Difference between revisions of "Beginners' Guide/Extra (한국어)"

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{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
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{{도움말|이 문서는 초보자 안내서 전체 문서의 일부입니다. 초보자 안내서 전체를 보려면 '''[[Beginners' Guide (한국어)|여기]]'''를 클릭하십시오.}}
 
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==Extra==
 
==Extra==
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*[http://wiki.gotux.net/arch/initial-install Initial Arch Linux Install Tutorial]
 
*[http://wiki.gotux.net/arch/initial-install Initial Arch Linux Install Tutorial]
 
*[http://wiki.gotux.net/arch/post-install Post Arch Linux Install Tutorial]
 
*[http://wiki.gotux.net/arch/post-install Post Arch Linux Install Tutorial]
<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
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<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation_(한국어)}}</noinclude>

Revision as of 04:10, 30 July 2012

도움말: 이 문서는 초보자 안내서 전체 문서의 일부입니다. 초보자 안내서 전체를 보려면 여기를 클릭하십시오.

Extra

You should now have a completely functional Arch system which will act as a suitable base for you to build upon based on your needs. However, most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics. This part of the guide will provide a brief overview of the procedure to acquire these extras.

Sudo

Install Sudo:

# pacman -S sudo

To add a user as a sudo user (a "sudoer"), the visudo command must be run as root.

By default, the visudo command uses the editor vi. If you do not know how to use vi, you may set the EDITOR environment variable to the editor of your choice, such as in this example with the editor "nano":

# EDITOR=nano visudo
Note: Please note that you are setting the variable and starting visudo on the same line at the same time. This will not work properly as two separated commands.

If you are comfortable using vi, issue the visudo command without the EDITOR=nano variable:

# visudo

This will open the file /etc/sudoers in a special session of vi. visudo copies the file to be edited to a temporary file, edits it with an editor, (vi by default), and subsequently runs a sanity check. If it passes, the temporary file overwrites the original with the correct permissions.

Warning: Do not edit /etc/sudoers directly with an editor; errors in syntax can cause annoyances (like rendering the root account unusable). You must use the visudo command to edit /etc/sudoers.

In the previous section we added your user to the "wheel" group. To give users in the wheel group full root privileges when they precede a command with "sudo", uncomment the following line:

%wheel	ALL=(ALL) ALL

Now you can give any user access to the sudo command by simply adding them to the wheel group.

For more information, such as sudoer <TAB> completion, see Sudo#Enabling_tab-completion_in_bash.

Sound

If you want sound, proceed to Advanced Linux Sound Architecture for instructions. Alternatively, proceed to the next section first, and set up sound later.

Note: ALSA usually works out-of-the-box, it just needs to be unmuted.

The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is included with the kernel and it is recommended to try it first. However, if it does not work or you are not satisfied with the quality, the Open Sound System is a viable alternative. OSSv4 has been released under a free license and is generally considered a significant improvement over the older OSSv3 which was replaced by ALSA. Instructions can be found in the OSS article.

If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at Sound for an overview of various articles.

Graphical User Interface

Install X

Note: If you are installing Arch as a Virtualbox guest, you need a different way to complete X installation. See Arch Linux VirtualBox Guest, then jump to the configuration part below.

The X Window System (commonly X11, or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Now we will install the base Xorg packages using pacman.

Install the base packages:

# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils

Install mesa for 3D support:

# pacman -S mesa

The 3D utilities glxgears and glxinfo are included in the mesa-demos package. Install if needed:

# pacman -S mesa-demos

Install video driver

Next, you should install a driver for your graphics card.

You will need knowledge of which video chipset your machine has. If you do not know, use the /usr/sbin/lspci program:

$ lspci | grep VGA
Note: The vesa driver is the most generic, and should work with almost any modern video chipset. If you cannot find a suitable driver for your video chipset, vesa should work with any video card, but it offers only unaccelerated 2D performance.

For a complete list of all open-source video drivers, search the package database:

$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
Note: Proprietary drivers for NVIDIA and ATI are covered in the next sections. If you plan on doing heavy 3D processing such as gaming, consider using these.

Use pacman to install the appropriate video driver for your video card/onboard video. Example for the Savage driver:

# pacman -S xf86-video-savage
Tip: For some Intel graphics cards, configuration may be necessary to get proper 2D or 3D performance, see Intel for more information.
NVIDIA Graphics Cards

NVIDIA users have three options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):

  • The open-source nouveau driver, which offers fast 2d acceleration and basic 3d support which is good enough for basic compositing (note: does not fully support powersaving yet). Feature Matrix.
  • The open-source (but obfuscated) nv driver, which is very slow and only has 2d support.
  • The proprietary nvidia drivers, which offer good 3d performance and powersaving. Even if you plan on using the proprietary drivers, it is recommended to start with nouveau and then switch to the binary driver after you have X set up and working. Nouveau often works out-of-the-box, while nvidia will require configuration and likely some troubleshooting. See NVIDIA for more information.

The open-source nouveau driver should be good enough for most users and is recommended:

# pacman -S xf86-video-nouveau

For experimental 3D support:

# pacman -S nouveau-dri
Tip: For advanced instructions, see Nouveau.
ATI Graphics Cards

ATI owners have two options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):

  • The open source radeon driver provided by the xf86-video-ati package. See the radeon feature matrix for details.
  • The proprietary fglrx driver provided by the catalystAUR package located in the AUR. It supports only newer devices (HD2xxx and newer). It was once a package offered by Arch in the extra repository, but as of March 2009, official support has been dropped because of dissatisfaction with the quality and speed of development of the proprietary driver. See ATI Catalyst for more information.

The open-source driver is the recommended choice. Install the radeon ATI Driver:

# pacman -S xf86-video-ati
Tip: For advanced instructions, see ATI.
SiS Graphics Cards

SiS cards are not officially supported on Linux. Despite this fact 3 more or less outdated drivers can be installed from the official repositories:

# pacman -S xf86-video-sis

or

# pacman -S xf86-video-sisusb

or

# pacman -S xf86-video-sisimedia

If neither of them works for you, searching in the AUR and compiling a driver (with possible downgrading of xorg-server) is the only option.

Tip:

Install input drivers

Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems and evdev (xf86-input-evdev) is the modern, hotplugging input driver for almost all devices so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, evdev has already been installed as a dependency of Xorg.

If evdev does not support your device, install the needed driver from the xorg-input-drivers group.

For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search:

# pacman -Ss xf86-input | less
Note: You only need xf86-input-keyboard or xf86-input-mouse if you plan on disabling hotplugging, otherwise, evdev will act as the input driver.

Laptop users (or users with a touchscreen) will also need the synaptics package to allow X to configure the touchpad/touchscreen:

# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
Tip: For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad settings, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.

Configure X (Optional)

Warning: Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation along with configuration. See NVIDIA or ATI Catalyst for details.

X Server features auto-configuration and therefore can function without an xorg.conf. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the Xorg wiki page.

Non-US keyboard

If you do not use a standard US keyboard, you need to set the keyboard layout in /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/10-evdev.conf:

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall"
    MatchIsKeyboard "on"
    MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*"
    Driver "evdev"
    Option "XkbLayout" "be"
EndSection

If, for example, you wish to use a variant of the US keyboard, add the following into the same section from the previous example:

Option "XkbLayout" "us"
Option "XkbVariant" "dvorak"
Note: The XkbLayout key may differ from the keymap code you used with the km or loadkeys command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst (see text after line beginning with ! layout). For instance the layout: gb corresponds to "English (UK)".

Testing X

This section will explain how to set up the default X environment with twm in order to test X. This section below cover installing a desktop environment or window manager of your choice.

Install the default environment:

# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm

If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template .xinitrc file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or edited in order to start X. Simply deleting it will cause X to run with the default environment installed above.

$ rm ~/.xinitrc
Message bus
Note: You can skip this section until you install a package that depends on dbus, but you'll need to remember to set up the daemon if and when you do.

Install dbus:

# pacman -S dbus

Start the dbus daemon:

# rc.d start dbus
Note: /usr/sbin/rc.d is an Arch-specific command which acts as a shortcut for executing daemon actions in place of using the full /etc/rc.d/daemon path.

Add dbus to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf so it starts automatically on boot:

DAEMONS=(... dbus ...)
Start X
Note: The Ctrl-Alt-Backspace shortcut traditionally used to kill X has been deprecated and will not work to exit out of this test. You can enable Template:Keypress by editing xorg.conf, as described here.
Both the following commands can be found in the xorg-xinit package if you have troubles running them.

Finally, start Xorg:

$ startx

or:

$ xinit -- /usr/bin/X -nolisten tcp

A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that X installation was a success, you may exit out of X by issuing the exit command into the prompts until you return to the console.

If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (Template:Keypress, for example), and login blindly as root, followed by Template:Keypress, followed by root's password followed by Template:Keypress.

You can attempt to kill the X server with /usr/bin/pkill (note the capital letter X):

# pkill X

If pkill does not work, reboot blindly with:

# reboot
In case of errors

If a problem occurs, look for errors in /var/log/Xorg.0.log. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with (EE) which represent errors, and also (WW) which are warnings that could indicate other issues.

$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log

Errors may also be searched for in the console output of the virtual console from which X was started.

See the Xorg article for detailed instructions and troubleshooting.

Need Help?

If you are still having trouble after consulting the Xorg article and need assistance via the Arch forums, be sure to install and use wgetpaste:

# pacman -S wgetpaste

Use wgetpaste and provide links for the following files when asking for help in your forum post:

  • ~/.xinitrc
  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • /var/log/Xorg.0.log
  • /var/log/Xorg.0.log.old

Use it like so:

$ wgetpaste /path/to/file

Post the corresponding links given within your forum post. Be sure to provide appropriate hardware and driver information as well.

Note: It is very important to provide detail when troubleshooting X. Please provide all pertinent information as detailed above when asking for assistance on the Arch forums.

Install Fonts

At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage:

# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
  • Refer to Font Configuration for how to configure font rendering and Fonts for font suggestions and installation instructions.

Choose and install a graphical interface

The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).

Note: Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for your needs.
Window Manager (WM) 
Controls the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System. See Window managers for more information.
Desktop Environment (DE)
Works atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop. See Desktop environments for more information.
Note: You can build your own desktop environment with a window manager and the applications of your choice.

After installing a graphical interface, you may wish to continue with General Recommendations for post-installation instructions.

Methods for starting your Graphical Environment

Manually

You might prefer to start X manually from your terminal rather than booting straight into the desktop. For DE-specific commands, please see the wiki page corrosponding to your DE for more information. For more generic X commands, please see the section on the Xorg page.

Automatically

You might prefer to have the desktop start automatically during boot instead of starting X manually. See Display Manager for instructions on using a login manager or Start X at Boot for two lightweight methods that do not rely on a display manager.

Appendix

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see Common Applications.

See General Recommendations for post-installation tutorials like setting up CPU frequency scaling or font rendering.

See Also

이 문서는 공식 설치 매체를 이용한 아치 리눅스 설치 방법을 안내합니다. 설치를 시작하기 전에 FAQ 문서를 확인하는 것이 좋습니다. 더 자세하고 긴 설치 안내서를 원한다면 초보자 안내서로 이동하십시오. 특수한 설치를 원하는 경우 Category:Getting and installing Arch의 문서들을 확인하십시오.

대개의 경우, 커뮤니티가 관리하는 이 위키나 각 프로그램의 man page를 통해 정보와 도움을 얻을 수 있습니다. 다른 사람들과 대화하며 도움을 얻고 싶다면, IRC 채널이나 포럼을 사용하십시오.

내려받기

아치 리눅스 내려받기에서 아치 리눅스 ISO를 내려받습니다. 이 ISO 이미지는 x86_64와 i686 아키텍처를 둘 다 지원하는 하이브리드 이미지입니다. 어느 라이브 환경으로 부팅할지는 해당 시스템의 CPU 아키텍처 및 사용자의 선택에 의해 결정됩니다.

설치 매체 이미지에는 패키지가 포함되어 있지 않습니다. 아치 리눅스를 설치하기 위해서는 네트워크에 연결하여 원격 저장소에서 패키지를 내려받아 설치해야 합니다. 따라서 반드시 인터넷에 연결되어 있어야 합니다.

ISO 이미지를 다운로드받은 후에는 반드시 전자서명 키를 이용하여 파일 무결성 검사를 실행하십시오(pacman-key -v 설치매체_이미지.iso.sig. 혹은 체크섬 파일을 이용하여 파일 무결성을 검사할 수 있습니다md5sum 설치매체_이미지.iso). 체크섬 파일들은 내려받기 페이지에서 설치 매체 이미지와 함께 내려받을 수 있습니다.

마지막으로, 설치 매체 이미지는 CD에 굽거나, ISO 파일로서 마운트하거나, USB 드라이브에 기록할 수 있습니다.

설치 준비하기

설치 매체 이미지를 부팅한 후에, 다음 단계들을 통해 설치를 위한 준비를 해야 합니다.

키보드 레이아웃 설정

기본 키보드 레이아웃은 US(미국)입니다. loadkeys keymap_file 명령으로 다른 키보드 레이아웃을 로드할 수 있습니다. 키맵 파일들은 /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/에 있습니다. (파일 경로와 파일 확장자는 생략할 수 있습니다.)


디스크 파티션 설정

자세한 사항은 partitioning을 보십시오. 몇가지 특수한 파티션을 만들어야 할 수 있습니다. UEFI#EFI System Partition문서와 GRUB BIOS 부트 파티션 문서를 참고하십시오. LVM, 드라이브 암호화, RAID를 위하여 스택 블록 장치를 만들고자 한다면, 이 단계에서 만들도록 하십시오.


파티션 포맷

자세한 사항은 File systems문서를 참고하십시오. 스왑을 사용하고 싶다면 Swap문서를 보십시오.


파티션 마운트

/mnt에 루트 파티션을 마운트해야 합니다. 그 다음, 필요한 디렉토리를(/mnt/boot, /mnt/home등)를 만들어 추가적인 파티션들을 마운트합니다. 이렇게 해야 나중에 genfstab 명령을 실행했을 때 추가 파티션들이 자동으로 인식되어 fstab 파일에 추가됩니다.

인터넷에 연결

유선 연결을 사용할 경우, DHCP Discovery를 이용하여 자동으로 인터넷에 연결될 것입니다. Network configuration문서에서 더 자세한 내용을 읽으십시오. 지원되는 무선 네트워크 장치를 사용하고 있다면, wifi-menu 명령을 내려 네트워크에 연결하십시오. Wireless network configuration문서에 더 자세한 내용이 있습니다. 고정 IP나 네트워크 관리 도구를 사용해야 한다면, systemctl stop dhcpcd.service 명령으로 DHCP Discovery 서비스를 종료하고, Netctl문서를 읽으십시오.

설치하기

미러 선택

설치하기에 앞서 /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist를 편집해서 자신이 선호하는 미러를 처음에 배치합니다. 나중에 pacstrap을 실행하여 이 파일을 새로운 시스템에 복사하기 때문에 지금 제대로 편집하면 다시 편집할 필요가 없습니다.

base 패키지 설치하기

pacstrap스크립트를 사용하여 기본 시스템을 설치합니다. AUR 또는 ABS에서 소프트웨어를 컴파일하려면 ‘’base-devel'’ 패키지(꾸러미)도 설치해야 합니다.

# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel

부트로더 등 추가로 설치하고 싶은 패키지나 패키지 그룹이 있다면 패키지 이름을 위의 명령 뒤에 덧붙이면 됩니다. 패키지 사이는 공백으로 구분해야 합니다.


시스템 설정

다음의 명령어를 사용해 fstab를 생성합니다. 이때 UUID를 사용하려면 -U, 레이블을 사용하려면 -L 옵션을 사용할 수 있습니다.

# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

다음으로 새로 설치할 시스템에 chroot하여 들어갑니다.

# arch-chroot /mnt

/etc/hostname에 자신의 호스트 이름을 적습니다.

# echo computer_name > /etc/hostname

시간대를 설정합니다.

# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/zone/subzone /etc/localtime

/etc/locale.gen에서 원하는 로캘을 찾아 주석 표시를 제거하고 locale-gen을 실행해 로캘을 생성합니다.

로캘 설정을 /etc/locale.conf에 밝힙니다. 선택적으로 $HOME/.config/locale.conf에도 밝힐 수 있습니다.

# echo LANG=선택한_로캘 > /etc/locale.conf

콘솔 키맵글꼴 설정을 /etc/vconsole.conf에 추가합니다.

새로 설치한 시스템에 다시 한번 네트워크를 설정합니다. 네트워크 설정Wireless network configuration문서를 보십시오.

자신의 필요에 따라 /etc/mkinitcpio.conf(mkinitcpio 참조)를 편집하고 다음의 명령어로 초기 램 디스크를 만듭니다.

# mkinitcpio -p linux

passwd 명령으로 루트 비밀번호를 설정하세요.


부트로더 설치

부트로더 항목에서 설치 가능한 부트로더와 설정 방법을 읽으십시오.

언마운트와 재부팅

아직 chroot 환경 안에 있다면 exit를 입력하거나 Ctrl+D를 눌러서 그 환경을 종료하세요.

umount -R /mnt 명령으로 선택적으로 앞서 마운트했던 파티션들을 언마운트할 수 있습니다. 이렇게 하면 "바쁜(busy)" 파티션들을 찾아내고, 여기에서 그 원인을 찾아볼 수 있습니다.

reboot 명령을 통해 컴퓨터를 재부팅합니다. 마운트된 파티션이 남아있다면 systemd가 자동으로 언마운트시킬 것입니다. 이제 재부팅하여 루트 계정으로 새 시스템에 로그인합니다. 컴퓨터가 꺼진 후에 반드시 설치 매체를 꺼내십시오.


설치 후

시스템 관리에 대한 안내나 GUI 환경 설정, 소리, 터치패드 등 설치 완료 후 할 일에 대한 안내가 필요하다면 General recommendations (한국어) 문서를 참고하십시오.

Common Applications는 여러분이 관심을 가질 만한 프로그램 목록을 다룹니다.