Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide/Post-installation"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(yes, of course you use pacman...)
(Intel video chipsets sounds better)
Line 70: Line 70:
  # pacman -S lib32-intel-dri
  # pacman -S lib32-intel-dri
For some Intel graphics cards, configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance. See [[Intel]] for more information.
For some Intel video chipsets, configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance. See [[Intel]] for more information.
===== Nvidia cards =====
===== Nvidia cards =====

Revision as of 10:01, 12 September 2012

zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Extra

Tip: This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. Click here if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.


You should now have a completely functional Arch Linux system. However, most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics. This part of the guide provides a brief overview of the procedures to acquire these extras.


Sudo can noticeably simplify administering your system.


Tip: This step is optional. You can always set up sound later.

ALSA usually works out-of-the-box. It just needs to be unmuted. Install alsa-utils (which contains alsamixer) and follow these instructions.

ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended to try it first. However, if it does not work, or if you are not satisfied with the quality, OSS is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at Sound for an overview of various articles.

Graphical User Interface

Install X

Note: If you are installing Arch as a VirtualBox guest, you need a different way to complete X installation. See Arch Linux guests, then jump to the configuration part below.

The X Window System (commonly X11, or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

To install the base Xorg packages:

# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils

Install mesa for 3D support:

# pacman -S mesa

Install a video driver

If you don't know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:

$ lspci | grep VGA

For a complete list of all open-source video drivers, search the package database:

$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
Note: The vesa driver is the most generic, and should work with almost any modern video chipset. Use it only if you cannot find a suitable driver, because it only offers unaccelerated 2D performance.
Note: Proprietary drivers for NVIDIA and ATI are covered in the next sections. If you plan on doing heavy 3D processing such as gaming, consider using these.

Then install the appropriate video driver for your video card/onboard video. Example for the Savage driver:

# pacman -S xf86-video-savage
Intel integrated graphics
# pacman -S xf86-video-intel

If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, for 3D acceleration in 32 bit applications:

# pacman -S lib32-intel-dri

For some Intel video chipsets, configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance. See Intel for more information.

Nvidia cards

Nvidia graphic card owners have three options (in addition to the vesa driver):

  • The open-source nouveau driver, which offers fast 2D acceleration and basic 3D support which is good enough for basic compositing (note: does not fully support powersaving yet). Feature Matrix.
  • The open-source (but obfuscated) nv driver, which is very slow and only has 2D support.
  • The proprietary nvidia driver, which offer good 3D performance and power-saving. Even if you plan on using the proprietary drivers, it is recommended to start with Nouveau and then switch to the binary driver after you have X set up and working. Nouveau often works out-of-the-box, while nvidia will require configuration and likely some troubleshooting. See NVIDIA for more information.

The open-source Nouveau driver should be good enough for most users and is recommended:

# pacman -S xf86-video-nouveau

For experimental 3D support:

# pacman -S nouveau-dri

For advanced instructions, see Nouveau.

ATI/AMD cards

ATI/AMD graphic card owners have two options (in addition to the vesa driver):

The open-source radeon driver is the recommended choice:

# pacman -S xf86-video-ati

For advanced instructions, see ATI.

SiS cards

SiS cards are not officially supported on Linux. Despite this fact, three more or less outdated drivers can be installed from the official repositories:

# pacman -S xf86-video-sis
# pacman -S xf86-video-sisusb
# pacman -S xf86-video-sisimedia

If none of them works for you, searching in the AUR and compiling a driver (with a possible downgrading of xorg-server) is the only option. You can learn more about current state of sis drivers at http://dri.freedesktop.org/wiki/SiS.

For advanced instructions, see SiS.

Install input drivers

Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems and evdev (xf86-input-evdev) is the modern, hotplugging input driver for almost all devices so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, evdev has already been installed as a dependency of Xorg.

If evdev does not support your device, install the needed driver from the xorg-input-drivers group.

For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search:

# pacman -Ss xf86-input | less
Note: You only need xf86-input-keyboard or xf86-input-mouse if you plan on disabling hotplugging, otherwise, evdev will act as the input driver.

Laptop users (or users with a touchscreen) will also need the synaptics package to allow X to configure the touchpad/touchscreen:

# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics

For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad settings, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.

Configure X (Optional)

Warning: Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation along with configuration. See NVIDIA or ATI Catalyst for details.

X Server features auto-configuration and therefore can function without an xorg.conf. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the Xorg wiki page.

Keyboard layout

If you do not use a standard US keyboard, you can set the keyboard layout in 10-evdev.conf:

# nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf
Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall"
    MatchIsKeyboard "on"
    MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
    Driver "evdev"
    Option "XkbLayout" "be"

If, for example, you wish to use a variant of the US keyboard, add the following into the same section from the previous example:

Option "XkbLayout" "us"
Option "XkbVariant" "dvorak"
Note: The XkbLayout key may differ from the keymap code you used with the loadkeys command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst (after the line beginning with ! layout). For instance, the layout gb corresponds to "English (UK)", whereas for the console it was loadkeys uk.

Test X

Tip: These steps are optional. Useful only if you're installing Arch Linux for the first time or on newer hardware.

Install the default environment:

# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm

If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template .xinitrc file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or edited in order to start X. Simply deleting it will cause X to run with the default environment installed above.

$ rm ~/.xinitrc

Finally, start Xorg:

$ startx

A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that X installation was a success, you may exit out of X by issuing the exit command into the prompts until you return to the console.

$ exit

If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (Template:Keypress, for example), and login blindly as root, followed by Template:Keypress, followed by root's password followed by Template:Keypress.

You can attempt to kill the X server with:

# pkill x

If this does not work, reboot blindly with:

# reboot

If a problem occurs, look for errors in Xorg.0.log. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with (EE) which represent errors, and also (WW) which are warnings that could indicate other issues.

$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log

If you are still having trouble after consulting the Xorg article and need assistance via the Arch Linux forums or the IRC channel, be sure to install and use wgetpaste by providing the links from:

# pacman -S wgetpaste
$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
Note: Please provide all pertinent information (hardware, driver information, etc) when asking for assistance.


At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage:

# pacman -S ttf-dejavu

Refer to Font Configuration for how to configure font rendering and Fonts for font suggestions and installation instructions.

Choose and install a graphical interface

The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).

Note: Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for your needs. You can also build your own DE with just a WM and the applications of your choice.
  • Window Managers (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
  • Desktop Environments (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.

To have the desktop start automatically during boot instead of starting X manually, see Display Manager for instructions on using a login manager, or Start X at Boot.


For a list of applications that may be of interest, see Common Applications.

See General Recommendations for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.

Template:Beginners' Guide navigation