Beginners' guide/Post-installation

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zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Extra

Tip: This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. Click here if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.


Congratulations, and welcome to your new Arch Linux system!

Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready for customization. From here, you may build this elegant set of tools into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. Most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics: this part of the guide provides a brief overview of the procedures to acquire these extras.

Go ahead and login with your user account.

Package management

See pacman and FAQ#Package Management for answers regarding installing, updating, and managing packages.

Service management

Arch Linux uses systemd as init, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.


ALSA usually works out-of-the-box. It just needs to be unmuted. Install alsa-utils (which contains alsamixer) and follow these instructions.

ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended to try it first. However, if it does not work, or if you are not satisfied with the quality, OSS is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at Sound system for an overview of various articles.

Graphical User Interface

Install X

The X Window System (commonly X11, or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

To install the base Xorg packages:

# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils

Install mesa for 3D support:

# pacman -S mesa

Install a video driver

Note: If you installed Arch as a VirtualBox guest, you don't need to install a video driver. See Arch Linux guests for installing and setting up Guest Additions, and jump to the configuration part below.

If you don't know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:

$ lspci | grep VGA

For a complete list of open-source video drivers, search the package database:

$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less

The vesa driver is a generic mode-setting driver that will work with almost every GPU, but will not provide any 2D or 3D acceleration. If a better driver cannot be found or fails to load, Xorg will fall back to vesa. To install it:

# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa

In order for video acceleration to work, and often to expose all the modes that the GPU can set, a proper video driver is required:

Brand Type Driver Multilib Package
(for 32-bit applications on Arch x86_64)
AMD/ATI Open source xf86-video-ati lib32-ati-dri ATI
Proprietary catalyst-dkms lib32-catalyst-utils AMD Catalyst
Intel Open source xf86-video-intel lib32-intel-dri Intel Graphics
xf86-video-i740 (legacy driver)
Nvidia Open source xf86-video-nouveau
(+ nouveau-dri for 3D support)
lib32-nouveau-dri Nouveau
xf86-video-nv (legacy driver)
Proprietary nvidia lib32-nvidia-utils NVIDIA
SiS Open source xf86-video-sis

Install input drivers

Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems. The evdev driver (xf86-input-evdev) is the modern hot-plugging input driver for almost all devices, so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, evdev has already been installed as a dependency of the xorg-server package.

Laptop users (or users with a tactile screen) will need the xf86-input-synaptics package for the touchpad/touchscreen to work:

# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics

For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.

Configure X

Warning: Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation. See NVIDIA or AMD Catalyst for details.

Xorg features auto-detection and therefore can function without an xorg.conf. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the Xorg wiki page.

Here you may set a keyboard layout if you do not use a standard US keyboard.

Note: The XkbLayout key may differ from the keymap code you used with the loadkeys command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst (after the line beginning with ! layout). For instance, the layout gb corresponds to "English (UK)", whereas for the console it was loadkeys uk.

測試 X

提示: 以下為非必需步驟。若您是第一次安裝 Arch Linux、或是將 Arch 安裝在不熟悉的硬體上時,建議做個測試。
註記: 如果您的輸入裝置在測試中不起作用,請從 xorg-drivers 群組安裝需要的驅動後再試一遍。完整的可用輸入驅動清單可從呼叫 pacman 搜尋得到 (按 Template:Keypress 離開):
$ pacman -Ss xf86-input | less
若您不需要熱插拔功能,只需安裝 xf86-input-keyboardxf86-input-mouse,否則(建議)使用 evdev 做為輸入驅動。


# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm

若您在安裝 Xorg 前新增了非 root 的使用者帳號,該帳號的家目錄下會出現 .xinitrc 模版檔,必須將它刪除或註解掉。若選擇刪除,X 將以上述安裝的預設環境啟動。

$ rm ~/.xinitrc
註記: 當登入時,X 必須從同一台 tty 上執行,以保存 logind 階段。此由預設的 /etc/X11/xinit/xserverrc 控制。

執行下列指令,啟動(測試) Xorg 階段:

$ startx

螢幕將出現幾個可移動的視窗,且您的滑鼠應該可以使用。如果您認為 X 執行的可圈可點、沒有問題,可以在 X 下的終端機輸入 exit 離開 X 環境,回到文字模式。

$ exit

若螢幕變成一片漆黑,可以試著切換到不同的虛擬終端機 (如 Template:Keypress),並以 root 身分登入(鍵入 "root"、按 Template:Keypress、打入密碼後再按 Template:Keypress 即可)。

您可以試著殺掉 X 伺服器程序:

# pkill X


# reboot

若發生任何問題,到 Xorg.0.log 檢查錯誤。以 (EE) 開頭的行位代表錯誤,以 (WW) 開頭則代表警告,或許能提供一些問題發生的提示。

$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log

若看過 Xorg 文章後仍無法解決問題,需要到 Arch Linux 論壇或 IRC 頻道尋求協助的話,記得安裝 wgetpaste,讓熱心的網友能透過連結了解您的問題:

# pacman -S wgetpaste
$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
註記: 在網路上詢問問題時,請記得提供所有相關資訊 (硬體、驅動程式資訊等)。


At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage:

# pacman -S ttf-dejavu

Refer to Font Configuration for how to configure font rendering and Fonts for font suggestions and installation instructions.

Choose and install a graphical interface

The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).

Note: Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for your needs. You can also build your own DE with just a WM and the applications of your choice.
  • Window Managers (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
  • Desktop Environments (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.

Instead of starting X manually with xorg-xinit, see Display Manager for instructions on using a display manager, or see Start X at Login for using an existing virtual terminal as an equivalent to a display manager.


For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of Applications.

See General Recommendations for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.

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