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==Preface==
 
===Introduction===
 
Welcome. This document will guide you through the process of installing and configuring [[Arch Linux]]; a simple, lightweight GNU/Linux distribution targeted at competent users. This guide is aimed at new Arch users, but strives to serve as a strong reference and informative base for all.
 
  
'''Arch Linux Distribution Highlights:'''
+
<!-- Include the different sub pages -->
* [[The Arch Way|Simple]] design and philosophy
+
* [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?q= All packages] compiled for i686 and x86_64 architectures
+
* [[Arch Boot Process|BSD style]] init scripts, featuring one centralized configuration file
+
* [[mkinitcpio]]: A simple and dynamic initramfs creator
+
* [[Pacman]] package manager is lightweight and agile, with a very modest memory footprint
+
* The [[Arch Build System]]: A ports-like package building system, providing a simple framework to create installable Arch packages from source
+
* The [[Arch User Repository]]: offering many thousands of user contributed build scripts and the opportunity to share your own
+
  
===License===
+
{{:Beginners' Guide/Preface}}
Arch Linux, pacman, documentation, and scripts are copyright
+
{{:Beginners' Guide/Preparation}}
©2002-2007 by Judd Vinet, ©2007-2011 by Aaron Griffin and are licensed under the [http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0.html GNU General Public License Version 2].
+
{{:Beginners' Guide/Installation}}
 
+
{{:Beginners' Guide/Post-Installation}}
===The Arch Way===
+
{{:Beginners' Guide/Appendix}}
'''''The design principles behind Arch are aimed at keeping it [[The Arch Way |simple]].'' '''
+
 
+
'Simple', in this context, shall mean 'without unnecessary additions, modifications, or complications'. In short; an elegant, minimalist approach.
+
 
+
'''Some thoughts to keep in mind as you consider simplicity:'''
+
 
+
*''&quot; 'Simple' is defined from a technical standpoint, not a usability standpoint. It is better to be technically elegant with a higher learning curve, than to be easy to use and technically [inferior].&quot; -Aaron Griffin''
+
*''Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem'' or &quot;Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.&quot; -Occam's razor. The term ''razor'' refers to the act of shaving away unnecessary complications to arrive at the simplest explanation, method or theory.
+
*''&quot;The extraordinary part of [my method] lies in its simplicity..The height of cultivation always runs to simplicity.&quot;'' - Bruce Lee
+
 
+
===About This Guide===
+
The Arch wiki is an excellent resource and should be consulted for issues [[Main Page|first]]. The IRC room (at irc.freenode.net #archlinux), and the [http://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also available if the answer cannot be found elsewhere. Also, be sure to check out the <code>man</code> pages for any command you are unfamiliar with; this can usually be invoked with <code>man ''command''</code>.
+
 
+
{{Note|Following this guide closely is essential in order to successfully install a properly configured Arch Linux system, so ''please'' read it thoroughly. It is strongly recommended you read each section completely <u>before</u> carrying out the tasks contained.}}
+
 
+
The guide is divided into 4 main components:
+
 
+
*[[#Part I: Prepare the Installation|Part I: Prepare the Installation]]
+
*[[#Part II: Install the Base System|Part II: Install the Base system]]
+
*[[#Part III: Post Install|Part III: Post-install]]
+
*[[#Part IV: Extras|Part IV: Extras]]
+
 
+
==Part I: Prepare the Installation==
+
 
+
{{Note|If you wish to install to another partition from within an existing GNU/Linux distro or LiveCD, please see [[Install from Existing Linux|this wiki article]] for steps to do this. This can be useful particularly if you plan to install Arch via vnc or ssh remotely. The following assumes installation by conventional means.}}
+
 
+
===Obtain the latest Installation media ===
+
 
+
You can obtain Arch's official installation media from [http://archlinux.org/download/ here]. The latest version is 2010.05
+
 
+
* Both the Core and the Netinstall images provide only the necessary packages to create an '''Arch Linux base system'''. ''Note that the Base System does not include a GUI. It is mainly comprised of the GNU toolchain (compiler, assembler, linker, libraries, shell, and utilities), the Linux kernel, and a few extra libraries and modules.''
+
* Core images facilitate both installing from CD and Net.
+
* Netinstall images are smaller and provide no packages themselves; the entire system is retrieved via internet.
+
* [[Arch64_FAQ|The Arch64 FAQ]] can help you choose between the 32-, 64-bit and dual versions.
+
* Don't forget to download the checksum txt files along with your chosen ISO.
+
 
+
====Check the Integrity of the Downloaded File====
+
 
+
<code>cd</code> to the directory where the downloaded files have been placed, and invoke <code>sha1sum</code>:
+
$ sha1sum --check name_of_checksum_file.txt name_of_selected_iso_file.iso
+
This should give you an "OK" for the one you have.  (Simply ignore other lines.)  If not, download all files again.
+
The md5sum check works the same way.
+
 
+
====Install Over a Network====
+
 
+
Instead of writing the boot media to a disc or USB drive, you may alternatively boot the .iso image over the network. This works well when you already have a server set up. Please see [[Install Arch from network (via PXE)|this article]] for more information, and then continue to [[#Boot Arch Linux Installer|Boot Arch Linux Installer]]
+
 
+
====CD installer====
+
 
+
Burn the .iso image file to a CD or DVD media with your preferred CD/DVD burner drive and software, and continue with [[#Boot Arch Linux Installer | Boot Arch Linux Installer]]
+
{{Note| The quality of optical drives, as well as the CD media itself, vary greatly. Generally, using a slow burn speed is recommended for reliable burns; Some users recommend speeds '''''as low as 4x or 2x.''''' If you are experiencing unexpected behavior from the CD, try burning at the minimum speed supported by your system. }}
+
 
+
====Flash Memory Device or USB stick====
+
 
+
See [[Install_from_a_USB_flash_drive|Install from a USB flash drive]] for more detailed instructions.
+
 
+
This method will work for any type of flash media from which your BIOS will let you boot, be it a card reader or USB port.
+
 
+
{{Warning|This procedure will irrevocably destroy all data on your media! Also, be very careful where you send the image iso, as <code>dd</code> will obediently  write to any target you point to, even if that is your hard disk.}}
+
 
+
=====*nix Method=====
+
 
+
Insert an empty or expendable flash device, determine its path, and write the .iso to the device with the <code>dd</code> program:
+
# dd if=archlinux-2010.05-''{core|netinstall}''-''{i686|x86_64|dual}''.iso of=/dev/sd''x''
+
where <code>if=</code> is the path to the .iso file and <code>of=</code> is your flash device. Make sure to use {{Filename|/dev/sd'''x'''}} and not {{Filename|/dev/sd'''x1'''}}. You will need a flash memory device large enough to accomodate the image.
+
 
+
To verify that the image was successfully written to the flash device, make a note of the number of records (blocks) read in and written out, then perform the following check:
+
$ dd if=/dev/sd''x'' count=''number_of_records'' status=noxfer | md5sum
+
The md5sum returned should match the [ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/iso/2010.05/md5sums.txt md5sum of the downloaded archlinux image file (2010.05)]; they both should match the md5sum of the image as listed in the md5sums file in the mirror distribution site. A typical run will look like this:
+
{{Command|<nowiki>[sudo] dd if=archlinux-2010.05-core-i686.iso of=/dev/sdc #Write .iso to drive</nowiki>|<nowiki> 744973+0 records in
+
744973+0 records out
+
381426176 bytes (381 MB) copied, 106.611 s, 3.6 MB/s
+
</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
{{Command|<nowiki>[sudo] dd if=/dev/sdc count=744973 status=noxfer | md5sum #Verify integrety</nowiki>| 4850d533ddd343b80507543536258229  -
+
744973+0 records in
+
744973+0 records out}}
+
 
+
Continue with [[#Boot Arch Linux Installer | Boot Arch Linux Installer]]
+
 
+
=====Microsoft Windows Method=====
+
 
+
Download Disk Imager from https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/+download. Insert flash media. Start the Disk Imager and select the image file (Disk Imager accepts only *.IMG files, so you'll have to put "*.iso" in file open dialog to select Arch snapshot). Select the drive letter associated with the flash drive. Click "write".
+
 
+
There are also other solutions to [[Install_from_a_USB_flash_drive#On_Windows|writing bootable ISO images to USB sticks]]. If you have problems with USB sticks disconnecting, try using different USB port and/or cable.
+
 
+
Continue with [[#Boot Arch Linux Installer | Boot Arch Linux Installer]]
+
 
+
===Boot Arch Linux Installer===
+
{{Tip|The memory requirement for a basic install is 64 MB of RAM.}}
+
 
+
{{Tip|During the process, the automatic screen blanker may come on.  If so, one can press the Alt key to safely obtain the normal display.}}
+
 
+
====Boot from the Media====
+
Insert the CD or Flash media you prepared, and boot from it. You may have to
+
change the boot order in your computer BIOS or press a key (usually DEL, F1, F2, F11 or F12) during the BIOS POST (Power On Self-Test) phase.
+
 
+
'''Main Menu:''' The main menu should be displayed at this point.  Select the preferred choice by using the arrow keys to highlight your choice, and then by pressing Enter. Menus vary slightly among the different ISOs.
+
 
+
{{Note|Users seeking to preform the Arch Linux installation remotely via an ssh connection are encouraged to make a few tweaks at this point to enable ssh connections directly to the live CD environment.  If interested, see the [[Install from SSH]] article.}}
+
 
+
====OS System Start====
+
The system will now load and present a login prompt. Login as 'root', without the quotes.
+
 
+
If using an Intel video chipset and the screen goes blank during the boot process, the problem is likely an issue with kernel mode setting. A possible workaround may be achieved by rebooting and pressing <Tab> at the GRUB menu to enter kernel options.  At the end of the kernel line, add a space and then:
+
i915.modeset=0
+
Alternatively, add:
+
video=SVIDEO-1:d
+
which (if it works) will not disable kernel mode setting.
+
 
+
When done making any changes to any menu command, simply press "Enter" to boot with that setup.
+
 
+
See [[Intel| the Intel article]] for more information.
+
 
+
====Changing the keymap====
+
If you have a non-US keyboard layout you can interactively choose your keymap/console font with the command:
+
# km
+
or use the loadkeys command:
+
# loadkeys ''layout''
+
where ''layout'' is your keyboard layout such as &quot;<code>fr</code>&quot; or &quot;<code>be-latin1</code>&quot;
+
 
+
====Documentation====
+
The official install guide is conveniently available right on the live system! To access it, change to tty2 (virtual console #2) with <ALT>+F2, log in as "root" and then invoke <code>/usr/bin/less</code> by typing in the following at the # prompt:
+
# less /usr/share/aif/docs/official_installation_guide_en
+
<code>less</code> will allow you to page through the document.
+
 
+
Change back to tty1 with <ALT>+F1 to follow the rest of the install process.  (Change back to tty2 at any time if you need to reference the Official Guide as you progress through the installation process.)
+
 
+
{{tip|Please note that the official guide only covers installation and configuration of the base system. Once that is installed, it is strongly recommended that you come back here to the wiki to find out more about post-installation considerations and other related issues.}}
+
 
+
==Part II: Install the Base System==
+
As root, run the installer script from tty1:
+
# /arch/setup
+
You should next see the displayed Arch Linux Installation Framework screen.
+
 
+
===Select an installation source===
+
After a welcome screen, you will be prompted for an installation source. Choose the appropriate source for the installer you are using.  If using a Netinstall image, relative speed and update status of source repository mirrors may be checked [https://www.archlinux.de/?page=MirrorStatus here].
+
 
+
* If you chose the CORE installer and wish to use the packages on the CD, select CD-ROM as source
+
* Alternatively, or if you're using the Netinstall installation media, select NET and see section below ([[#Configure Network (Netinstall)|Configure Network]]).
+
 
+
====Configure Network (Netinstall)====
+
You shall be prompted to load ethernet drivers manually, if desired. Udev is quite effective at loading the required modules, so you may assume it has already done so. At the next screen, select ''Setup Network''. You may verify this by pressing <Alt>+F3 and invoking ifconfig -a. When done, return to tty1 by pressing <Alt>+F1
+
 
+
Available Interfaces will be presented. If an interface and HWaddr ('''H'''ard'''W'''are '''addr'''ess) is listed, then your module has already been loaded. If your interface is not listed, you may probe it from the installer, or manually do so from another virtual console. Select your interface to continue.
+
 
+
The installer will then ask if you wish to use DHCP. Choosing Yes will run '''dhcpcd''' to discover an available gateway and request an IP address; Choosing No will prompt you for your static IP, netmask, broadcast, gateway DNS IP, HTTP proxy, and FTP proxy. Afterwards, you will be returned to the ''Net Installation Menu''
+
 
+
Select ''Choose Mirror'' and select an FTP/HTTP mirror.  When finished, return to main menu.
+
 
+
{{Note|archlinux.org is throttled to 50KB/s}}
+
 
+
=====(A)DSL Quickstart for the Live Environment=====
+
(If you have a modem or router in bridge mode to connect to your ISP)
+
 
+
Switch to another virtual console (<Alt> + F2), login as root and invoke
+
# pppoe-setup
+
If everything is well configured in the end you can connect  to your ISP with
+
# pppoe-start
+
 
+
Return to first virtual console  with <ALT>+F1. Continue with [[#Set_Clock|Set Clock]]
+
 
+
=====Wireless Quickstart For the Live Environment=====
+
(If you need wireless connectivity during the installation process)
+
 
+
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quickstart procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it.
+
 
+
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
+
 
+
{{Note|The following examples use wlan0 for the interface and 'linksys' for the ESSID. Remember to change these for your situation.}}
+
 
+
The basic procedure will be:
+
* Switch to a free virtual console, e.g.: <ALT>+F3
+
* Login as root
+
* (Optional) Identify the wireless interface:
+
# lspci | grep -i net
+
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with <code>/usr/sbin/iwconfig</code>:
+
 
+
{{Command|iwconfig|<nowiki> lo no wireless extensions.
+
eth0 no wireless extensions.
+
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
+
          Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
+
          Bit Rate:0 kb/s  Tx-Power=20 dBm  Sensitivity=8/0
+
          Retry limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
          Power Management:off
+
          Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
+
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0
+
</nowiki>|prompt=#}}
+
<code>wlan0</code> is the available wireless interface in this example.
+
 
+
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
 
+
* Bring the interface up with <code>/sbin/ifconfig <interface> up</code>.
+
# ifconfig wlan0 up
+
 
+
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
+
 
+
{{Command|ifconfig wlan0 up|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory|prompt=#}}
+
 
+
If unsure, invoke <code>/usr/bin/dmesg</code> to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset. Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
+
 
+
{{Command|<nowiki>dmesg | grep firmware</nowiki>|firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
+
 
+
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
+
 
+
{{Note | '''Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under /lib/firmware in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) ''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!'' Package selection and installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware during the package selection step! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset. This is a very common error.'''}}
+
 
+
* If the ESSID has been forgotten or is unknown, use <code>/sbin/iwlist <interface> scan</code> to scan for nearby networks.
+
# iwlist wlan0 scan
+
<nowiki></nowiki>
+
+
* If using WPA encryption:
+
 
+
Using WPA encryption requires that the key be encrypted and stored in a file, along with the ESSID, to be used later for connection via <code>wpa_supplicant</code>. Thus, a few extra steps are required:
+
 
+
For the purpose of simplifying and backup, rename the default wpa_supplicant.conf file:
+
# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.original
+
 
+
Using <code>wpa_passphrase</code>, provide your wireless network name and WPA key to be encrypted and written to /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
 
+
The following example encrypts the key 'my_secret_passkey' of the 'linksys' wireless network, generates a new configuration file (<file>/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</file>), and subsequently redirects the encrypted key, writing it to the file:
+
# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
 
+
Check [[WPA Supplicant]] for more information and troubleshooting.
+
 
+
{{Note|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf is stored in plain text format. This isn't risky in the installation environment, but when you reboot into your new system and reconfigure WPA, remember to change the permissions on /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf (e.g. <tt>chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</tt> to make it readable by root only).}}
+
 
+
* Associate your wireless device with the access point you want to use. Depending on the encryption (none, WEP, or WPA), the procedure may differ. You need to know the name of the chosen wireless network (ESSID).
+
 
+
{| border="1"
+
! Encryption || Command
+
|-
+
| No Encryption || <code>iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"</code>
+
|-
+
| WEP w/ Hex Key || <code>iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"</code>
+
|-
+
| WEP w/ ASCII passphrase || <code>iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"</code>
+
|-
+
| WPA || <code>wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</code>
+
|}
+
 
+
{{Note | The network connection process may be automated later by using the default Arch network daemon,  [[netcfg]], [[wicd]], or another network manager of your choice.}}
+
 
+
* After utilizing the appropriate association method outlined above, wait a few moments and confirm you have successfully associated to the access point before continuing. e.g.:
+
# iwconfig wlan0
+
Output should indicate the wireless network is associated with the interface.
+
* Request an IP address with <code>/sbin/dhcpcd <interface> </code>. e.g.:
+
# dhcpcd wlan0
+
* Lastly, ensure you can route using <code>/bin/ping</code>:
+
# ping -c 3 www.google.com
+
 
+
You should have a working network connection. For troubleshooting, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
 
+
Return to tty1 with <ALT>+F1. Continue with [[#Set Clock|Set Clock]]
+
 
+
===Set Clock===
+
* UTC - Choose UTC if running only <tt>UNIX</tt>-like operating system(s).
+
 
+
* localtime - Choose local if multi-booting with a Microsoft Windows OS.
+
 
+
===Prepare Hard Drive===
+
 
+
{{Warning|Partitioning hard drives can destroy data. You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup your critical data if applicable.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|Partitioning may be performed before initiating the Arch installation if desired, by utilizing [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] or other available tools. If the installation drive has already been partitioned to the required specifications, continue with [[#Set Filesystem Mountpoints| Set Filesystem Mountpoints]]}}
+
 
+
Verify current disk identities and layout by invoking <code>/sbin/fdisk</code> with the <code>-l</code> (lower-case L) switch.
+
 
+
Open another virtual console (<ALT>+F3) and enter:
+
# fdisk -l
+
Take note of the disk(s)/partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation.
+
 
+
Switch back to the installation script with <ALT>+F1
+
 
+
Select the first menu entry &quot;Prepare Hard Drive&quot;.
+
* Option 1: Auto-Prepare (Erases an ENTIRE hard drive and sets up partitions)
+
Auto-Prepare divides the disk into the following configuration:
+
 
+
* ext2 /boot partition, default size 32MB. ''You will be prompted to modify the size to your requirement.''
+
* swap partition, default size 256MB. ''You will be prompted to modify the size to your requirement.''
+
* A Separate / and /home partition, (sizes can also be specified). Available filesystems include ext2, ext3, ext4, reiserfs, xfs and jfs, but note that ''both / and /home shall share the same fs type'' if choosing the Auto Prepare option.
+
 
+
Be warned that Auto-prepare will completely erase the chosen hard drive. Read the <font color="red">warning</font> presented by the installer very carefully, and make sure the correct device is about to be partitioned.
+
 
+
* Option 2: Manually Partition Hard Drives (with cfdisk)- recommended.
+
 
+
This option will allow for the most robust and customized partitioning solution for your personal needs.
+
 
+
* Option 3: Manually Configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints
+
If this is selected, the system will list what filesystems and mountpoints it has found and ask you if you wish to use these.  If selecting "Yes", you will be given a choice to select the desired method of identification, ie. by dev, label or uuid.
+
 
+
* Option 4: Rollback last filesystem changes
+
 
+
''At this point, more advanced GNU/Linux users who are familiar and comfortable with manually partitioning may wish to skip down to '''[[#D: Select Packages|D: Select Packages]]''' below.''
+
 
+
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see "[[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]]".}}
+
 
+
====Partition Hard Drives====
+
 
+
=====Partition Info=====
+
 
+
Partitioning a hard disk drive defines specific areas (the partitions) within the disk, that will each appear and behave as a separate disk and upon which a filesystem may be created (formatted).
+
*There are 3 types of disk partitions:
+
#Primary
+
#Extended
+
#Logical
+
'''Primary''' partitions can be bootable, and are limited to 4 partitions per disk or raid volume. If a partitioning scheme requires more than 4 partitions, an '''extended''' partition which will contain '''logical''' partitions will be required.
+
 
+
Extended partitions are not usable by themselves; they are merely a &quot;container&quot; for logical partitions. If required, a hard disk shall contain only one extended partition; which shall then be sub-divided into logical partitions.
+
 
+
When partitioning a disk, one can observe this numbering scheme by creating primary partitions sda1 through sda3 followed by creating an extended partition, sda4, and subsequently creating logical partition(s) within the extended partition; sda5, sda6, and so on.
+
 
+
=====Swap Partition=====
+
A swap partition is a place on the drive where virtual ram resides, allowing the kernel to easily use disk storage for data that does not fit into physical RAM.
+
 
+
Historically, the general rule for swap partition size was 2x the amount of physical RAM. Over time, as computers have gained ever larger memory capacities, this rule has become increasingly deprecated. Generally, on machines with up to 512MB RAM, the 2x rule is usually quite sufficient. If the installation machine provides gratuitous amounts of RAM (more than 1024 MB) it may be possible to completely forget a swap partition altogether, since the option to create a [[HOW TO: Create swap file|swap file]] is always available later. A 1 GB swap partition will be used in this example.
+
{{Note|If using suspend-to-disk, (hibernate) a swap partition at least '''equal''' in size to the amount of physical RAM is required. Some Arch users even recommend oversizing it beyond the amount of physical RAM by 10-15%, to allow for possible bad sectors.}}
+
 
+
=====Partition Scheme=====
+
A disk partitioning scheme is a very personalized preference. Each user's choices will be unique to their own  computing habits and requirements. If you would like to dual boot Arch Linux and a Windows operating system please see [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot]].
+
 
+
Filesystem candidates for separate partitions include:
+
 
+
'''/'''    (root) ''The root filesystem is the primary filesystem from which all other filesystems stem; the top of the hierarchy. All files and directories appear under the root directory &quot;/&quot;, even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under / are not themselves candidates for separate partitions. (See warning below).''
+
 
+
'''/boot''' ''This directory contains the kernel and ramdisk images as well as the bootloader configuration file, and bootloader stages. /boot also stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing userspace programs. This may include saved master boot sectors and sector map files. /boot is essential for booting, but is unique in that it may still be kept on its own separate partition (if required).''
+
 
+
'''/home''' ''Provides subdirectories, each named for a system user, for miscellaneous personal data storage as well as user-specific configuration files for applications.''
+
 
+
'''/usr'''  ''While root is the primary filesystem, /usr is the secondary hierarchy for all system users' data, including the majority of multi-user utilities and applications. /usr is shareable, read-only data. This means that /usr shall be shareable between various hosts and must not be written to, except in the case of system update/upgrade. Any information that is host-specific or varies with time is stored elsewhere.''
+
 
+
'''/tmp'''  ''directory for programs that require temporary files such as '.lck' files, which can be used to prevent multiple instances of their respective program until a task is completed, at which point the '.lck' file will be removed. Programs must not assume that any files or directories in /tmp are preserved between invocations of the program and files and directories located under /tmp will typically be deleted whenever the system is booted.''
+
 
+
'''/var''' ''contains variable data; spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, pacman's cache, the ABS tree, etc. /var exists in order to make it possible to mount /usr as read-only. Everything that historically went into /usr that is written to during system operation (as opposed to installation and software maintenance) must reside under /var.''
+
{{Warning | Besides /boot, directories essential for booting are: ''''''/bin', '/etc', '/lib', and '/sbin'. Therefore, they must not reside on a separate partition from /.'''''}}
+
'''''There are several advantages for using discrete filesystems, rather than combining all into one partition''''':
+
 
+
* Security: Each filesystem may be configured in /etc/fstab as 'nosuid', 'nodev', 'noexec', 'readonly', etc.
+
* Stability: A user, or malfunctioning program can completely fill a filesystem with garbage if they have write permissions for it. Critical programs, which reside on a different filesystem remain unaffected.
+
* Speed: A filesystem which gets written to frequently may become somewhat fragmented. (An effective method of avoiding fragmentation is to ensure that each filesystem is never in danger of filling up completely.) Separate filesystems remain unaffected, and each can be defragmented separately as well.
+
* Integrity: If one filesystem becomes corrupted, separate filesystems remain unaffected.
+
* Versatility: Sharing data across several systems becomes more expedient when independent filesystems are used. Separate filesystem types may also be chosen based upon the nature of data and usage.
+
In this example, we shall use separate partitions for /, /var, /home, and a swap partition.
+
 
+
{{Note | /var contains many small files. This should be taken into consideration when choosing a filesystem type for it, (if creating its own separate partition).}}
+
 
+
=====How big should my partitions be?=====
+
This question is best answered based upon individual needs.
+
You may wish to simply create '''one partition for root and one partition for swap or only one root partition without swap''' or refer to the following examples and consider these guidelines to provide a frame of reference:
+
* The root filesystem (/) in the example will contain the /usr directory, which can become moderately large, depending upon how much software is installed.  15-20 GB should be sufficient for most users.
+
 
+
* The /var filesystem will contain, among other data, the [[ABS]] tree and the pacman cache. Keeping cached packages is useful and versatile; it provides the ability to downgrade packages if needed. /var tends to grow in size; the pacman cache can grow large over long periods of time, but can be safely cleared if needed.  If you are using an SSD, you may wish to locate your /var on an HDD and keep the / and /home partitions on your SSD to avoid needless read/writes to the SSD.  8-12 Gigs on a desktop system should be sufficient for /var, depending largely upon how much software you intend to install. Servers tend to have relatively larger /var filesystems.
+
 
+
* The /home filesystem is typically where user data, downloads, and multimedia reside. On a desktop system, /home is typically the largest filesystem on the drive by a large margin.  Remember that if you chose to reinstall Arch, all the data on your /home partition will be untouched (so long as you have a separate /home partition).
+
 
+
* An extra 25% of space added to each filesystem will provide a cushion for unforeseen occurrence, expansion, and serve as a preventive against fragmentation.
+
'''''From the guidelines above, the example system shall contain a ~15GB root (/) partition, ~10GB /var, 1GB swap, and a /home containing the remaining disk space.'''''
+
 
+
=====Create Partitions with cfdisk=====
+
Start by creating the primary partition that will contain the '''root''', (/) filesystem.
+
 
+
Choose '''N'''ew -> Primary and enter the desired size for root (/). Put the partition at the beginning of the disk.
+
 
+
Also choose the '''T'''ype by designating it as '83 Linux'. The created / partition shall appear as sda1 in our example.
+
 
+
Now create a primary partition for /var, designating it as '''T'''ype 83 Linux. The created /var partition shall appear as sda2
+
 
+
Next, create a partition for swap. Select an appropriate size and specify the '''T'''ype as 82 (Linux swap / Solaris). The created swap partition shall appear as sda3.
+
 
+
Lastly, create a partition for your /home directory. Choose another primary partition and set the desired size.
+
 
+
Likewise, select the '''T'''ype as 83 Linux. The created /home partition shall appear as sda4.
+
 
+
Example:
+
 
+
Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]        Size (MB)
+
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
sda1              Primary    Linux                            15440 #root
+
sda2              Primary    Linux                            10256 #/var
+
sda3              Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024  #swap
+
sda4              Primary    Linux                            140480 #/home
+
 
+
Choose '''W'''rite and type ''''yes''''. Beware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose '''Q'''uit to leave the partitioner.
+
Choose Done to leave this menu and continue with &quot;Set Filesystem Mountpoints&quot;.
+
 
+
{{Note | Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sd''x'' naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.}}
+
 
+
====Set Filesystem Mountpoints====
+
Specify each partition and corresponding mountpoint to your requirements. (Recall that partitions end in a number. Therefore, '''sda''' is not itself a partition, but rather, signifies an entire drive)
+
 
+
=====Filesystem Types=====
+
Again, a filesystem type is a very subjective matter which comes down to personal preference. Each has its own advantages, disadvantages, and unique idiosyncrasies. Here is a very brief overview of supported filesystems:
+
 
+
1. [[Wikipedia:ext2|ext2]] ''Second Extended Filesystem''- Old, reliable GNU/Linux filesystem. Very stable, but ''without journaling support''. May be inconvenient for root (/) and /home, due to very long fsck's. ''An ext2 filesystem can easily be converted to ext3.''
+
 
+
2. [[Wikipedia:ext3|ext3]] ''Third Extended Filesystem''- Essentially the ext2 system, but with journaling support. ext3 is backward compatible with ext2. Extremely stable, mature,  and by far the most widely used, supported and developed GNU/Linux FS.
+
 
+
3. [[Wikipedia:ext4|ext4]] ''Fourth Extended Filesystem''- Backward compatible with ext2 and ext3. Introduces support for volumes with sizes up to 1 exabyte and files with sizes up to 16 terabytes. Increases the 32,000 subdirectory limit in ext3 to 64,000. Offers online defragmentation ability.
+
 
+
4. [[Wikipedia:ReiserFS|ReiserFS]] (V3)- Hans Reiser's high-performance journaling FS uses a very interesting method of data throughput based on an unconventional and creative algorithm. ReiserFS is touted as very fast, especially when dealing with many small files. ReiserFS is fast at formatting, yet comparatively slow at mounting. Quite mature and stable. ReiserFS is not actively developed at this time (Reiser4 is the new Reiser filesystem). Generally regarded as a good choice for /var/.
+
 
+
5. [[Wikipedia:JFS (file system)|JFS]] - IBM's '''J'''ournaled '''F'''ile'''S'''ystem- The first filesystem to offer journaling. JFS had many years of use in the IBM AIX® OS before being ported to GNU/Linux. JFS currently uses the least CPU resources of any GNU/Linux filesystem. Very fast at formatting, mounting and fsck's, and very good all-around performance, especially in conjunction with the deadline I/O scheduler. (See [[JFS]].) Not as widely supported as ext or ReiserFS, but very mature and stable.
+
 
+
6. [[Wikipedia:XFS|XFS]] - Another early journaling filesystem originally developed by Silicon Graphics for the IRIX OS and ported to GNU/Linux. XFS offers very fast throughput on large files and large filesystems. Very fast at formatting and mounting. Generally benchmarked as slower with many small files, in comparison to other filesystems. XFS is very mature and offers online defragmentation ability.
+
* JFS and XFS filesystems cannot be ''shrunk'' by disk utilities (such as gparted or parted magic)
+
 
+
===== A note on Journaling=====
+
All above filesystems, except ext2, utilize [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journaling_file_system journaling]. Journaling file systems are fault-resilient file systems that use a journal to log changes before they are committed to the file system to avoid metadata corruption in the event of a crash. Note that not all journaling techniques are alike; specifically, only ext3 and ext4 offer ''data-mode journaling'', (though, not by default), which journals ''both'' data ''and'' meta-data (but with a significant speed penalty). The others only offer ''ordered-mode journaling'', which journals meta-data only. While all will return your filesystem to a valid state after recovering from a crash, ''data-mode journaling'' offers the greatest protection against file system corruption and data loss but can suffer from performance degradation, as all data is written twice (first to the journal, then to the disk).  Depending upon how important your data is, this may be a consideration in choosing your filesystem type.
+
 
+
'''''Moving on...'''''
+
 
+
Choose and create the filesystem (format the partition) for / by selecting '''yes'''. You will now be prompted to add any additional partitions. In our example, sda2 and sda4 remain. For sda2, choose a filesystem type and mount it as /var. Finally, choose the filesystem type for sda4, and mount it as /home.
+
{{Box Note |If you have not created and do not need a separate /boot partition, you may safely ignore the warning that it does not exist.}} Return to the main menu.
+
 
+
===Select Packages===
+
 
+
All packages during installation are from the [core] repository. They are further divided into '''Base''', and '''Base-devel'''. Package information and brief descriptions are available [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?repo=Core&arch=i686&limit=all&sort=pkgname here].
+
 
+
First, select the package category:
+
{{Note | For expedience, all packages in '''base''' are selected by default. Use the space-bar to select and de-select packages.}}
+
; Base : Packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment. Always select this and only remove packages that will not be used.
+
; Base-devel : Extra tools from [core] such as <code>make</code>, and <code>automake</code>. Most beginners should choose to install it, as many will probably need it later.
+
 
+
After category selection, you will be presented with the full lists of packages, allowing you to fine-tune your selections. Use the space bar to select and unselect.
+
 
+
{{Note | If connection to a wireless network is required, remember to select and install the '''wireless_tools''' package. Some wireless interfaces also need [[Wireless_Setup#ndiswrapper|'''ndiswrapper''']] and/or a specific [[Wireless_Setup#Drivers_and_firmware|'''firmware''']]. If you plan to use WPA encryption, you will need [[WPA_Supplicant|'''wpa_supplicant''']]. The [[Wireless_Setup|Wireless Setup]] page will help you choose the correct packages for your wireless device. Also strongly consider installing [[Netcfg|'''netcfg''']], which will help you set up your network connection and profiles after you reboot into your new system.}}
+
 
+
After selecting the needed packages, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step, '''Install Packages'''.
+
 
+
===Install Packages===
+
 
+
''Install Packages'' will install the selected packages to your new system.  If you selected a CD/USB as the source, package versions from the CD/USB will be installed. If you opted for a Netinstall, fresh packages will be downloaded from the internet and installed.
+
 
+
{{Note|In some installers, you will be asked if you wish to keep the packages in the pacman cache. If you choose 'yes', you will have the flexibility to [[Downgrade packages|downgrade]] to previous package versions in the future, so this is recommended (you can always clear the cache in the future).}}
+
 
+
After the packages have been downloaded, the installer will check their integrity.  Next it will create the kernel from the packages downloaded.
+
 
+
===Configure the System===
+
{{Tip|Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.}}
+
 
+
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. Previous versions of the installer included [[Hwdetect|hwdetect]] to gather information for your configuration. This has been deprecated and replaced with '''[[Udev|udev]]''', which should handle most module loading automatically at boot.
+
 
+
Now you will be asked which text editor you want to use; choose [[Nano|nano]], [http://joe-editor.sourceforge.net/ joe] or [[Vim|vi]. <tt>nano</tt> is generally considered the easiest of the three. Please see the releated wiki pages of the editor you wish to use for instructions on how to use them. You will be presented with a menu including the main configuration files for your system.
+
 
+
{{Note|It is very important at this point to edit, or at least verify by opening, every configuration file. The installer script relies on your input to create these files on your installation. A common error is to skip over these critical steps of configuration.}}
+
 
+
'''Can the installer handle this more automatically?'''
+
 
+
Hiding the process of system configuration is in direct opposition to '''''[[The Arch Way]]'''''. While it is true that recent versions of the kernel and hardware probing tools offer excellent hardware support and auto-configuration, Arch presents the user all pertinent configuration files during installation for the purposes of ''transparency and system resource control''. By the time you have finished modifying these files to your specifications, you will have learned the simple method of manual Arch Linux system configuration and become more familiar with the base structure, leaving you better prepared to use and maintain your new installation productively.
+
 
+
====/etc/rc.conf====
+
Arch Linux uses the file {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} as the principal location for system configuration. This one file contains a wide range of configuration information, principally used at system startup. As its name directly implies, it also contains settings for and invokes the /etc/rc* files, and is, of course, sourced ''by'' these files.
+
 
+
----
+
 
+
=====LOCALIZATION section=====
+
 
+
<div style='float:right;margin: 0 0 0 0.5em'>
+
<div style='text-align:center;'>'''''Example for LOCALIZATION:'''''</div>
+
LOCALE=&quot;en_US.utf8&quot;
+
HARDWARECLOCK=&quot;localtime&quot;
+
USEDIRECTISA=&quot;no&quot;
+
TIMEZONE=&quot;US/Eastern&quot;
+
KEYMAP=&quot;us&quot;
+
CONSOLEFONT=
+
CONSOLEMAP=
+
USECOLOR=&quot;yes&quot;
+
</div>
+
:; LOCALE : This sets your system locale, which will be used by all i18n-aware applications and utilities. You can get a list of the available locales by running {{Codeline|locale -a}} from the command line. This setting's default is usually fine for US English users. However if you experience any problems such as some characters not printing right and being replaced by squares you may want to go back and replace &quot;en_US.utf8&quot; with just &quot;en_US&quot;.
+
:; HARDWARECLOCK : Specifies whether the hardware clock, which is synchronized on boot and on shutdown, stores '''UTC''' time, or '''localtime'''. UTC makes sense because it greatly simplifies changing timezones and daylight savings time. localtime is necessary if you dual boot with an operating system such as Windows, that only stores localtime to the hardware clock.
+
:; USEDIRECTISA : Use direct I/O request instead of {{Filename|/dev/rtc}} for hwclock
+
:; TIMEZONE : Specify your TIMEZONE. (All available zones are under {{Filename|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}).
+
:; KEYMAP :  The available keymaps are in {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps}}. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or '''X'''.
+
:; CONSOLEFONT : Available console fonts reside under {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}} if you must change. The default (blank) is safe.
+
:; CONSOLEMAP : Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/consoletrans}}, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
+
:; USECOLOR : Select &quot;yes&quot; if you have a color monitor and wish to have colors in your consoles.
+
 
+
----
+
 
+
=====HARDWARE Section=====
+
 
+
<div style='float:right;margin: 0 0 0 0.5em'>
+
<div style='text-align:center;'>'''''Example for HARDWARE:'''''</div>
+
# Scan hardware and load required modules at boot
+
MOD_AUTOLOAD=&quot;yes&quot;
+
# Module Blacklist - Deprecated
+
MOD_BLACKLIST=()
+
#
+
MODULES=(!net-pf-10 !pcspkr loop)
+
</div>
+
:; MOD_AUTOLOAD : Setting this to &quot;yes&quot; will use '''udev''' to automatically probe hardware and load the appropriate modules during boot, (convenient with the default modular kernel). Setting this to &quot;no&quot; will rely on the user's ability to specify this information manually, or compile their own custom kernel and modules, etc.
+
:; MOD_BLACKLIST : This has become deprecated in favor of adding blacklisted modules directly to the '''MODULES=''' line below.
+
:; MODULES : Specify additional MODULES if you know that an important module is missing. If your system has any floppy drives, add "floppy". If you will be using loopback filesystems, add "loop". Also specify any blacklisted modules by prefixing them with a bang (!). Udev will be forced NOT to load blacklisted modules. In the example, the IPv6 module as well as the annoying pcspeaker are blacklisted.
+
 
+
----
+
 
+
=====NETWORKING Section=====
+
:; HOSTNAME :Set your HOSTNAME to your liking. This is the name of your computer. Whatever you put here, also put it in {{filename|/etc/hosts}}
+
:; eth0 : 'Ethernet, card 0'. ''If'' you are using '''static IP''', adjust the interface IP address, netmask and broadcast address. Set eth0=&quot;dhcp&quot; if you want to use '''DHCP''' for dynamic/automatic configuration.
+
:; INTERFACES : Specify all interfaces here. Multiple interfaces should be separated with a space as in: (eth0 wlan0)
+
:; gateway : If you are using '''static IP''', set the gateway address. If using  '''DHCP''', you can usually ignore this variable, though some users have reported the need to define it.
+
:; ROUTES : If you are using static '''IP''', remove the '''!''' in front of 'gateway'. If using  '''DHCP''', you can usually leave this variable commented out with the bang (!), but again, some users require the gateway and ROUTES defined. If you experience networking issues with pacman, for instance, you may want to return to these variables.
+
 
+
'''Example w/ Dynamic IP (''DHCP''):'''
+
HOSTNAME="arch"
+
#eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
+
eth0="dhcp"
+
INTERFACES=(eth0)
+
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
+
ROUTES=(!gateway)
+
 
+
'''Example w/ Static IP:'''
+
HOSTNAME="arch"
+
eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
+
INTERFACES=(eth0)
+
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
+
ROUTES=(gateway)
+
 
+
When using a static IP, modify {{Filename|/etc/resolv.conf}} to specify the DNS servers of choice. Please see the [[#/etc/resolv.conf|section below]] regarding this file.
+
 
+
{{Note|Remember, connecting to a wireless network automatically requires a few more steps and may require you to set up a network manager such as [[netcfg]] or [[wicd]]. Please see the [[Wireless Setup#Part II: Wireless management|Wireless Setup]] page for more information}}
+
{{Tip|If using a non-standard MTU size (a.k.a. jumbo frames) is desired AND the installation machine hardware supports them, see the [[Jumbo Frames]] wiki article for further configuration.}}
+
 
+
----
+
 
+
=====DAEMONS Section=====
+
This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot.
+
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
+
*If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
+
*If a script is prefixed with an &quot;at&quot; symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example "mpd" depends on "network", therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
+
*Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
+
 
+
{{Note | This 'BSD-style' init, is the Arch way of handling what other distributions handle with various symlinks to an /etc/init.d directory.}}
+
 
+
'''About DAEMONS'''
+
 
+
The [[daemons]] line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.
+
 
+
A ''daemon'' is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.:httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.:sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm). All these programs can be added to the daemons line and will be started when the system boots. Useful daemons will be presented during this guide.
+
 
+
Historically, the term ''daemon'' was coined by the programmers of MIT's Project MAC. They took the name from ''Maxwell's demon'', an imaginary being from a famous thought experiment that constantly works in the background, sorting molecules.  *nix systems inherited this terminology and created the backronym '''d'''isk '''a'''nd '''e'''xecution '''mon'''itor.
+
 
+
{{Tip|All Arch daemons reside under /etc/rc.d/}}
+
 
+
====/etc/fstab====
+
The '''fstab''' (for '''f'''ile '''s'''ystems '''tab'''le) is part of the system configuration listing all available disks and disk partitions, and indicating how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's filesystem. The '''/etc/fstab''' file is most commonly used by the '''mount''' command. The mount command takes a filesystem on a device, and adds it to the main system hierarchy that you see when you use your system. '''mount -a''' is called from /etc/rc.sysinit, about 3/4 of the way through the boot process, and reads /etc/fstab to determine which options should be used when mounting the specified devices therein. If '''noauto''' is appended to a filesystem in /etc/fstab, '''mount -a''' will not mount it at boot.
+
 
+
''An example of {{Filename|/etc/fstab}}''
+
# <file system>        <dir>        <type>        <options>                <dump>    <pass>
+
none                  /dev/pts    devpts        defaults                      0        0
+
none                  /dev/shm    tmpfs        defaults                      0        0
+
/dev/sda1                  /          jfs        defaults,noatime              0        1
+
/dev/sda2                  /var    reiserfs    defaults,noatime,notail        0        2
+
/dev/sda3                    swap    swap        defaults                      0        0
+
/dev/sda4                  /home      jfs        defaults,noatime              0        2
+
{{Note | The 'noatime' option disables writing read access times to the metadata of files and may safely be appended to / and /home regardless of your specified filesystem type for increased speed, performance, and power efficiency (see [http://kerneltrap.org/node/14148 here] for more).  'notail' disables the ReiserFS tailpacking feature, for added performance at the cost of slightly less efficient disk usage.}}
+
 
+
; <file system> : describes the block device or remote filesystem to be mounted. For regular mounts, this field will contain a link to a block device node (as created by mknod which is called by udev at boot) for the device to be mounted; for instance, '/dev/cdrom' or '/dev/sda1'. {{Note | If your system has more than one hard drive, the installer will default to using UUID rather than the sd''x'' naming scheme, for consistent device mapping. '''[[Persistent block device naming| Utilizing UUID]] has several advantages and may also be preferred to avoid issues if hard disks are added to the system in the future.''' Due to active developments in the kernel and also udev, the ordering in which drivers for storage controllers are loaded may change randomly, yielding an unbootable system/kernel panic. Nearly every motherboard has several controllers (onboard SATA, onboard IDE), and due to the aforementioned development updates, /dev/sda may become /dev/sdb on the next reboot. (See [[Persistent block device naming| this wiki article]] for more information on persistent block device naming. )}}
+
 
+
; <dir> : describes the mount point for the filesystem. For swap partitions, this field should be specified as 'swap'; (Swap partitions are not actually mounted.)
+
 
+
; <type> : describes the type of the filesystem. The Linux kernel supports many filesystem types. (For the filesystems currently supported by the running kernel, see /proc/filesystems). An entry 'swap' denotes a file or partition to be used for swapping. An entry 'ignore' causes the line to be ignored. This is useful to show disk partitions which are currently unused.
+
 
+
; <options> : describes the mount options associated with the filesystem. It is formatted as a comma-separated list of options with no intervening spaces. It contains at least the type of mount plus any additional options appropriate to the filesystem type. For documentation on the available options for non-nfs file systems, see mount(8).
+
 
+
; <dump> : used by the dump(8) command to determine which filesystems are to be dumped. dump is a backup utility. If the fifth field is not present, a value of zero is returned and dump will assume that the filesystem does not need to be backed up. ''Note that dump is not installed by default.''
+
 
+
; <pass> : used by the fsck(8) program to determine the order in which filesystem checks are done at boot time. The root filesystem should be specified with a <pass> of 1, and other filesystems should have a <pass> of 2 or 0. Filesystems within a drive will be checked sequentially, but filesystems on different drives will be checked at the same time to utilize parallelism available in the hardware. If the sixth field is not present or zero, a value of zero is returned and fsck will assume that the filesystem does not need to be checked.
+
 
+
Expanded information available in the [[Fstab]] wiki entry.
+
 
+
===='''[[Configuring mkinitcpio | /etc/mkinitcpio]].conf'''====
+
''Most users will not need to modify this file at this time, but please read the following explanatory information.''
+
 
+
This file allows further fine-tuning of the initial ram filesystem, or initramfs, (also historically referred to as the initial ramdisk or "initrd") for your system. The initramfs is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during boot. The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting from a USB/FW drive). Once the initrramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and your boot continues. For this reason, the initramfs only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of common kernel modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.
+
 
+
<code>mkinitcpio</code> is the next generation of '''initramfs creation'''. It has many advantages over the old <code>mkinitrd</code> and <code>mkinitramfs</code> scripts.
+
 
+
* It uses '''glibc''' and '''busybox''' to provide a small and lightweight base for early userspace.
+
* It can use '''udev''' for hardware autodetection at runtime, thus preventing numerous unnecessary modules from being loaded.
+
* Its hook-based init script is easily extendable with custom hooks, which can easily be included in pacman packages without having to modifiy mkinitcpio itself.
+
* It already supports '''lvm2''', '''dm-crypt''' for both legacy and luks volumes, '''raid''', '''swsusp''' and '''suspend2''' resuming and booting from '''usb mass storage''' devices.
+
* Many features can be configured from the kernel command line without having to rebuild the image.
+
* The '''mkinitcpio''' script makes it possible to include the image in a kernel, thus making a self-contained kernel image is possible.
+
* Its flexibility makes recompiling a kernel unnecessary in many cases.
+
 
+
If using RAID or LVM on the root filesystem, the appropriate HOOKS must be configured. See the wiki pages for [[Installing with Software RAID or LVM| RAID]] and [[Configuring mkinitcpio | /etc/mkinitcpio]] for more info. If using a non-US keyboard. add the "<code>keymap</code>" hook to load your local keymap during boot. Add the "<code>usbinput</code>" hook if using a USB keyboard. Don't forget to add the "<code>usb</code>" hook when installing arch on an external hard drive, Comfact Flash, or SD card, which is connected via usb, e.g.:
+
HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata usb filesystems keymap usbinput"
+
(Otherwise, if boot fails for some reason you will be asked to enter root's password for system maintenance but will be unable to do so.)
+
 
+
If you need support for booting from USB devices, FireWire devices, PCMCIA devices, NFS shares, software RAID arrays, LVM2 volumes, encrypted volumes, or DSDT support, configure your HOOKS accordingly.
+
 
+
==== /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf====
+
 
+
This file can be used to set special configuration options for the kernel modules. It is unnecessary to configure this file in the example.
+
 
+
====/etc/resolv.conf====
+
{{Note|If you are using DHCP, you may safely ignore this file, as by default, it will be dynamically created and destroyed by the dhcpcd daemon. You may change this default behavior if you wish. See the [[Network#For DHCP IP|Network]] and [[Resolv.conf]] pages for mor information.}}
+
 
+
The ''resolver'' is a set of routines in the C library that provide access to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). One of the main functions of DNS is to translate domain names into IP addresses, to make the Web a friendlier place. The resolver configuration file, or /etc/resolv.conf, contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process.
+
 
+
If you use a static IP, set your DNS servers in /etc/resolv.conf  (nameserver <ip-address>). You may have as many as you wish.
+
An example, using OpenDNS:
+
nameserver 208.67.222.222
+
nameserver 208.67.220.220
+
 
+
If you are using a router, you will probably want to specify your DNS servers in the router itself, and merely point to it from your {{Filename|/etc/resolv.conf}}, using your router's IP (which is also your gateway from {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}}). Example:
+
nameserver 192.168.1.1
+
 
+
If using '''DHCP''', you may also specify your DNS servers in the router, or allow automatic assignment from your ISP, if your ISP is so equipped.
+
 
+
====/etc/hosts====
+
 
+
This file associates IP addresses with hostnames and aliases, one line per IP address. For each host a single line should be present with the following information:
+
<IP-address> <hostname> [aliases...]
+
Add your ''hostname'', coinciding with the one specified in /etc/rc.conf, as an alias, so that it looks like this:
+
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost '''''yourhostname'''''
+
{{Warning |''This format, '''including the 'localhost' and your actual host name''', is required for program compatibility! So, if you have named your computer "arch", then that line above should look like this:
+
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost arch
+
Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.''}}
+
{{Note | Recent versions of the Arch Linux Installer automatically add your hostname to this file once you edit {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} with such information. If, for whatever reason, this is not the case, you may add it yourself with the given instructions.}}
+
 
+
If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org>  <hostname> e.g.:
+
192.168.1.100 '''''yourhostname'''''.domain.org  '''''yourhostname'''''
+
 
+
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use /etc/hosts aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
+
64.233.169.103  www.google.com  g
+
192.168.1.90  media
+
192.168.1.88  data
+
The above example would allow you to access google simply by typing 'g' into your browser, and access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
+
 
+
====/etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow====
+
Modify these configurations according to your needs if you plan on using the [[SSH|ssh]] daemon. The default configuration will reject all incoming connections, not only ssh connections. Edit your '''/etc/hosts.allow '''file and add the appropriate parameters:
+
 
+
* Let everyone connect to you
+
sshd: ALL
+
 
+
* Restrict it to a certain ip
+
sshd: 192.168.0.1
+
 
+
* Restrict it to your local LAN network (range 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.0.255)
+
sshd: 192.168.0.
+
 
+
* Restrict for an IP range
+
sshd: 10.0.0.0/255.255.255.0
+
 
+
If you do not plan on using the [[SSH|ssh]] daemon, leave this file at the default, (empty).
+
 
+
====/etc/locale.gen====
+
The <code>/usr/sbin/locale-gen</code> command reads from '''/etc/locale.gen''' to generate specific locales. They can then be used by '''glibc''' and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
+
 
+
By default {{Filename|/etc/locale.gen}} is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. <code>locale-gen</code> runs on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{Filename|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
 
+
Choose the locale(s) you need (remove the # in front of the lines you want), e.g.:
+
en_US ISO-8859-1
+
en_US.UTF-8
+
 
+
The installer will now run the locale-gen script, which will generate the locales you specified. You may change your locale in the future by editing /etc/locale.gen and subsequently running 'locale-gen' as root.
+
 
+
{{Note|If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.}}
+
 
+
====Pacman-Mirror====
+
Choose a mirror repository for '''<code>pacman</code>'''. Remember that archlinux.org is throttled, limiting downloads to 50KB/s.
+
 
+
====Root password====
+
Finally, set a root password and make sure that you remember it later. Return to the main menu and continue with installing bootloader.
+
 
+
====Done====
+
When you select "Done", the system will rebuild the images and put you back to the Main Menu.  This may take some time.
+
 
+
===Install Bootloader===
+
Because we have no secondary operating system in our example, we will need a bootloader. [[GRUB]] is the recommended bootloader and will be used in the following examples. Alternatively, you may choose [[LILO]] or [[Syslinux]]. Please see the related wiki and documentation pages if you choose to use a bootloader other than GRUB.
+
 
+
The provided '''GRUB''' configuration ({{Filename|/boot/grub/menu.lst}}) should be sufficient, but verify its contents to ensure accuracy (specifically, ensure that the root (/) partition is specified by UUID on line 3). You may want to alter the resolution of the console  by adding a vga=<number> kernel argument corresponding to your desired virtual console resolution. (A table of resolutions and the corresponding numbers is printed in the {{Filename|menu.lst}}.)
+
 
+
Explanation:
+
 
+
; title : A printed menu selection. &quot;Arch Linux (Main)&quot; will be printed on the screen as a menu selection.
+
; root : '''GRUB''''s root; the drive and partition where the kernel (/boot) resides, according to system BIOS. (More accurately, where GRUB's stage2 file resides). '''NOT necessarily the root''' (/) file system, as they can reside on separate partitions. GRUB's numbering scheme starts at 0, and uses an hd''x,x'' format regardless of IDE or SATA, and enclosed within parentheses. The example indicates that /boot is on the first partition of the first drive, according to the BIOS, so (hd0,0).
+
; kernel : This line specifies:
+
:* The path and filename of the kernel '''''relative to GRUB's root'''''. In the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and '''vmlinuz26''' is the kernel filename; {{Filename|/boot/vmlinuz26}}. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply {{Filename|/vmlinuz26}}, being relative to '''GRUB''''s root.
+
 
+
:* The <tt>root=</tt> argument to the kernel statement specifies the partition containing the root (/) directory in the booted system, (more accurately, the partition containing {{Filename|/sbin/init}}). An easy way to distinguish the 2 appearances of 'root' in {{Filename|/boot/grub/menu.lst}} is to remember that the first root statement ''informs GRUB where the kernel resides'', whereas the second <tt>root=</tt> kernel argument ''tells the kernel where the root filesystem (/) resides''.
+
 
+
:* Kernel options. In our example, '''ro''' mounts the filesystem as read-only during startup, (usually a safe default; you may wish to change this in case it causes problems booting). Depending on hardware, rootdelay=8 may need to be added to the kernel options in order to be able to boot from an external usb hard drive.
+
 
+
; initrd : The path and filename of the initial RAM filesystem '''relative to GRUB''''s root. Again, in the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and '''kernel26.img''' is the initrd filename; '''/boot/kernel26.img'''. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply '''/kernel26.img''', being relative to '''GRUB''''s root.
+
 
+
''Example''
+
title  Arch Linux (Main)
+
root  (hd0,0)
+
kernel /boot/vmlinuz26 root=/dev/sda1 ro
+
initrd /boot/kernel26.img
+
 
+
''Example for /boot on a separate partition''
+
title  Arch Linux (Main)
+
root  (hd0,0)
+
kernel /vmlinuz26 root=/dev/sda3 ro
+
initrd /kernel26.img
+
 
+
Install the '''GRUB''' bootloader to the master boot record (/dev/sda in our example).
+
 
+
{{Warning|Make sure to install GRUB on '''/dev/sdX''' and '''not /dev/sdX''#'''''! This is a common mistake.}}
+
 
+
{{tip|For more details, see the [[GRUB]] wiki page.}}
+
 
+
===Reboot===
+
That's it; You have configured and installed your Arch Linux base system. Exit the install, and reboot:
+
# reboot
+
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media and perhaps change the boot preference in your BIOS; otherwise you may boot back into the installation!}}
+
 
+
==Part III: Post Install==
+
'''Congratulations, and welcome to your new Arch Linux base system!'''
+
 
+
This section will cover various must-do procedures after installation such as updating your new system and adding a regular, non-root user.
+
 
+
===Update===
+
 
+
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready for customization. From here, you may build this elegant set of tools into whatever you wish or require for your purposes.
+
 
+
Login with the root account. We will configure pacman and update the system as root.
+
 
+
{{Note|Virtual consoles 1-6 are available. You may switch between them with <ALT>+F1...F6}}
+
 
+
====Configure the network (if necessary)====
+
 
+
If you properly configured your system, you should have a working network. Try to <code>ping www.google.com</code> to verify:
+
{{Command|ping -c 3 www.google.com |<nowiki>PING www.l.google.com (74.125.229.51) 56(84) bytes of data.
+
64 bytes from 74.125.229.51: icmp_seq=1 ttl=51 time=26.8 ms
+
64 bytes from 74.125.229.51: icmp_seq=2 ttl=51 time=27.4 ms
+
64 bytes from 74.125.229.51: icmp_seq=3 ttl=51 time=26.8 ms
+
 
+
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
+
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
+
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 26.847/27.053/27.436/0.330 ms</nowiki>|prompt=#}}
+
 
+
If you have successfully established a network connection, continue with '''[[#Update, Sync, and Upgrade the system with pacman|Update, Sync, and Upgrade the system with pacman]]'''.
+
 
+
If, after trying to ping www.google.com, an "unknown host" error is received, you may conclude that your network is not properly configured. You may choose to double-check the following files for integrity and proper settings:
+
 
+
{{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} - Specifically, check your HOSTNAME and NETWORKING section for typos and errors.
+
 
+
{{Filename|/etc/hosts}} - Double-check for format, typos, and errors.
+
 
+
{{Filename|/etc/resolv.conf}} - If you are using a static IP. If you are using DHCP, this file will be dynamically created and destroyed by default.
+
 
+
{{Tip|Advanced instructions for configuring the network can be found in the [[Network]] article.}}
+
 
+
=====Wired LAN=====
+
 
+
Check your Ethernet with
+
# ifconfig -a
+
All interfaces will be listed. You should see an entry for eth0, or perhaps eth1. These examples will use eth0.
+
 
+
'''Static IP'''
+
 
+
If required, you can set a new static IP with:
+
# ifconfig eth0 <ip address> netmask <netmask> up
+
and the default gateway with
+
# route add default gw <ip address of the gateway>
+
Verify that {{Filename|/etc/resolv.conf}} contains your DNS server and add it if it is missing.
+
Check your network again with <code>ping -c 3 www.google.com</code>. If everything is working now, adjust {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} as described above for static IP.
+
 
+
'''DHCP'''
+
 
+
If you have a DHCP server/router in your network try:
+
# dhcpcd eth0
+
If this is working, adjust {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} as described above, for dynamic IP.
+
 
+
=====Wireless LAN=====
+
 
+
Please see {{#Wireless Quickstart For the Live Environment|3.1.1.2: Wireless Quickstart For the Live Environment}} for details on connecting to a wireless network. Although you are no longer running off the installation media, the commands are the same as long as you installed all related wireless packages during package selection. Remember, your wireless device may need firmware in order to operate. For troubleshooting, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
 
+
=====Proxy Server=====
+
If you are behind a proxy server, edit {{Filename|/etc/wgetrc}} and set http_proxy and ftp_proxy in it.
+
 
+
=====Analog Modem, ISDN, and DSL (PPPoE)=====
+
See [[Internet Access]] for detailed instructions.
+
 
+
====Update, Sync, and Upgrade the system with [[pacman]]====
+
Now we will update the system using [[pacman]]. [[Pacman]] is the '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager of Arch Linux. It manages your entire package system and handles installation, removal, package downgrade (through cache), custom compiled package handling, automatic dependency resolution, remote and local searches and much more. Pacman will now be used to download software packages from remote repositories and install them onto your system.
+
 
+
{{Note|If you installed via a Netinstall, many, if not all, of your packages will already be up to date. However, it is still advisable to run through this update process.}}
+
 
+
=====/etc/pacman.conf=====
+
pacman will attempt to read {{Filename|/etc/pacman.conf}} each time it is invoked.  This configuration file is divided into sections, or repositories.  Each  section  defines  a package [[Official Repositories|repository]] that pacman can use when searching for packages. The exception to this is the <tt>options</tt> section, which defines global options.
+
 
+
{{Note| The defaults should work, so modifying at this point may be unnecessary, but verification is always recommended. Further info available in the [[Mirrors]] article.}}
+
 
+
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
+
 
+
Repositories are described below; enable all desired repositories by removing the # in front of the 'Include =' and '[repository]' lines.
+
 
+
{{Note|<nowiki>When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the repository header lines in [brackets] as well as the 'Include =' lines. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error.</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
=====Package Repositories=====
+
Arch currently offers the following 5 repositories readily accessible through pacman. All of them contain binary packages, are pacman accessible, and, with the exception of [community], and developer maintained:
+
 
+
; [core] : The simple principle behind [core] is to provide only one of each necessary tool for a base Arch Linux system; The GNU toolchain, the Linux kernel, one editor, one command line browser, etc. (There are a few exceptions to this. For instance, both vi and nano are provided, allowing the user to choose one or both.) It contains all the packages that MUST be in perfect working order to ensure the system remains in a usable state. These are the absolute system-critical packages.
+
 
+
:''The Core installation media simply contains an installer script, and a snapshot of the core repository at the time of release.''
+
 
+
; [extra] : The [extra] repository contains all Arch packages that are not themselves necessary for a base Arch system, but contribute to a more full-featured environment. '''X''', KDE, and Apache, for instance, can be found here.
+
 
+
;[testing] : The [testing] repository contains packages that are candidates for the [core] or [extra] repositories. New packages go into [testing] if:
+
:# They are expected to break something on update and need to be tested first, and/or
+
:# They require other packages to be rebuilt. In this case, all packages that need to be rebuilt are put into [testing] first and when all rebuilds are done, they are moved back to the other repositories.
+
 
+
:{{Note|[testing] is the only repository that can have name collisions with any of the other official repositories. Therefore, if enabled, [testing] must be the first repo listed in <code>pacman.conf</code>.}}
+
 
+
:{{Warning|Only experienced users should use [testing]. If you don't know how to downgrade a package or chroot into an install, don't use it.}}
+
 
+
; [community] : The [community] repository is maintained by the ''Trusted Users (TUs)'' and is simply the binary branch of the ''Arch User Repository ([[AUR]])''. It contains binary packages which originated as PKGBUILDs from ''AUR'' [unsupported] that have acquired enough votes and were adopted by a ''TU''. Like all repos listed above, [community] may be readily accessed by pacman.
+
 
+
;[multilib] : Users running 64 bit arch linux may want to install and use applications that are not available in 64 bit (and most desktop or laptop users probably will). The 32 bit versions of these applications can be used, but require that certain 32 bit libraries are installed. These libraries are available in the [multilib] repository.
+
 
+
:If you wish to use this repository, you should add the lines below to /etc/pacman.conf:
+
    [multilib]
+
    Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
+
 
+
=====AUR=====
+
 
+
The '''[[AUR]]''' also contains the '''unsupported''' branch, which cannot be accessed directly by pacman*. '''AUR''' [unsupported] does not contain binary packages. Rather, it provides more than sixteen thousand PKGBUILD scripts for building packages from source, that may be unavailable through the other repos. When an AUR unsupported package acquires enough popular votes, it may be moved to the AUR [community] binary repo, if a TU is willing to adopt and maintain it there.
+
* TU maintained
+
* All PKGBUILD bash build scripts
+
* '''Not''' pacman accessible by default
+
 
+
<nowiki>*</nowiki> pacman wrappers ('''''[[AUR Helpers]]''''') can help you seamlessly access AUR.
+
 
+
====/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist====
+
Defines pacman repository mirrors and priorities.
+
 
+
Open {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} in an editor and uncomment (remove the '#' in front) a server close to you. Then issue a complete package refresh:
+
# pacman -Syy
+
Passing two --refresh or -y flags forces pacman to refresh all package lists even if they are considered to be up to date. Issuing pacman -Syy ''whenever a mirror is changed'', is good practice and will avoid possible headaches.
+
+
=====<tt>rankmirrors</tt>=====
+
 
+
Alternatively, you can use <code>rankmirrors</code>. <code>rankmirrors</code> is a bash script which will attempt to detect uncommented mirrors specified in {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} which are closest to the installation machine based on latency. Faster mirrors will dramatically improve pacman performance, and the overall Arch Linux experience. This script may be run periodically, especially if the chosen mirrors provide inconsistent throughput and/or updates. Note that <code>rankmirrors</code> does not test for throughput. Tools such as <code>wget</code> or <code>rsync</code> may be used to effectively test for mirror throughput after a new {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} has been generated.
+
 
+
Issue the following command to completely refresh package database and install <code>curl</code>:
+
# pacman -Syy curl
+
 
+
*''If you get an error at this step, use the command "nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist" and uncomment a server that suits you.''
+
 
+
<code>cd</code> to the {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/}} directory:
+
# cd /etc/pacman.d
+
Backup the existing {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}:
+
# cp mirrorlist mirrorlist.backup
+
Edit mirrorlist.backup and uncomment all mirrors on the same continent or within geographical proximity to test with rankmirrors.
+
# nano mirrorlist.backup
+
Run the script against the mirrorlist.backup with the -n switch and redirect output to a new /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist file:
+
# rankmirrors -n 6 mirrorlist.backup > mirrorlist
+
'''-n 6''': rank the 6 closest mirrors
+
 
+
Force pacman to refresh all package lists with the new mirrorlist in place:
+
# pacman -Syy
+
 
+
If you want to get help from the IRC channel, you will find it easier if you install and use curlpaste:
+
# pacman -S curlpaste
+
 
+
=====Mirrorcheck for up-to-date packages=====
+
Since <code>rankmirrors</code> does not take into account how up-to-date a mirror's package list is, it's important to note that one or more of the mirrors it selects as fastest may still be out-of-date. [https://www.archlinux.de/?page=MirrorStatus;orderby=lastsync;sort=1 ArchLinux Mirrorcheck] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc. One may wish to manually inspect {{Filename|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}, ensuring that the file contains only up-to-date mirrors if having the latest package versions is a priority.
+
 
+
Alternatively, the [http://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] can automatically rank mirrors close to your location by how up-to-date they are.
+
 
+
====Get familiar with pacman====
+
pacman is the Arch user's best friend. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use the pacman(8) tool. Try:
+
$ man pacman
+
 
+
For more information, have a look at the [[pacman]] wiki entry at your own leisure, or check out the [[pacman rosetta]] entry for a comparison to other popular package managers.
+
 
+
====Update the System====
+
You are now ready to upgrade your entire system.  Before you do, read through the [http://www.archlinux.org/news/ news] (and optionally the [http://archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-announce/ announce mailing list]).  Often the developers will provide important information about required configurations and modifications for known issues. Consulting these pages before any upgrade is good practice.
+
 
+
Sync, refresh, and upgrade your entire new system with:
+
# pacman -Syu
+
or:
+
# pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade
+
 
+
pacman will now download a fresh copy of the master package list from the server(s) defined in {{Filename|/etc/pacman.conf}} and perform all available upgrades. You may be prompted to upgrade pacman itself at this point. If so, say yes, and then reissue the <code>pacman -Syu</code> command when finished.
+
 
+
Reboot if a kernel upgrade has occurred.
+
 
+
{{Note|Occasionally, configuration changes may take place requiring user action during an update; read pacman's output for any pertinent information.}}
+
 
+
Pacman output is saved in {{Filename|/var/log/pacman.log}}.
+
 
+
See [[Package_Management_FAQs|Package Management FAQs]] for answers to frequently asked questions regarding updating and managing your packages.
+
 
+
=====Ignoring Packages=====
+
 
+
After executing the command <code>pacman -Syu</code>, the entire system will be updated. It is possible to prevent a package from being upgraded. A typical scenario would be a package for which an upgrade may prove problematic for the system. In this case, there are two options; indicate the package(s) to skip in the pacman command line using the --ignore switch (<code>pacman -S --help</code> for details) or permanently indicate the package(s) to skip in the /etc/pacman.conf file in the IgnorePkg array. For more information, please see the [[pacman]] wiki entry.
+
 
+
Please note that the power user is expected to keep the system up to date with pacman -Syu, rather than selectively upgrading packages. You may diverge from this typical usage as you wish; just be warned that there is a greater chance that things will not work as intended and that it could break your system. The majority of complaints happen when selective upgrading, unusual compilation or improper software installation is performed. Use of '''IgnorePkg''' in /etc/pacman.conf is therefore discouraged, and should only be used sparingly, if you know what you are doing.
+
 
+
=====The Arch rolling release model=====
+
Keep in mind that Arch is a '''rolling release''' distribution. This means there is never a reason to reinstall or perform elaborate system rebuilds to upgrade to the newest version. Simply issuing <code>pacman -Syu</code> periodically keeps your entire system up-to-date and on the bleeding edge. At the end of this upgrade, your system is completely current. Remember to '''reboot''' if a kernel upgrade has occurred.
+
 
+
===Adding a User===
+
 
+
{{Note|Before adding your users, consider hardening your system by switching from md5 password hashes to sha512 password hashes.  See the [[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/SHA_password_hashes SHA_password_hashes]] wiki article for more.}}
+
 
+
Linux is a multi-user environment. You should not do your everyday work using the root account. It is more than poor practice; it is dangerous. Root is for administrative tasks. Instead, add a normal, non-root, user account using the <code>/usr/sbin/useradd</code> program.
+
 
+
# useradd -m -g [initial_group] -G [additional_groups] -s [login_shell] [username]
+
* '''-m''' Creates user home directory as /home/'''username'''. Within their home directory, a user can write files, delete them, install programs, etc. Users' home directories shall contain their data and personal configuration files, the so-called 'dot files' (their name is preceded by a dot), which are 'hidden'. (To view dotfiles, enable the appropriate option in your file manager or run ls with the -a switch.) If there is a conflict between ''user'' (under /home/username) and ''global'' configuration files, (usually under /etc/) the settings in the ''user'' file will prevail. Dotfiles likely to be altered by the end user include .xinitrc and .bashrc files. The configuration files for xinit and Bash respectively. They allow the user the ability to change the window manager to be started upon login and also aliases, user-specified commands and environment variables respectively. When a user is created, their dotfiles shall be taken from the /etc/skel directory where system sample files reside.
+
* '''-g''' The group name or number of the user's initial login group. The group name must exist. If a group number is provided, it must refer to an already existing group. If not specified, the behavior of useradd will depend on the USERGROUPS_ENAB variable contained in /etc/login.defs.
+
* '''-G'''  A list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. ''Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening spaces''. The default is for the user to belong only to the initial group.
+
* '''-s''' The path and filename of the user´s default login shell. Arch Linux init scripts use Bash. After the boot process is complete, the default login shell is user-specified. (Ensure the chosen shell package is installed if choosing something other than Bash).
+
Useful groups for your non-root user include:
+
*'''audio''' - for tasks involving sound card and related software
+
*'''floppy''' - for access to a floppy if applicable
+
*'''lp''' - for managing printing tasks
+
*'''optical''' - for managing tasks pertaining to the optical drive(s)
+
*'''storage''' - for managing storage devices
+
*'''video''' - for  video tasks and hardware acceleration
+
*'''wheel''' - for using sudo
+
*'''games''' - needed for write permission for games in the games group
+
*'''power''' - used w/ power options (e.g.: shutdown with power button)
+
*'''scanner''' - for using a scanner
+
A typical desktop system example, adding a user named "archie" specifying bash as the login shell:
+
# useradd -m -g users -G audio,lp,optical,storage,video,wheel,games,power,scanner -s /bin/bash archie
+
Next, add a password for your new user using <code>/usr/bin/passwd</code>.
+
 
+
An example for our user, 'archie':
+
# passwd archie
+
(You will be prompted to provide the new password.)
+
 
+
Your new non-root user has now been created, complete with a home directory and a login password.
+
 
+
'''Deleting the user account:'''
+
 
+
In the event of error, or if you wish to delete this user account in favor of a different name or for any other reason, use <code>/usr/sbin/userdel</code>:
+
# userdel -r [username]
+
* '''-r ''' Files in the user´s home directory will be removed along with the home directory itself and the user´s mail spool.
+
 
+
If you want to change the name of your user or any existing user, see the [[Change username]] page of the Arch wiki and/or the [[Groups]] and [[User Management]] articles for further information. You may also check the man pages for <code>usermod(8)</code> and <code>gpasswd(8)</code>.
+
 
+
====Install and setup Sudo (Optional)====
+
Install Sudo:
+
# pacman -S sudo
+
To add a user as a sudo user (a &quot;sudoer&quot;), the visudo command must be run as root.
+
 
+
By default, the visudo command uses the editor [[vi]].  If you do not know how to use vi, you may set the EDITOR environment variable to the editor of your choice, such as in this example with the editor "nano":
+
# EDITOR=nano visudo
+
{{Note|Please note that you are setting the variable and starting visudo on the same line at the same time.  This will not work properly as two separated commands.}}
+
 
+
If you are comfortable using vi, issue the visudo command without the EDITOR=nano variable:
+
# visudo
+
This will open the file /etc/sudoers in a special session of vi. visudo copies the file to be edited to a temporary file, edits it with an editor, (vi by default), and  subsequently runs a sanity check. If it passes, the temporary file overwrites the original with the correct permissions.
+
 
+
{{Warning|Do not edit /etc/sudoers directly with an editor; Errors in syntax can cause annoyances (like rendering the root account unusable). You must use the ''visudo'' command to edit /etc/sudoers.}}
+
 
+
In the previous section we added your user to the "wheel" group. To give users in the wheel group full root privileges when they precede a command with &quot;sudo&quot;, uncomment the following line:
+
%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
+
Now you can give any user access to the sudo command by simply adding them to the wheel group.
+
 
+
For more information, such as sudoer <TAB> completion, see [[Sudo]].
+
 
+
==Part IV: Extras==
+
You should now have a completely functional Arch system which will act as a suitable base for you to build upon based on your needs. However, most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics. This part of the guide will give a quick run down to getting these extras working.
+
 
+
===Sound===
+
If you want sound, proceed to [[Advanced Linux Sound Architecture]] for instructions. Alternatively, proceed to the next section (installing a GUI) first, and set up sound later (it usually works out of the box, so you'll just need to unmute it).
+
 
+
The [[Wikipedia:Advanced Linux Sound Architecture|Advanced Linux Sound Architecture]] (ALSA) is included with the kernel and it's recommended to try it first. However, if it doesn't work or you aren't satisfied with the quality, the [[Wikipedia:Open Sound System|Open Sound System]] is a viable alternative. OSSv4 has been released under a free license and is generally considered a significant improvement over the older OSS which was replaced by ALSA. Instructions can be found in the [[OSS|OSS article]].
+
 
+
If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at [[Sound]] for an overview of various articles.
+
 
+
==='''G'''raphical '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface===
+
====Install X====
+
The '''X''' Window System version 11 (commonly '''X11''', or just simply '''X''') is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. In laymens terms, it provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
+
 
+
{{Warning|If you're installing Arch in a Virtualbox guest, you need a different way to complete X installation. See [[Virtualbox#Running Arch Linux as a guest|Running Arch Linux as a guest]], then skip the A,B,C steps below.
+
}}
+
 
+
Now we will install the base '''[[Xorg]]''' packages using pacman.  This is the first step in building a GUI.
+
 
+
Install the base packages:
+
# pacman -S xorg
+
 
+
Install mesa for 3D support:
+
# pacman -S mesa
+
 
+
The 3D utilities glxgears and glxinfo are included in the '''mesa-demos''' package, install if needed:
+
# pacman -S mesa-demos
+
 
+
====Install video driver====
+
Next, you should install a driver for your graphics card.
+
 
+
You will need knowledge of which video chipset your machine has. If you do not know, use the <code>/usr/sbin/lspci</code> program:
+
$ lspci
+
 
+
{{Note| The '''vesa''' driver is the most generic, and should work with almost any modern video chipset. If you cannot find a suitable driver for your video chipset, vesa ''should'' work with any video card, but it offers only slow 2D.}}
+
 
+
For a complete list of all '''open-source''' video drivers, search the package database:
+
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
+
 
+
{{Note|Proprietary drivers for NVIDIA and ATI are covered in the next sections. If you plan on doing heavy 3D processing such as gaming, consider using these.}}
+
 
+
Use pacman to install the appropriate video driver for your video card/onboard video. Example for the Savage driver:
+
# pacman -S xf86-video-savage
+
 
+
{{Tip|For some Intel graphics cards, configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance, see [[Intel]] for more information.}}
+
 
+
=====NVIDIA Graphics Cards=====
+
NVIDIA users have three options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):
+
* The open source nouveau driver, which offers fast 2d acceleration and experimental 3d support which is good enough for basic compositing (note: does not fully support powersaving yet). [http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/FeatureMatrix Feature Matrix.]
+
* The open source (but obfuscated) nv driver, which is very slow and only has 2d support.
+
* The proprietary nvidia drivers, which offer good 3d performance and powersaving. Even if you plan on using the proprietary drivers, it's recommended to start with nouveau and then switch to the binary driver, because nouveau will almost always work out-of-the-box, while nvidia will require configuration and likely some troubleshooting. See [[NVIDIA]] for more information.
+
 
+
The open-source nouveau driver should be good enough for most users and is recommended:
+
# pacman -S xf86-video-nouveau
+
 
+
Or, for 3D support (highly experimental):
+
# pacman -S nouveau-dri
+
 
+
Create the file {{Filename|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-nouveau.conf}}, and input the following contents:
+
Section "Device"
+
    Identifier "n"
+
    Driver "nouveau"
+
EndSection
+
 
+
This is required to ensure that nouveau driver is loaded. Xorg is not yet smart enough to do this by itself.
+
 
+
{{Tip|For advanced instructions, see [[Nouveau]].}}
+
 
+
=====ATI Graphics Cards=====
+
ATI owners have two options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):
+
* The open source '''radeon''' driver provided by the '''xf86-video-ati''' package. It fully supports Radeon chipsets up to X1950 (latest R500 chipsets). Cards up to the 9200 series are fully supported, stable, and provide full 2D and 3D acceleration. Cards from 9500 to HD4000 feature full 2D acceleration, and stable/partly implemented 3D acceleration, but lack certain features provided by the proprietary driver; power management is under development and in an advanced stage, but not on par with catalyst. HD5000 support is currently a work in progress. Supports KMS and HDMI with audio output since kernel 2.6.33. [http://wiki.x.org/wiki/RadeonFeature Feature Matrix.]
+
* The proprietary '''fglrx''' driver provided by the [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=catalyst&do_Search=Go catalyst] package located in the [[AUR]]. It supports only newer devices (HD2xxx and newer). It was once a package offered by Arch in the <code>extra</code> repository, but as of March 2009, official support has been dropped because of dissatisfaction with the quality and speed of development of the proprietary driver. See [[ATI Catalyst]] for more information.
+
 
+
The open-source driver is the recommended choice. Install the '''radeon''' ATI Driver:
+
# pacman -S xf86-video-ati
+
 
+
{{Tip|For advanced instructions, see [[ATI]].}}
+
 
+
====Install input drivers====
+
 
+
Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems and evdev (xf86-input-evdev) is the modern, hotplugging input driver for almost all devices so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, evdev has already been installed as a dependency of Xorg.
+
 
+
If evdev does not support your device, install the needed driver from the xorg-input-drivers group.
+
 
+
For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search:
+
# pacman -Ss xf86-input | less
+
{{Note|You only need xf86-input-keyboard or xf86-input-mouse if you plan on disabling hotplugging, otherwise, evdev will act as the input driver.}}
+
 
+
Laptop users (or users with a touchscreen) will also need the synaptics package to allow X to configure the touchpad/touchscreen:
+
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
+
 
+
{{Tip|For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad settings, see the [[Touchpad Synaptics]] article.}}
+
 
+
====Configure X (Optional)====
+
 
+
{{Warning|Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation along with configuration. See [[NVIDIA]] or [[ATI Catalyst]] for details.}}
+
 
+
X Server features auto-configuration and therefore can function without an xorg.conf. If you still wish to configure X Server, please see the [[Xorg]] wiki page.
+
 
+
=====Non-US keyboard=====
+
 
+
If you do not use a standard US keyboard you need to set the keyboard layout in {{Filename|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf}}:
+
 
+
Section "InputClass"
+
    Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall"
+
    MatchIsKeyboard "on"
+
    MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
+
    Driver "evdev"
+
    '''Option "XkbLayout" "be"'''
+
EndSection
+
 
+
{{Note|The '''XkbLayout''' key may differ from the keymap code you used with the km or loadkeys command. For instance, the uk layout corresponds to the key: '''gb'''. <!-- Where can the user find his/her key then? --Xgamer99 -->}}
+
 
+
====Testing X====
+
 
+
This section will explain how to start the very basic graphical environment included with in the xorg group in order to text it. This uses the simple default X window manager, twm.
+
 
+
The default X environment is rather bare. [[#Choose and install a graphical interface|This section below]] will deal with installing a desktop environment or window manager of your choice to supplement X.
+
 
+
If you installed Xorg before creating your regular user, there will be an empty .xinitrc file in your $HOME that you need to either delete or edit in order for X to start properly. If you do not do this X will show a blank screen with what appears to be no errors in your {{Filename|Xorg.0.log}}. Simply deleting it will get it running with a default X environment.
+
 
+
$ rm ~/.xinitrc
+
 
+
=====Message bus=====
+
 
+
{{Note|<tt>dbus</tt> is likely required for many of your applications to work properly, if you know you don't need it, skip this section.}}
+
 
+
Install dbus:
+
# pacman -S dbus
+
 
+
To start automatically on boot, you should add <tt>dbus</tt> to your DAEMONS array in {{filename|/etc/rc.conf}}:
+
 
+
DAEMONS=(syslog-ng '''dbus''' network crond)
+
 
+
If you need to start dbus without rebooting, run
+
# /etc/rc.d/dbus start
+
 
+
=====Start X=====
+
 
+
{{Note|The Ctrl-Alt-Backspace shortcut traditionally used to kill X has been deprecated and will not work to exit out of this test. You can enable Ctrl-Alt-Backspace by editing xorg.conf, as described [[Xorg#Ctrl-Alt-Backspace doesn't work|here]].}}
+
 
+
Finally, start Xorg:
+
$ startx
+
or
+
$ xinit -- /usr/bin/X -nolisten tcp
+
 
+
A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that '''X''' installation was a success, you may exit out of X by issuing the <tt>exit</tt> command into the prompts until you return to the console.
+
 
+
If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (CTRL-Alt-F2, for example), and login blindly as root, followed by <Enter>, followed by root's password followed by <Enter>.
+
 
+
You can attempt to kill the X server with <code>/usr/bin/pkill</code> (note the capital letter '''X'''):
+
# pkill X
+
 
+
If pkill does not work, reboot blindly with:
+
# reboot
+
 
+
=====In case of errors=====
+
If a problem occurs, then look for errors in {{Filename|/var/log/Xorg.0.log}}. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with {{Codeline|(EE)}} which represent errors, and also {{Codeline|(WW)}} which are warnings that could indicate other issues.
+
$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
+
 
+
Errors may also be searched for in the console output of the virtual console from which '''X''' was started.
+
 
+
See the [[Xorg]] article for detailed instructions and troubleshooting.
+
 
+
=====Need Help?=====
+
 
+
If you are still having trouble after consulting the [[Xorg]] article and need assistance via the Arch forums, be sure to install and use wgetpaste:
+
 
+
# pacman -S wgetpaste
+
Use wgetpaste and provide links for the following files when asking for help in your forum post:
+
* ~/.xinitrc
+
* /etc/X11/xorg.conf
+
* /var/log/Xorg.0.log
+
* /var/log/Xorg.0.log.old
+
Use wgetpaste like so:
+
$ wgetpaste </path/to/file>
+
Post the corresponding links given within your forum post. Be sure to provide appropriate hardware and driver information as well.
+
{{Warning|It is very important to provide detail when troubleshooting X. Please provide all pertinent information as detailed above when asking for assistance on the Arch forums.}}
+
 
+
====Install Fonts====
+
At this point, you may wish to save time by installing visually pleasing, true type fonts, before installing a desktop environment/window manager. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts.
+
 
+
Install with:
+
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
+
 
+
Refer to [[Font Configuration]] for how to configure font rendering and [[Fonts]] for font suggestions and installation instructions.
+
 
+
====Choose and install a graphical interface====
+
 
+
The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
+
 
+
;Window Manager (WM) : Controls the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System. '''See [[Window Manager#Window managers|Window managers]] for more information.'''
+
 
+
;Desktop Environment (DE): Works atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop. When you think of a personal desktop, it's usually a DE that you want. '''See [[Desktop Environment#Desktop environments|Desktop environments]] for more information.'''
+
 
+
Alternatively, you can build your own DE by using a WM and the applications of your choice.
+
 
+
{{Note|Unlike lots of other distributions, Arch won't decide what graphical environment you want to use.  Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for ''your'' needs. It's worth trying out a bunch of the environments listed here before you make your choice as pacman can completely remove anything you install.}}
+
 
+
After installing a graphical interface, you'll probably want to continue with [[General Recommendations]] for post-installation instructions.
+
 
+
====Methods for starting your Graphical Environment====
+
 
+
=====Manually=====
+
You might prefer to start X manually from your terminal rather than booting straight into the desktop. For DE-specific commands, please see the wiki page corrosponding to your DE for more information. For more generic '''X''' commands, please see the section on the [[Xorg#Methods for starting your Graphical Environment|Xorg]] page.
+
 
+
=====Automatically=====
+
You might prefer to have the desktop start automatically during boot instead of starting X manually. See [[Display Manager]] for instructions on using a login manager or [[Start X at Boot]] for two lightweight methods that don't rely on a display manager.
+
 
+
==Appendix==
+
For a list of [[Common Applications]] and [[Lightweight Applications]], visit their respective articles.
+
 
+
See [[General Recommendations]] for post-installation tutorials like setting up CPU frequency scaling or font rendering.
+

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Template:Article summary start

Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading.

For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. See archlinux(7) for an overview of the configuration. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.

Contents

Pre-installation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 or x86_64 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, a working internet connection is required.

Download and boot the installation medium as explained in Category:Getting and installing Arch. You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt; common commands such as systemctl(1) can be tab-completed.

To switch to a different console—for example, to view this guide with ELinks alongside the installation—use the Alt+arrow shortcut. To edit configuration files, nano, vi and vim are available.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is US. To list available layouts, run ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

To modify the layout, append a file name to loadkeys(1), omitting path and file extension. For example, run loadkeys de-latin1 to set a German keyboard layout.

Console fonts are located in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with setfont(8).

Verify the boot mode

If UEFI mode is enabled on an UEFI motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly via systemd-boot. To verify this, list the efivars directory:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.

Connect to the Internet

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. Verify a connection was established, for example with ping:

# ping archlinux.org

If none is available, stop the dhcpcd service with systemctl stop dhcpcd@<TAB> and see Network configuration.

For wireless connections, iw(8), wpa_supplicant(8) and netctl are available. See Wireless network configuration.

Update the system clock

Use timedatectl(1) to ensure the system clock is accurate:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Partition the disks

When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as /dev/sda. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk — results ending in rom, loop or airoot may be ignored:

# fdisk -l

The following partitions (shown with a numerical suffix) are required for a chosen device:

Swap space can be set on a separate partition or a swap file.

To modify partition tables, use fdisk or parted. See Partitioning for more information.

If wanting to create any stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, do it now.

Format the partitions

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, to format the root partition on /dev/sda1 with ext4, run:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1

See File systems#Create a file system for details.

Mount the file systems

Mount the file system on the root partition to /mnt, for example:

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Create mount points for any remaining partitions and mount them accordingly, for example:

# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot

genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group:

# pacstrap /mnt base

This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs or specific wireless firmware; see packages.both for comparison.

To install packages and other groups such as base-devel, append the names to pacstrap (space separated) or to individual pacman commands after the #Chroot step.

Configure the system

Fstab

Generate an fstab file (use -U or -L to define by UUID or labels, respectively):

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Chroot

Change root into the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt

Time zone

Set the time zone:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime

Run hwclock(8) to generate /etc/adjtime:

# hwclock --systohc

This command assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC. See Time#Time standard for details.

Locale

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed localizations in /etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:

# locale-gen

Set the LANG variable in locale.conf(5) accordingly, for example:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in vconsole.conf(5):

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1

Hostname

Create the hostname(5) file:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

Consider adding a matching entry to hosts(5):

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost
::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost
127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

See also Network configuration#Set the hostname.

Network configuration

Configure the network for the newly installed environment: see Network configuration.

For Wireless configuration, install the iw, wpa_supplicant, and dialog packages, as well as needed firmware packages.

Initramfs

Creating a new initramfs is usually not required, because mkinitcpio was run on installation of the linux package with pacstrap.

For special configurations, modify the mkinitcpio.conf(5) file and recreate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Root password

Set the root password:

# passwd

Boot loader

See Category:Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. For example, set up the boot loader with systemd-boot if your system supports UEFI, and GRUB when not.

If you have an Intel CPU, install the intel-ucode package in addition, and enable microcode updates.

Reboot

Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with fuser(1).

Finally, restart the machine by typing reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.

Post-installation

See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications. This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading.

For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. See archlinux(7) for an overview of the configuration. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.

Pre-installation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 or x86_64 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, a working internet connection is required.

Download and boot the installation medium as explained in Category:Getting and installing Arch. You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt; common commands such as systemctl(1) can be tab-completed.

To switch to a different console—for example, to view this guide with ELinks alongside the installation—use the Alt+arrow shortcut. To edit configuration files, nano, vi and vim are available.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is US. To list available layouts, run ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

To modify the layout, append a file name to loadkeys(1), omitting path and file extension. For example, run loadkeys de-latin1 to set a German keyboard layout.

Console fonts are located in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with setfont(8).

Verify the boot mode

If UEFI mode is enabled on an UEFI motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly via systemd-boot. To verify this, list the efivars directory:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.

Connect to the Internet

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. Verify a connection was established, for example with ping:

# ping archlinux.org

If none is available, stop the dhcpcd service with systemctl stop dhcpcd@<TAB> and see Network configuration.

For wireless connections, iw(8), wpa_supplicant(8) and netctl are available. See Wireless network configuration.

Update the system clock

Use timedatectl(1) to ensure the system clock is accurate:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Partition the disks

When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as /dev/sda. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk — results ending in rom, loop or airoot may be ignored:

# fdisk -l

The following partitions (shown with a numerical suffix) are required for a chosen device:

Swap space can be set on a separate partition or a swap file.

To modify partition tables, use fdisk or parted. See Partitioning for more information.

If wanting to create any stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, do it now.

Format the partitions

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, to format the root partition on /dev/sda1 with ext4, run:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1

See File systems#Create a file system for details.

Mount the file systems

Mount the file system on the root partition to /mnt, for example:

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Create mount points for any remaining partitions and mount them accordingly, for example:

# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot

genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group:

# pacstrap /mnt base

This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs or specific wireless firmware; see packages.both for comparison.

To install packages and other groups such as base-devel, append the names to pacstrap (space separated) or to individual pacman commands after the #Chroot step.

Configure the system

Fstab

Generate an fstab file (use -U or -L to define by UUID or labels, respectively):

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Chroot

Change root into the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt

Time zone

Set the time zone:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime

Run hwclock(8) to generate /etc/adjtime:

# hwclock --systohc

This command assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC. See Time#Time standard for details.

Locale

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed localizations in /etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:

# locale-gen

Set the LANG variable in locale.conf(5) accordingly, for example:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in vconsole.conf(5):

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1

Hostname

Create the hostname(5) file:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

Consider adding a matching entry to hosts(5):

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost
::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost
127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

See also Network configuration#Set the hostname.

Network configuration

Configure the network for the newly installed environment: see Network configuration.

For Wireless configuration, install the iw, wpa_supplicant, and dialog packages, as well as needed firmware packages.

Initramfs

Creating a new initramfs is usually not required, because mkinitcpio was run on installation of the linux package with pacstrap.

For special configurations, modify the mkinitcpio.conf(5) file and recreate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Root password

Set the root password:

# passwd

Boot loader

See Category:Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. For example, set up the boot loader with systemd-boot if your system supports UEFI, and GRUB when not.

If you have an Intel CPU, install the intel-ucode package in addition, and enable microcode updates.

Reboot

Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with fuser(1).

Finally, restart the machine by typing reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.

Post-installation

See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications. This document is a guide for installing Arch Linux from the live system booted with the official installation image. Before installing, it would be advised to view the FAQ. For conventions used in this document, see Help:Reading.

For more detailed instructions, see the respective ArchWiki articles or the various programs' man pages, both linked from this guide. See archlinux(7) for an overview of the configuration. For interactive help, the IRC channel and the forums are also available.

Pre-installation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 or x86_64 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, a working internet connection is required.

Download and boot the installation medium as explained in Category:Getting and installing Arch. You will be logged in on the first virtual console as the root user, and presented with a Zsh shell prompt; common commands such as systemctl(1) can be tab-completed.

To switch to a different console—for example, to view this guide with ELinks alongside the installation—use the Alt+arrow shortcut. To edit configuration files, nano, vi and vim are available.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is US. To list available layouts, run ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

To modify the layout, append a file name to loadkeys(1), omitting path and file extension. For example, run loadkeys de-latin1 to set a German keyboard layout.

Console fonts are located in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ and can likewise be set with setfont(8).

Verify the boot mode

If UEFI mode is enabled on an UEFI motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly via systemd-boot. To verify this, list the efivars directory:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

If the directory does not exist, the system may be booted in BIOS or CSM mode. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.

Connect to the Internet

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. Verify a connection was established, for example with ping:

# ping archlinux.org

If none is available, stop the dhcpcd service with systemctl stop dhcpcd@<TAB> and see Network configuration.

For wireless connections, iw(8), wpa_supplicant(8) and netctl are available. See Wireless network configuration.

Update the system clock

Use timedatectl(1) to ensure the system clock is accurate:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Partition the disks

When recognized by the live system, disks are assigned to a block device such as /dev/sda. To identify these devices, use lsblk or fdisk — results ending in rom, loop or airoot may be ignored:

# fdisk -l

The following partitions (shown with a numerical suffix) are required for a chosen device:

Swap space can be set on a separate partition or a swap file.

To modify partition tables, use fdisk or parted. See Partitioning for more information.

If wanting to create any stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, do it now.

Format the partitions

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For example, to format the root partition on /dev/sda1 with ext4, run:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1

See File systems#Create a file system for details.

Mount the file systems

Mount the file system on the root partition to /mnt, for example:

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Create mount points for any remaining partitions and mount them accordingly, for example:

# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot

genfstab will later detect mounted file systems and swap space.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

This file will later be copied to the new system by pacstrap, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group:

# pacstrap /mnt base

This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs or specific wireless firmware; see packages.both for comparison.

To install packages and other groups such as base-devel, append the names to pacstrap (space separated) or to individual pacman commands after the #Chroot step.

Configure the system

Fstab

Generate an fstab file (use -U or -L to define by UUID or labels, respectively):

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Chroot

Change root into the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt

Time zone

Set the time zone:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Region/City /etc/localtime

Run hwclock(8) to generate /etc/adjtime:

# hwclock --systohc

This command assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC. See Time#Time standard for details.

Locale

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and other needed localizations in /etc/locale.gen, and generate them with:

# locale-gen

Set the LANG variable in locale.conf(5) accordingly, for example:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in vconsole.conf(5):

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1

Hostname

Create the hostname(5) file:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

Consider adding a matching entry to hosts(5):

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost
::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost
127.0.1.1	myhostname.localdomain	myhostname

See also Network configuration#Set the hostname.

Network configuration

Configure the network for the newly installed environment: see Network configuration.

For Wireless configuration, install the iw, wpa_supplicant, and dialog packages, as well as needed firmware packages.

Initramfs

Creating a new initramfs is usually not required, because mkinitcpio was run on installation of the linux package with pacstrap.

For special configurations, modify the mkinitcpio.conf(5) file and recreate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Root password

Set the root password:

# passwd

Boot loader

See Category:Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. For example, set up the boot loader with systemd-boot if your system supports UEFI, and GRUB when not.

If you have an Intel CPU, install the intel-ucode package in addition, and enable microcode updates.

Reboot

Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with umount -R /mnt: this allows noticing any "busy" partitions, and finding the cause with fuser(1).

Finally, restart the machine by typing reboot: any partitions still mounted will be automatically unmounted by systemd. Remember to remove the installation media and then login into the new system with the root account.

Post-installation

See General recommendations for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications.

This document is an annotated index of popular articles and important information for improving and adding functionalities to the installed Arch system. Readers are assumed to have read and followed the Installation guide to obtain a basic Arch Linux installation. Having read and understood the concepts explained in #System administration and #Package management is required for following the other sections of this page and the other articles in the wiki.

System administration

This section deals with administrative tasks and system management. For more, please see Core utilities and Category:System administration.

Users and groups

A new installation leaves you with only the superuser account, better known as "root". Logging in as root for prolonged periods of time, possibly even exposing it via SSH on a server, is insecure. Instead, you should create and use unprivileged user account(s) for most tasks, only using the root account for system administration. See Users and groups#User management for details.

Users and groups are a mechanism for access control; administrators may fine-tune group membership and ownership to grant or deny users and services access to system resources. Read the Users and groups article for details and potential security risks.

Privilege escalation

The su (substitute user) command allows you to assume the identity of another user on the system (usually root) from an existing login, whereas the sudo (substitute user do) command grants temporary privilege escalation for a specific command.

Service management

Arch Linux uses systemd as the init process, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.

System maintenance

Arch is a rolling release system and has rapid package turnover, so users have to take some time to do system maintenance. Read Security for recommendations and best practices on hardening the system.

Package management

This section contains helpful information related to package management. For more, please see FAQ#Package management and Category:Package management.

Note: It is imperative to keep up to date with changes in Arch Linux that require manual intervention before upgrading your system. Subscribe to the arch-announce mailing list or check the front page Arch news every time before you update. Alternatively, you may find it useful to subscribe to this RSS feed or follow @archlinux on Twitter.

pacman

pacman is the Arch Linux package manager: all users are required to become familiar with it before reading any other articles.

See pacman tips for suggestions on how to improve your interaction with pacman and package management in general.

Repositories

See Official repositories for details about the purpose of each officially maintained repository.

If you installed Arch Linux x86_64 and plan on using 32-bit applications, you will want to enable the multilib repository.

Unofficial user repositories lists several other unsupported repositories.

Mirrors

Visit Mirrors for steps on taking full advantage of using the fastest and most up to date mirrors of the official repositories. As explained in the article, a particularly good advice is to routinely check the Mirror Status page for a list of mirrors that have been recently synced.

Arch Build System

Ports is a system initially used by BSD distributions consisting of build scripts that reside in a directory tree on the local system. Simply put, each port contains a script within a directory intuitively named after the installable third-party application.

The Arch Build System (ABS) tree offers the same functionality by providing build scripts called PKGBUILDs, which are populated with information for a given piece of software; integrity hashes, project URL, version, license and build instructions. These PKGBUILDs are later parsed by makepkg, the actual program that generates packages cleanly manageable by pacman.

Every package in the repositories along with those present in the AUR are subject to recompilation with makepkg.

Arch User Repository

While the ABS tree allows the ability of building software available in the official repositories, the Arch User Repository (AUR) is the equivalent for user submitted packages. It is an unsupported repository of build scripts accessible through the web interface or through AurJson.

Booting

This section contains information pertaining to the boot process. An overview of the Arch boot process can be found at Arch boot process. For more, please see Category:Boot process.

Hardware auto-recognition

Hardware should be auto-detected by udev during the boot process by default. A potential improvement in boot time can be achieved by disabling module auto-loading and specifying required modules manually, as described in Kernel modules. Additionally, Xorg should be able to auto-detect required drivers using udev, but users have the option to configure the X server manually too.

Microcode

Processors may have faulty behaviour, which the kernel can correct by updating the microcode on startup. Intel processors require a separate package to this effect. See Microcode for details.

Retaining boot messages

Once it concludes, the screen is cleared and the login prompt appears, leaving users unable to gather feedback from the boot process. Disable clearing of boot messages to overcome this limitation.

Num Lock activation

Num Lock is a toggle key found in most keyboards. For activating Num Lock's number key-assignment during startup, see Activating Numlock on Bootup.

Graphical user interface

This section provides orientation for users wishing to run graphical applications on their system. See Category:X server for additional resources.

Display server

Xorg is the public, open-source implementation of the X Window System (commonly X11, or X). It is required for running applications with graphical user interfaces (GUIs), and the majority of users will want to install it.

Wayland is a new, alternative display server protocol and the Weston reference implementation is available. There is very little support for it from applications at this early stage of development.

Display drivers

The default vesa display driver will work with most video cards, but performance can be significantly improved and additional features harnessed by installing the appropriate driver for ATI, Intel, or NVIDIA products.

Desktop environments

Although Xorg provides the basic framework for building a graphical environment, additional components may be considered necessary for a complete user experience. Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE, LXDE, and Xfce bundle together a wide range of X clients, such as a window manager, panel, file manager, terminal emulator, text editor, icons, and other utilities. Users with less experience may wish to install a desktop environment for a more familiar environment. See Category:Desktop environments for additional resources.

Window managers

A full-fledged desktop environment provides a complete and consistent graphical user interface, but tends to consume a considerable amount of system resources. Users seeking to maximize performance or otherwise simplify their environment may opt to install a window manager alone and hand-pick desired extras. Most desktop environments allow use of an alternative window manager as well. Dynamic, stacking, and tiling window managers differ in their handling of window placement.

Display manager

Most desktop environment include a display manager for automatically starting the graphical environment and managing user logins. Users without a desktop environment can install one separately. Alternatively you may start X at login as a simple alternative to a display manager.

Power management

This section may be of use to laptop owners or users otherwise seeking power management controls. For more, please see Category:Power management.

See Power management for more general overview.

ACPI events

Users can configure how the system reacts to ACPI events such as pressing the power button or closing a laptop's lid. For the new (recommended) method using systemd, see Power management with systemd. For the old method, see acpid.

CPU frequency scaling

Modern processors can decrease their frequency and voltage to reduce heat and power consumption. Less heat leads to more quiet system and prolongs the life of hardware. See CPU frequency scaling for details.

Laptops

For articles related to portable computing along with model-specific installation guides, please see Category:Laptops. For a general overview of laptop-related articles and recommendations, see Laptop.

Suspend and Hibernate

See main article: Suspend and hibernate.

Multimedia

Category:Multimedia includes additional resources.

Sound

Sound is provided by kernel sound drivers:

  • ALSA is included with the kernel and is recommended because usually it works out of the box (it just needs to be unmuted).
  • OSS is a viable alternative in case ALSA does not work.

Users may additionally wish to install and configure a sound server such as PulseAudio. For advanced audio requirements, see professional audio.

Browser plugins

For access to certain web content, browser plugins such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash Player, and Java can be installed.

Codecs

Codecs are utilized by multimedia applications to encode or decode audio or video streams. In order to play encoded streams, users must ensure an appropriate codec is installed.

Networking

This section is confined to small networking procedures. Head over to Network configuration for a full guide. For more, please see Category:Networking.

Clock synchronization

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. See Time#Time synchronization for implementations of such protocol.

DNS security

For better security while browsing web, paying online, connecting to SSH services and similar tasks consider using DNSSEC-enabled client software which can validate signed DNS records, and DNSCrypt to encrypt DNS traffic.

Setting up a firewall

A firewall can provide an extra layer of protection on top of the Linux networking stack. While the stock Arch kernel is capable of using Netfilter's iptables, it is not enabled by default. It is highly recommended to set up some form of firewall, see Firewalls for the available guides.

Resource sharing

To share files among the machines in a network, follow the NFS or the SSHFS article.

Use Samba to join a Windows network. To configure the machine to use Active Directory for authentication, read Active Directory Integration.

See also Category:Network sharing.

Input devices

This section contains popular input device configuration tips. For more, please see Category:Input devices.

Keyboard layouts

Non-English or otherwise non-standard keyboards may not function as expected by default. The necessary steps to configure the keymap are different for virtual console and Xorg, they are described in Keyboard configuration in console and Keyboard configuration in Xorg respectively.

Mouse buttons

Owners of advanced or unusual mice may find that not all mouse buttons are recognized by default, or may wish to assign different actions for extra buttons. Instructions can be found in All Mouse Buttons Working.

Laptop touchpads

Many laptops use Synaptics or ALPS "touchpad" pointing devices. These, and several other touchpad models, use the Synaptics input driver; see Touchpad Synaptics for installation and configuration details.

TrackPoints

See the TrackPoint article to configure your TrackPoint device.

Optimization

This section aims to summarize tweaks, tools and available options useful to improve system and application performance.

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the act of measuring performance and comparing the results to another system's results or a widely accepted standard through a unified procedure.

Improving performance

The Improving performance article gathers information and is a basic rundown about gaining performance in Arch Linux.

Solid state drives

The Solid State Drives article covers many aspects of solid state drives, including configuring them to maximize their lifetimes.

System service

This section relates to daemons. For more, please see Category:Daemons and system services.

File index and search

Most distributions have a locate command available to be able to quickly search for files. To get this functionality in Arch Linux, mlocate is the recommended install. After the install you should run updatedb to index the filesystems.

Local mail delivery

A default base setup bestows no means for mail syncing. To configure Postfix for simple local mailbox delivery, see Postfix. Other options are SSMTP, msmtp and fdm.

Printing

CUPS is a standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple. See Category:Printers for printer-specific articles.

Appearance

This section contains frequently-sought "eye candy" tweaks for an aesthetically pleasing Arch experience. For more, please see Category:Eye candy.

Fonts

You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included in a basic Arch system. The ttf-dejavu package provides a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage.

A plethora of information on the subject can be found in the Fonts and Font configuration articles.

If spending a significant amount of time working from the virtual console (i.e. outside an X server), users may wish to change the console font to improve readability; see Fonts#Console fonts.

GTK+ and Qt themes

A big part of the applications with a graphical interface for Linux systems are based on the GTK+ or the Qt toolkits. See those articles and Uniform look for Qt and GTK applications for ideas to improve the appearance of your installed programs and adapt it to your liking.

Console improvements

This section applies to small modifications that better console programs' practicality. For more, please see Category:Command shells.

Aliases

Aliasing a command, or a group thereof, is a way of saving time when using the console. This is specially helpful for repetitive tasks that do not need significant alteration to their parameters between executions. Common time-saving aliases can be found in Bash#Aliases, which are easily portable to zsh as well.

Alternative shells

Bash is the shell that is installed by default in an Arch system. The live installation media, however, uses zsh with the grml-zsh-config addon package. See Command-line shell#List of shells for more alternatives.

Bash additions

A list of miscellaneous Bash settings, including completion enhancements, history search and Readline macros is available in Bash#Tips and tricks.

Colored output

This section is covered in Color output in console.

Compressed files

Compressed files, or archives, are frequently encountered on a GNU/Linux system. Tar is one of the most commonly used archiving tools, and users should be familiar with its syntax (Arch Linux packages, for example, are simply xzipped tarballs). See Bash/Functions for other helpful commands.

Console prompt

The console prompt (PS1) can be customized to a great extent. See Color Bash Prompt or Zsh#Prompts if using Bash or Zsh, respectively.

Emacs shell

Emacs is known for featuring options beyond the duties of regular text editing, one of these being a full shell replacement. Consult Emacs#Colored output issues for a fix regarding garbled characters that may result from enabling colored output.

Mouse support

Using a mouse with the console for copy-paste operations can be preferred over GNU Screen's traditional copy mode. Refer to Console mouse support for comprehensive directions.

Scrollback buffer

To be able to save and view text which has scrolled off the screen, refer to Scrollback buffer.

Session management

Using terminal multiplexers like tmux or GNU Screen, programs may be run under sessions composed of tabs and panes that can be detached at will, so when the user either kills the terminal emulator, terminates X, or logs off, the programs associated with the session will continue to run in the background as long as the terminal multiplexer server is active. Interacting with the programs requires reattaching to the session. Beginners' Guide/Appendix