose OSS4.1 instead. Instructions can be found in OSS

The alsa-utils package contains the alsamixer userspace tool, which allows configuration of the sound device from the console or terminal.

By default the upstream kernel sources ship with snd_pcsp, the alsa pc speaker module. snd_pcsp is usually loaded before your "actual" sound card module. In most cases, it will be more convenient if this module is loaded last, as it will allow alsamixer to correctly control the desired sound card.

To have snd_pcsp load last, add the following to /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf:

options snd-pcsp index=2

Alternatively, if you do not want snd_pcsp to load at all, blacklist it by adding the following to /etc/rc.conf:

MODULES=(... !snd_pcsp)
Note: You will need to unload all your sound modules and reload them for the changes to take effect. It might be easier to reboot. Your choice.

Install the alsa-utils package:

 # pacman -S alsa-utils

Also, you may want to install the alsa-oss package, which wraps applications written for OSS in a compatibility library, allowing them to work with ALSA. To install the alsa-oss package:

# pacman -S alsa-oss   

Did you add your normal user to the audio group? If not, use /usr/bin/gpasswd. As root do:

# gpasswd -a yourusername audio

As normal, non-root user, invoke /usr/bin/alsamixer:

# su - yourusername 
$ alsamixer

Unmute the Master and PCM channels by scrolling to them with cursor left/right and pressing M. Increase the volume levels with the cursor-up key. (70-90 Should be a safe range.) Some machines, (like the Thinkpad T61), have a Speaker channel which must be unmuted and adjusted as well. Leave alsamixer by pressing ESC.

Sound test

Ensure your speakers are properly connected, and test your sound configuration as normal user using /usr/bin/aplay:

$ aplay /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center.wav

You should hear a very eloquent woman say, "Front, center."

Saving the Sound Settings

Exit your normal user shell and run /usr/sbin/alsactl as root:

$ exit
# alsactl store

This will create the file '/etc/asound.state', saving the alsamixer settings.

Also, add the alsa daemon to your DAEMONS section in /etc/rc.conf to automatically restore the mixer settings at boot.

# nano /etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(syslog-ng network crond alsa)

Note that the alsa daemon merely restores your volume mixer levels on boot up by reading /etc/asound.state. It is separate from the alsa audio library (and kernel level API).

Expanded information available in the ALSA wiki entry.

Step 2: Install X

The X Window System version 11 (commonly X11, or just simply X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) on UNIX-like operating systems.

X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the screen and interacting with a mouse and/or keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface — individual client programs handle this.

X is so named because it was preceded by the W Window System, originally developed at Stanford University.

A: The X-Files

Now we will install the base Xorg packages using pacman. This is the first step in building a GUI. If you plan on using an open-source video driver, and need 3d acceleration, install the libgl library before installing Xorg:

# pacman -S libgl

(Proprietary video drivers provide their own gl library implementations.)

Install the base packages:

# pacman -S xorg

The 3d utilities glxgears and glxinfo are included in the mesa package:

# pacman -S mesa

B: Install Video Driver Package

Now we have the base packages we need for running the X Server. You should add the driver for your graphics card now (e.g. xf86-video-<name>). The easiest way to configure X.org is by installing the correct driver packages first, and then generating /etc/X11/xorg.conf using an autoconfiguration script, like Xorg -configure.

You will need knowledge of which video chipset your machine has. If you do not know, use the /usr/sbin/lspci program:

# lspci | grep VGA

If you need a list of all open-source video drivers, do:

# pacman -Ss xf86-video | less

Here is a list of open source drivers, and the corresponding video chipsets.

  • xf86-video-apm — Alliance ProMotion video driver
  • xf86-video-ark — ark video driver
  • xf86-video-ati — ATI(AMD) radeon video driver
    • xf86-video-r128 — ATI(AMD) video driver for X.org ati Rage128 video
    • xf86-video-mach64 — ATI(AMD) video driver for X.org mach64 video
    • xf86-video-radeonhd — ATI(AMD) radeonhd video driver
  • xf86-video-chips — Chips and Technologies video driver
  • xf86-video-cirrus — Cirrus Logic video driver
  • xf86-video-dummy — dummy video driver
  • xf86-video-fbdev — framebuffer video driver
  • xf86-video-glint — GLINT/Permedia video driver
  • xf86-video-i128 — Number 0 i128 video driver
  • xf86-video-i740 — Intel i740 video driver
  • xf86-video-i810 — Intel i810/i830/i9xx video drivers (deprecated - use -intel)
  • xf86-video-intel — Newer Version of Intel i810/i830/i9xx video drivers
  • xf86-video-intel-legacy — Legacy-driver for older intel cards as 82865G (xf86-video-intel currently crashes with older cards)
  • xf86-video-imstt — Integrated Micro Solutions Twin Turbo video driver
  • xf86-video-mga — mga video driver (Matrox Graphics Adapter)
  • xf86-video-neomagic — neomagic video driver
  • xf86-video-nv — Nvidia nv video driver
  • xf86-video-nouveau — Open Source 3D acceleration driver for nVidia cards (experimental), check: [1] for Current Status
  • xf86-video-openchrome — VIA/S3G UniChrome, UniChrome Pro and Chrome9 video driver
  • xf86-video-rendition — Rendition video driver
  • xf86-video-s3 — S3 video driver
  • xf86-video-s3virge — S3 Virge video driver
  • xf86-video-savage — savage video driver
  • xf86-video-siliconmotion — siliconmotion video driver
  • xf86-video-sis — SiS video driver
  • xf86-video-sisusb — SiS USB video driver
  • xf86-video-tdfx — tdfx video driver
  • xf86-video-trident — Trident video driver
  • xf86-video-tseng — tseng video driver
  • xf86-video-unichrome — VIA S3 Unichrome video drivers
  • xf86-video-v4l — v4l video driver
  • xf86-video-vesa — vesa video driver
  • xf86-video-vga — VGA 16 color video driver
  • xf86-video-vmware — vmware video driver
  • xf86-video-voodoo — voodoo video driver

Note: The vesa driver is the most generic, and should work with almost any modern video chipset. If you cannot find a suitable driver for your video chipset, vesa should work.

Use pacman to install the appropriate video driver for your video card/onboard video. e.g.:

# pacman -S xf86-video-savage

(for the Savage driver.)

  • If you have an NVIDIA or ATI graphics card you may wish to install the proprietary NVIDIA or ATI drivers. Installing proprietary video drivers is covered below..
  • If you do not want to install the proprietary drivers or do not have an NVIDIA or ATI graphics card, you should skip down to Step 3: Configure X.


NVIDIA Graphics Cards

The NVIDIA proprietary drivers are generally considered to be of good quality, and offer 3D performance, whereas the open source nv driver offers only 2d support at this time.

Before you configure your Graphics Card you will need to know which driver fits. Arch currently has several different driver packages that each match a certain subset of Cards:

1. nvidia-96xx slightly newer cards up to the GF 4.

2. nvidia-173xx Geforce FX series cards

3. nvidia newest GPUs after the GF FX

Note: Nvidia-71xx series proprietary drivers, which are required by extremely old cards like TNT and TNT2, have been removed because they do not work with the new Xorg that Arch makes use of and nvidia has discontinued support for such. You should use the xf86-video-nv or xf86-video-vesa drivers instead.

Consult the NVIDIA website to see which one is for you. The difference is only for the installation; Configuration works the same with every driver.

Select and install the appropriate NVIDIA driver for your card, e.g.:

# pacman -S nvidia-96xx

The NVIDIA package has a utility for updating your existing /etc/X11/xorg.conf for use with the NVIDIA driver:

# nvidia-xconfig

It also has several options which will further specify the contents and options of the xorg.conf file. For example,

# nvidia-xconfig --composite --add-argb-glx-visuals

For more detailed information, see nvidia-xconfig(1).

Some useful tweaking options in the device section are (beware that these may not work on your system):

       Option          "RenderAccel" "true"
       Option          "NoLogo" "true"
       Option          "AGPFastWrite" "true"
       Option          "EnablePageFlip" "true"

Make sure all instances of DRI are commented out:

#    Load        "dri"

Double check your /etc/X11/xorg.conf to make sure your default depth, horizontal sync, vertical refresh, and resolutions are acceptable.

Update kernel module dependencies using /sbin/depmod:

# depmod -a

(A reboot may be necessary.)

Tip: Advanced instructions for NVIDIA configuration can be found in the NVIDIA article.

You may now continue with Step 3: Configure X to familiarize yourself further, or continue the installation process with Test X.

ATI Graphics Cards

ATI owners have multiple options for drivers.

  • The open source radeon driver provided by the xf86-video-ati package.
    • This is the original, reverse-engineered open source driver which fully supports Radeon chipsets up to X1950 (latest R500 chipsets). Cards up to the 9200 series are fully supported, stable, and provide full 2D and 3D acceleration. Cards from 9500 to X1950 feature full 2D acceleration, and stable 3D acceleration, but lack certain features provided by the proprietary driver, (for example, powersaving is still in a testing phase). Cards from HD2xxx (R6xx) to the newest are supported by xf86-video-ati, but only offer 2d support at this time.
  • The open source radeonhd driver provided by the xf86-video-radeonhd package.
    • This driver supports ATI R500 chipsets (Radeon X1000 series) and newer. It is written by Novell with specifications provided to the public by AMD. It supports RandR 1.2 and development is currently very active. Therefore, functionality may be inconsistent across the spectrum of cards supported. (Some users report excellent performance and reliability while others experience trouble.) It also supports HDMI, with sound.
  • The proprietary fglrx driver provided by the Catalyst package located in the AUR. The proprietary driver is covered below.

The open-source drivers will usually suit most needs and are generally less problematic.

Install the radeon ATI Driver with

# pacman -S xf86-video-ati libgl ati-dri

Install the radeonhd ATi Driver with

# pacman -S xf86-video-radeonhd libgl ati-dri

The proprietary ATI driver Catalyst was once a precompiled package offered by Arch in the extra repository, but as of March 2009, official support has been dropped because of dissatisfaction with the quality and speed of development of the proprietary driver.The catalyst driver is now available in AUR. Installation information for Catalyst driver is available here

Warning: The proprietary ATI driver supports only R600 and newer devices (that means, HD2xxx and newer). Older series cards (X1xxx and older) are not supported.
Tip: Advanced instructions for ATI configuration can be found in the ATI wiki article.

C: Install Input Driver Packages

The latest X requires you to install drivers for your input devices, keyboard and mouse included. For a complete list of available input drivers,

# pacman -Ss xf86-input | less

For most users, xf86-input-keyboard and xf86-input-mouse should be sufficient for a basic setup. Use pacman to install your desired drivers for your input devices. e.g.:

# pacman -S xf86-input-keyboard xf86-input-mouse

Step 3: Configure X

A: The xorg.conf file

/etc/X11/xorg.conf is the main configuration file for your X Window System, the foundation of your Graphical User Interface. It is a plain text file ordered into sections and subsections. Important sections are Files, InputDevice, Module, Monitor, Modes, Screen, Device, and ServerLayout. Sections can appear in any order and there may be more than one section of each kind, for example, if you have more than one monitor, or if your laptop has a trackpoint as well as a mouse.

Since X11R7.2 the X.Org X Server features autoconfiguration. Therefore, it can function without an xorg.conf file in many cases. If the autoconfiguration works satisfactorily and you do not need to specify special features such as aiglx, compositing and so forth, you may forgo creating an xorg.conf file and continue below with Input hotplugging.

Standard xorg.conf generation

Advanced users may wish to manually create their own xorg.conf file. You may also use the /usr/bin/Xorg program with the -configure option to generate a basic config file; As root, do:

# Xorg -configure

This will create a config file at /root/xorg.conf.new

Copy the file to /etc/X11/:

# cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf
Alternative xorg.conf generation

Newer versions of the Xorg Server(>1.6) do not include the /usr/bin/xorgconfig or /usr/bin/xorgcfg scripts. If you run into problems generating/using an xorg.conf file, you might want to consider using this guide.

See the article on X.Org, section "Without xorg.conf".

  • Note that if you are in possession of a properly configured xorg.conf under another distribution and with the same Xorg version, you may easily copy it over to your current Arch system's /etc/X11/ directory.


Tip: For Intel graphics card, specific configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance, as stated in the Intel wiki article.

B: Input hotplugging

Input hotplugging is supported since the 1.4 version of the X.Org X Server and enabled by default. When enabled, X will utilize hal to allow for the hotplugging and removal of human interface devices without having to restart X.

Warning: Starting the X server using input hotplugging without the HAL daemon installed and running may result in the inability to use the mouse and/or keyboard, and the X server appearing to freeze as a result .

You must decide whether you will use input hotplugging (enabled by default), or disable it. Input hotplugging is convenient for many users, especially those with mobile machines like laptops and netbooks. Other users may wish to disable it in favor of manual or more static device configuration within /etc/xorg.conf.

Tip: See the article on Xorg input hotplugging for full details.
Using input hotplugging

Install HAL, dbus and the evdev input driver:

# pacman -S hal dbus xf86-input-evdev

Set the keyboard layout (if you do not use a standard US keyboard)

# cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-keymap.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy/
# nano /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-keymap.fdi

Edit the "input.xkb.layout" key and possibly the "input.xkb.variant" key in this file.

Laptop users will also need the synaptics package to allow X to configure the touchpad:

# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
Tip: For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad settings, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.


The HAL daemon

The hal daemon must be started before the X server:

# /etc/rc.d/hal start

Add the hal daemon to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf to start it at every boot.

Disable input hotplugging

Disabling input hotplugging will skip devices detected by hal and will use the keyboard/mouse configuration from xorg.conf:

# nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf

add the following:

Section "ServerFlags"
    Option "AutoAddDevices" "False"
EndSection
Set the keyboard layout if not using a standard US keyboard

Add option lines in the "InputDevice" section of the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file specifying the keyboard layout and variant:

Option "XkbLayout" "be"
Option "XkbVariant" ""

Alternative method using the setxkbmap command:

# setxkbmap pl 

(with the proper keyboard layout instead of pl of course) should switch your keyboard layout in x. To make this permanent, add this command to /home/<youruser>/.xinitrc before starting the window manager (before command like exec startxfce4).

C: Test X

First, read the warning about input hotplugging in the previous section. At this point, you should have xorg installed, with a suitable video driver and an /etc/X11/xorg.conf configuration file. If you want to test your configuration quickly, to ensure your ability to successfully start X from the command line before installing a complete desktop environment, you can do so by configuring ~/.xinitrc to invoke Xterm. Xterm is a very simple terminal emulator which runs in the X Server environment; it is installed as part of the base xorg packages.

Prepare for the test by configuring ~/.xinitrc

One of the main functions of this file is to dictate what X Window client is invoked with the /usr/bin/startx and/or /usr/bin/xinit program on a per-user basis. (The startx script is merely a front end to the more versatile xinit command.) There are vast amounts of additional configurable specifications and commands that may also be added to ~/.xinitrc as you further customize your system.

Note: .xinitrc is a so-called 'dot' (.) file. Files in a UNIX filesystem which are preceded with a dot (.) are 'hidden', and will not show up with a regular 'ls' command, usually for the sake of keeping directories tidy. Dot files may be seen by issuing ls -a. The 'rc' denotes Run Commands and simply indicates that it is a configuration file. Since it controls how a program runs, it is (although historically incorrect) also said to stand for "Run Control".

startx/xinit will start the X server and clients. To determine the client to run, startx/xinit will first look to parse a .xinitrc file in the user's home directory. In the absence of file ~/.xinitrc, it defaults to the global xinitrc in the xinit library directory; /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc, which defaults to using the TWM window manager. (Hence, if you invoke startx without a ~/.xinitrc file, a TWM session will start.) Further details in the .xinitrc wiki entry.

Switch to your normal, non-root user:

# su - yourusername
  • /etc/skel/ contains files and directories to provide sane defaults for newly created user accounts. The name skel is derived from the word skeleton, because the files it contains form the basic structure for users' home directories.
  • Sample .xinitrc provided here

Copy the sample xinitrc file from /etc/skel/ to your home directory:

$ cp /etc/skel/.xinitrc ~/

Edit the file:

$ nano ~/.xinitrc

and add "exec xterm" so that it looks like this:

#!/bin/sh
#
# ~/.xinitrc
#
# Executed by startx (run your window manager from here)
#
# exec wmaker
# exec startkde
# exec icewm
# exec blackbox
# exec fluxbox
#
exec xterm
Note: Be sure to have only one uncommented exec line in ~/.xinitrc for now.

Below, we shall edit this file again to specify the appropriate desktop environment/window manager of your choice.

Perform the test

Test your configurations by starting X as normal, non-root user, with:

$ startx

or

$ xinit

You should have an xterm session open up. You can test your keyboard and its layout in it. You may have to move your mouse around until it enters the xterm area before you see the mouse cursor or xterm responds to your keyboard.

If you prove a properly configured /etc/X11/xorg.conf by successfully running the test, you can be assured that your DE/WM of choice will work smoothly.

Exit Xterm with:

$ exit
Tip: Advanced instructions for Xorg configuration can be found in the Xorg article.


Note: With Xorg 1.6 CTRL-Alt-Backspace has been deprecated and will not work to exit out of this test. A somewhat messy work around is to switch to a different virtual console (CTRL-Alt-F2, for example) and then switch back to the console the test is running in (probably CTRL-Alt-F1). You will then be able to use CTRL-C to kill the X test. You can enable CTRL-Alt-Backspace by editing xorg.conf, as described here.

If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (CTRL-Alt-F2, for example), and login blindly as root, followed by <Enter>, followed by root's password followed by <enter>. Finally, reboot blindly with:

# reboot

or

# init 6
In case of errors

If you have problems starting X, you can look for errors in the /var/log/Xorg.0.log file and on the console output of the virtual console you started X from.

If using /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Inspect the config file:

# nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf

The video driver may need to be specified. e.g.:

Section "Device"

       ...
       Driver  "savage"
       ...

EndSection

Horizontal sync and vertical refresh specs under section "Monitor" may need to be added:

Section "Monitor"
       Identifier   "Monitor0"
       VendorName   "Monitor Vendor"
       ModelName    "Monitor Model"
       HorizSync     30.0 - 130.0 # Safe for LCD's
       VertRefresh   50.0 - 100.0 # Safe for LCD's and most CRT's.
EndSection

(If these specs are unknown, consult the documentation of the computer monitor.)

Color depth can be specified under section "Screen":

Section "Screen"
       Identifier "Screen0"
       Device     "Card0"
       Monitor    "Monitor0"
       DefaultDepth 24

(Typically, this will be set to 24 for true color.)

Also add desired Modes to the "Display" subsection, at least under the Depth 24 header, e.g.:

 SubSection "Display"
               Viewport   0 0
               Depth     24
               Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"

Add the following section, if eye candy which requires the composite extension is desired:

Section "Extensions"
 	Option "Composite" "Enable"
EndSection

Try the config again, after modifying:

# startx

or

# xinit

Still having trouble? Detailed instructions are in the Xorg article.

Need Help?

If you are still having trouble after consulting the Xorg article and need assistance via the Arch forums, be sure to install and use wgetpaste:

# pacman -S wgetpaste

Use wgetpaste and provide links for the following files when asking for help in your forum post:

  • ~/.xinitrc
  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • /var/log/Xorg.0.log.old

Use wgetpaste like so:

$ wgetpaste </path/to/file>

Post the corresponding links given within your forum post. Be sure to provide appropriate hardware and driver information as well.

Warning: It is very important to provide detail when troubleshooting X. Please provide all pertinent information as detailed above when asking for assistance on the Arch forums.

Part IV: 데스크탑 환경 설치와 설정

비록 X 윈도우 시스템이 "그래픽 사용자 환경" (Graphical User Interface, GUI)의 기반을 제공하지만, 데스크탑 환경 (Desktop Environment, DE) 없이는 기능성과 편리함을 갖춘 GUI를 얻기 힘듭니다. 대부분의 데스크탑 환경은 윈도우 매니저, 아이콘, 애플릿, 윈도우, 툴바, 폴더, 배경화면, 기타 응용 프로그램과 드래그 앤 드롭 기능등을 지원합니다. 각 데스크탑 환경의 기능과 디자인에 따라 사용자의 전체적인 컴퓨터 사용방식이 달라지기 때문에 DE의 선정은 매우 주관적인 선택입니다. 따라서 본인에게 필요한 기능들이 지원되고 디자인이 마음에 드는 데스크탑 환경을 고르시길 추천합니다.

만약 가볍고 수동설정이 가능한 GUI 환경을 원하신다면 데스크탑 환경 대신에 ""윈도우 매니저"" (Window Manager, WM)만을 설치해서 사용할수도 있습니다. 윈도우매니저는 X 윈도우 시스템상에 구동되는 프로그램들의 창(윈도우)의 위치와 모양새를 결정하지만 기본적으로 패널, 애플릿, 아이콘, 응용 프로그램등을 포함하지는 않습니다. 시스템 자원을 적게 잡아먹는 가벼운 WM 예: Openbox, Fluxbox, fvwm2, pekwm, evilwm, Windowmaker, TWM. 아주 독특한 WM을 사용하고 싶으시다면 awesome, ion3, wmii, dwm, xmonad, ratpoison등을 사용해보세요.

Step 1: 글꼴 설치

At this point, you may wish to save time by installing visually pleasing, true type fonts, before installing a desktop environment/window manager. Dejavu and bitstream-vera are good, general-purpose font sets. You may also want to install the Microsoft font sets, which are especially popular on websites, and may be required for the proper function of Flash animations which feature text.

사전 작업: /etc/pacman.conf에 다음을 추가

[jazzbug]
Server = http://www.fossa.or.kr/~jazzbug/arch

한글 글꼴 설치:

# pacman -S koreanpack 로 묶음 설치 또는
# pacman -S ttf-alee ttf-unfonts ttf-nanum ttf-daum ttf-ngcoding ... 등 필요한 것만 개별 설치

영문 글꼴 설치:

# pacman -S ttf-ms-fonts ttf-dejavu ttf-bitstream-vera

글꼴 설정은 Xorg Font Configuration 을 참조하세요.

Step 2: ~/.xinitrc (again)

As non-root user, edit your /home/username/.xinitrc to specify the DE you wish to use. This will allow you to use startx/xinit from the shell, in the future, to open your DE/WM of choice:

$ nano ~/.xinitrc

Uncomment or add the 'exec ..' line of the appropriate desktop environment/window manager. Some examples are below:

For the Xfce4 desktop environment:

 exec startxfce4 

For the KDE desktop environment:

 exec startkde

A startkde or startxfce4 command starts the KDE or Xfce4 desktop environment. This is exactly the same as entering:

$ xinit /usr/bin/startxfce4

or

$ xinit /usr/bin/starkde

from the shell prompt. Note that such a command does not finish until you logout of the DE. Normally the shell would wait for KDE to finish, then run the next command. The "exec" prefix to this command within the ~/.xinitrc file tells the shell that this is the last command, so the shell does not need to wait to run a subsequent command.

In the future, after the DE of choice is installed and if trouble with automounting is experienced, try using the following command in ~/.xinitrc instead. (Replace "startxfce4" with the command that is appropriate for your window manager/DE.)

exec ck-launch-session startxfce4

This will ensure the various environment variables are set correctly by starting a clean consolekit session. ConsoleKit is a framework for keeping track of the various users, sessions, and seats present on a system. It provides a mechanism for software to react to changes of any of these items or of any of the metadata associated with them. It works in conjunction with dbus, and other tools.

Remember to have only one uncommented exec line in your ~/.xinitrc for now.

Step 3: 데스크탑 환경 설치

아래 DE/WM 중에서 마음에 드는 것을 선택하세요.

GNOME

GNOME이란

The GNU Network Object Model Environment. The GNOME project provides two things: The GNOME desktop environment, an intuitive and attractive desktop for end-users, and the GNOME development platform, an extensive framework for building applications that integrate into the rest of the desktop.

설치

기본 GNOME 환경 설치:

# pacman -S gnome

추가로 Extra 설치:

# pacman -S gnome-extra

It's safe to choose all packages shown in the extra package.

GNOME에 유용한 데몬

Recall from above that a daemon is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. Some users prefer to use the hal daemon. The hal daemon, among other things, will automate the mounting of disks, optical drives, and USB drives/thumbdrives for use in the GUI. The fam daemon will allow real-time representation of file alterations in the GUI, allowing instant access to recently installed programs, or changes in the file system. Both hal and fam can make life easier for the GNOME user. The hal and fam packages are installed when you install GNOME, but must be invoked to become useful.

You may want to install a graphical login manager. For GNOME, the gdm daemon is a good choice.

루트로:

# pacman -S gdm

hal과 fam 시작:

# /etc/rc.d/hal start
# /etc/rc.d/fam start

/etc/rc.conf의 DAEMONS 섹션에 hal과 fam을 추가하여 부팅 시 자동시작:

# nano /etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(syslog-ng network crond alsa hal fam gdm)

(If you prefer to log into the console and manually start X, leave out gdm.)

Then edit your /etc/gdm/custom.conf and in the [servers] section add:

0=Standard vt7

As normal user, start X:

$ startx

또는

$ xinit

If ~/.xinitrc is not configured for GNOME, you may always start it with xinit, followed by the path to GNOME:

$ xinit /usr/bin/gnome-session
Tip: Advanced instructions for installing and configuring GNOME can be found in the Gnome article.

Congratulations! Welcome to your GNOME desktop environment on your new Arch Linux system! You may wish to continue by viewing Tweaks and finishing touches, or the rest of the information below. You may also be interested in the Post Installation Tips wiki article.

Eye Candy

By default, GNOME does not come with many themes and icons. You may wish to install some more attractive artwork for GNOME:

A nice gtk (gui widget) theme engine (includes themes) is the murrine engine. Install with:

# pacman -S gtk-engine-murrine

Optional for more themes:

# pacman -S murrine-themes-collection 

Once it has been installed, select it with System -> Preferences -> Appearance -> Theme tab.

The Arch Linux repositories also have a few more nice themes and engines. Install the following to see for yourself:

# pacman -S gtk-engines gtk-aurora-engine gtk-candido-engine gtk-rezlooks-engine

You can find many more themes, icons, and wallpapers at GNOME-Look.

KDE

About KDE

The K Desktop Environment. KDE is a powerful Free Software graphical desktop environment for GNU/Linux and UNIX workstations. It combines ease of use, contemporary functionality, and outstanding graphical design with the technological superiority of UNIX-like operating systems.

Installation

Choose one of the following, then continue below with Useful KDE DAEMONS:

1. The package kde is the official and complete vanilla KDE 4.2 residing under the Arch [extra] repo.

Install base kde:

# pacman -S kdebase-workspace

Install the whole Desktop Environment:

# pacman -S kde

or

# pacman -S kde-meta

2. Alternatively, another KDE project exists called KDEmod, part of the Chakra distribution. It is an Arch Linux (and spinoff) exclusive, community-driven package set designed for modularity and offers a choice between KDE 3.5.10 or 4.x.x. KDEmod can be installed with pacman, after adding the proper repositories to /etc/pacman.conf. The project website, including complete installation instructions, can be found at http://www.chakra-project.org/.

Useful KDE DAEMONS

Recall from above that a daemon is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services.

KDE will require the hal (Hardware Abstraction Layer) daemon for optimal functionality. The hal daemon, among other things, will facilitate the automatic mounting of disks, optical drives, and USB drives/thumbdrives for use in the GUI. The hal package is installed when you install xorg-server, but must be invoked to become useful.

The kdm daemon is the K Display Manager, which provides a graphical login, if desired.


Start hal:

# /etc/rc.d/hal start
Note: The hal daemon relies on, and will automatically start, the dbus daemon.

Edit your DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf:

# nano /etc/rc.conf

Add hal to your DAEMONS array, to invoke it on boot. If you prefer a graphical login, add kdm as well:

DAEMONS=(syslog-ng hal network crond alsa kdm)
Note: If you installed KDEmod3 instead of normal KDE, use kdm3 instead of kdm.
  • This method will start the system at runlevel 3, (/etc/inittab default, multiuser mode), and then start KDM as a daemon.
  • If you prefer to log into the console at runlevel 3, and manually start X, leave out kdm, or comment it out with a bang, ( ! ).

Now try starting your X Server as normal user:

$ startx

or

$ xinit
Tip: Advanced instructions for installing and configuring KDE can be found in the KDE article.

Congratulations! Welcome to your KDE desktop environment on your new Arch Linux system! You may wish to continue by viewing The Beginners Guide Appendix, or the rest of the information below. You may also be interested in the Post Installation Tips wiki article.

Xfce

About Xfce

Xfce은 리눅스를 위한 또 다른 프리 소프트웨어 데스크탑 환경입니다. 이 것은 시각적인 효과는 매력적이고 쉽고, 가벼우며, 신속한것을 목표로 합니다. Xfce은 재사용이 가능한 모듈로 구성됩니다. 그것은 데스크탑 환경 같이 전체 기능을 제공하는 것을 선호하는 사용자가 개인적인 근무 환경을 만들기 위해 선택할 수있는 구성 요소로 구성되어있습니다. Xfce는 적당한 사양의 시스템에 현대적인 데스크탑 환경을 실행하는 데 사용됩니다. 이것은 GTK2+ 툴킷(그놈과 같이)을 기반으로 합니다. Xfwm 윈도우 매니저, 를 사용하며, 마우스로 설정을 바꿀수 잇으며 설정 파일을 사용자로가 직접 수정을 하지 않아도 됩니다.

설치

Xfce 설치:

# pacman -S xfce4 

부가적인 테마와 부가 프로그램 설치:

# pacman -S xfce4-goodies gtk2-themes-collection

Note: xfce4-xfapplet-plugin (이 플러그인은 Xfce4 패널에 그놈 애플릿을 사용할수 있게 해줍니다)은 xfce4-goodies 패키지 그룹에 속해 있으며 gnome-panel, gnome-desktop 패키지 의존성을 필요합니다. 이를 설치 하기 전에 이 같은 의존성 패키지가 있다는 것을 참고 해주세요

만약 DBUS에 대한 오류가 발생하면 DBUS를 설치 해야합니다:

# pacman -S dbus

만약 로그인 시 '팁과 트릭'이 필요하다면 fortune-mod 패키지를 설치 해줍니다:

# pacman -S fortune-mod
유용한 데몬

데몬 프로그램은 백그라운드로 실행, 이벤트 및 서비스를 제공, 리콜을 기다리고있습니다. 일부 Xfce 사용자는 hal데몬을 사용하는 것을 선호합니다. hal데몬은 GUI환경에서 디스크, 광학 드라이브, 그리고 USB 드라이브의 마운트를 자동화 해줍니다. fam데몬은, 최근에 설치된 프로그램 또는 파일 시스템의 변화에 즉시 액세스할 수 있도록 GUI에서 파일의 변경 사항을 실시간으로 반영해줍니다. fam과 hal데몬은 xfce4과 같이 유용하게 사용할수 있습니다.

hal과 fam 데몬의 시작:

# /etc/rc.d/hal start
# /etc/rc.d/fam start
Note: hal 데몬은 의존하는 dbus데몬을 자동으로 실행합니다.

/etc/rc.conf의 데몬 영역 편집:

# nano /etc/rc.conf

부팅시 자동 시작을 하려면 DAEMONS 영역에 halfam을 추가 해줍니다.

Tip: 좀 더 자세한 설치, 설정은 Xfce 문서를 참고 해주세요.

만약 부팅시 GUI환경의 로그인이나 Xfce4의 자동 시작을 하려면 Adding a login manager (KDM, GDM, or XDM) to automatically boot on startup 문서를 참고하세요. 그렇지 않으면 콘솔에서 실행을 통해 로그인할 수있습니다 :

 $ startxfce4

축하합니다! 여러분의 새로운 Xfce 데스크탑 환경에 오신것을 환영합니다! 그 밖에 설치 후 팁은 Post Installation Tips 위키 문서를 참고해주세요.

LXDE

LXDE에 대해서

LXDE, (for Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment), is a new project focused on providing a modern desktop environment which aims to be lightweight, fast, intuitive and functional while keeping system resource usage low. LXDE is quite different from other desktop environments, since each component of LXDE is a discrete and independent application, and each can be easily substituted by other programs. This modular design eliminates all unnecessary dependencies and provides more flexibility. Details and screenshots available at: http://lxde.org/

LXDE 에 포함된 프로그램:

  1. OpenBox: 창 관리자
  2. PCManFM: 파일 관리자
  3. LXpanel: 시스템 패널
  4. LXSession: 세션 관리자
  5. LXAppearance: GTK+ 테마 변환기
  6. GPicView: 이미지 뷰어
  7. Leafpad: 간단한 텍스트 편집기
  8. XArchiver: 가볍고 빠른 gtk+기반의 압축파일 관리자
  9. LXNM (개발중): LXDE에서 무선 네트워크를 지원하는 가벼운 네트워크 관리자.

These lightweight and versatile tools combine for quick setup, modularity and simplicity.

LXDE 설치:

# pacman -S lxde gamin openbox

추가:

exec startlxde
  • If you experience problems with Policykit or plan on running nm-applet, the following command should be used instead
exec ck-launch-session startlxde

to your ~/.xinitrc and start with startx or xinit

Tip: Further information available at the LXDE wiki article.

*box

Fluxbox

Fluxbox is yet another windowmanager for X. It's based on the Blackbox 0.61.1 code. Fluxbox looks like blackbox and handles styles, colors, window placement and similar things exactly like blackbox (100% theme/style compability).

Fluxbox 설치:

# pacman -S fluxbox fluxconf

If you use gdm/kdm a new fluxbox session will be automatically added. Otherwise, you should modify your user's .xinitrc and add this to it:

exec startfluxbox 

더 많은 정보를 원하시면 Fluxbox 문서를 확인하세요.

Openbox

Openbox는 기본에 충실며 빠르고 가벼운 확장이 가능한 창 관리자입니다.

Openbox는 응용프로그램과 함께 작동하며, 당신의 데스크탑 관리를 더 쉽게합니다. This is because the approach to its development was the opposite of what seems to be the general case for window managers. Openbox was written first to comply with standards and to work properly. Only when that was in place did the team turn to the visual interface.

Openbox는 기본적으로 혼자 작동하지만 GNOME 이나 KDE 같은 데스크탑 환경의 창 관리자를대신할 수 있습니다.

Openbox 설치

# pacman -S openbox

설정도구를 원한다면 추가로 설치:

# pacman -S obconf obmenu

openbox를 설치하면 menu.xml 과 rc.xml 을 홈 디렉토리의 ~/.config/openbox/ 로 옮기라는 메시지가 나타납니다:

# su - yourusername
$ mkdir -p ~/.config/openbox/
$ cp /etc/xdg/openbox/rc.xml ~/.config/openbox/
$ cp /etc/xdg/openbox/menu.xml ~/.config/openbox/

rc.xml는 Openbox의 기본 설정 파일입니다. 임의로 수정하거나 OBconf를 이용하여 편집할 수 있습니다. menu.xml는 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 눌렀을 때 나타나는 매뉴의 설정 파일입니다.

당신은 KDM/GDM같은 시각적인 로그인 관리자를 사용하거나, 쉘에서 startx를 입력하여 Openbox를 사용할 수 있습니다. 당신의 홈 디렉토리의 ~/.xinitrc 에 다음을 추가하세요:

exec openbox-session

참고: 만약 dbus(hal에 의존)를 사용할거라면 ~/.xinitrc에 다음을 추가:

exec dbus-launch --exit-with-session openbox-session

또는 쉘에서 xinit를 이용하여 Openbox를 사용할 수 있습니다.:

$ xinit /usr/bin/openbox-session
  • Openbox는 GNOME, KDE, 그리고 Xfce에서 창 관리자로 사용할 수 있습니다.

For KDM there is nothing left to do; openbox is listed in the sessions menu in KDM.

Openbox를 위한 몇가지 가벼운 응용프로그램:

  • PyPanel, Tint2, 또는 LXpanel - 패널(작업표시줄)
  • feh - 배경 그림 표시
  • ROX - 가벼운 파일 관리자 (바탕화면에 응용프로그램 아이콘 표시 가능)
  • PcmanFM - 가볍지만 강력한 기능의 파일 관리자 (바탕화면에 응용프로그램 아이콘 표시 가능)
  • iDesk (AUR을 이용) - 바탕화면에 아이콘 표시
  • Graveman - CD나 DVD 굽기
Tip: 더 많은 정보를 원하시면 Openbox 문서를 보세요.

FVWM2

FVWM (F Virtual Window Manager)는 X 윈도우 시스템을 위한 아주 강력한 ICCCM 에 부합하는 다중 가상 데스크탑 윈도우 매니저입니다. 개발이 활동적이며 지원도 훌륭합니다.

팩맨을 통한 fvwm2 설치

# pacman -S fvwm 

WM의 공식 버전이 설치될것입니다. 하지만, 제공되는것보다 다소 높은 특색이 필요한 경우, archlinuxfr(비공식 유저 저장소를 보세요)나 AUR로 부터 패치된 버전을 설치 할수 있습니다. AUR이나 archlinuxfr 에서 설치를 위해서 다음 처럼 실행 합니다:

$ yaourt -S fvwm-patched

또는

# pacman -S fvwm-patched

fvwm은 kdm/gdm의 세션 메뉴내에 자동으로 추가될 것입니다. 다른 방법으로는, 다음을

exec fvwm 2 

사용자의 .xinitrc 에 추가하세요.

When you start FVWM2, you will get into the blank configuration. However, when you left-click on the desktop, you will be able to select to configure FVWM. chose wanted modules and you are ready to go. Check out the configs in the http://www.box-look.org. One should also consider checking FVWM forums at http://fvwm.lair.be

SLiM is a very good login manager, that does not have many dependencies and acts well with FVWM. Common Applications are similar to those suggested for Openbox or Fluxbox.

일반적이고, 가벼운 프로그램

자세한 정보는 Common ApplicationsLightweight Applications 문서를 확인하세요.

부록

아치리눅스 초보자 및 미숙자를 위한 Beginners' Guide Appendix를 참고하세요.